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Corporate Lighting: Architectural lighting for brand communication

Doctoral thesis from Darmstadt University of Technology.
Title: Corporate lighting - Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication.
Author: Thomas Schielke
Presentation: Dissertation defense 4.3.2014.

Online access to complete doctoral thesis:

Contact for correspondence:

This work analyses architectural lighting as an element of brand communication. The lighting is comprehended as the message of a sender, which has an impact on the appearance of architecture. In the context of experiments and case studies, the effects of lighting on the appearance will be examined for a neutral space and for interiors and exteriors in the retail and service sectors. Illuminance, luminance distribution, as well as the light spectrum and dynamic serve as independent variables of lighting. A model for the brand personality with the four factors of temperament, competence, attractiveness and naturalness will be drawn upon for the appearance as an independent variable, as well as a sociological model with the two factors of style and price for social milieus. The experiments are carried out in real space and using light simulations. The results provide correlations between the perception of brightness, contrast, colour temperature and colourfulness and the factors for the two models relating to the appearance. In individual cases models exist for predicting the appearance on the basis of the subjective evaluation of light. This work documents significant differences for both models with respect to the appearance due to an alteration of the light physics parameters of luminous intensity distribution and light spectrum. The economic analysis of the experiments did not result in any significant correlations between higher investment or operating costs and a correspondingly higher subjective price impression of the various lighting situations. Case studies on design guidelines for lighting prove the various lighting design and lighting technology strategies, as well as the processes in business practice. The semiotic analysis of case studies considers architectural lighting as symbol, the properties of the appearance as the object and the consumer as the interpretant, and discusses strengths and weaknesses in communication. In this way, the work produces a differentiated connection between architecture, lighting and marketing.

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Corporate Lighting: Architectural lighting for brand communication

  1. 1. Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication Thomas Schielke Doctoral thesis from Darmstadt University of Technology 1
  2. 2. 1 Introduction 1.1 Relevance 1.2 Research questions 1.3 Methods 1.4 Thesis structure 2 Architecture 2.1 Corporate identity 2.2 Semiotics in architecture 2.3 History of corporate architecture 2.4 Typologies of corporate architecture 3 Light and visual image 3.1 Characteristics of light 3.2 Perception of light and space 3.3 Lighting concepts 3.4 History of architectural lighting 2 4 Lighting technology and types of lighting 4.1 Light sources 4.2 Lighting control 4.3 Types of lighting 4.4 Ecological and economical factors 5 Analysis 5.1 Theoretical background and hypothesis for experiments 5.2 Methodology 5.3 Evaluation criteria 5.4 Experiments in neutral interior space 5.5 Experiments for interior spaces with different functions 5.6 Experiments for exterior spaces with different functions 5.7 Case studies interior spaces 5.8 Case studies exterior spaces 5.9 Design guidelines 6 Findings 6.1 Findings 6.2 General experimental critique 6.3 Design guidelines in practice 6.4 Relevance of findings 7 Summary 7.1 Findings 7.2 Outlook 8 Index 8.1 Literature index 8.2 Image index 8.3 Table index 9 Appendix 9.1 Results and analysis of experiments 9.2 Images 9.3 Tables Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication
  3. 3. Context Methods Analysis Critique Outlook 3 Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication
  4. 4. > Challenge: Interdisciplinary connections 4 Light Perception Marketing Context
  5. 5. Context 5 Name Citroën Paris, 1925 Colour corporate design Esso Germany, 1998 Geometry of logo adidas Berlin, 2008 Illumination of architecture as a message from brands
  6. 6. Context 6 Luminaire arrangement Aldi Nord Dortmund, 2006 Luminous intensity distribution Edeka Ingolstadt, 2007 Light spectrum La Rinascente Milan, 2007 30° 30° 60° 60° 3000 cd
  7. 7. Architectural lighting and perception psychology Richard Kelly, 1952: - Focal glow - Ambient luminescence - Play of brilliants > Lighting changes perception of environment > Basis for designing experiments Context 7
  8. 8. Stage lighting for creating atmosphere Stanley McCandless, 1958: - Visibility - Revealing form - Good composition - Atmosphere > Lighting for story telling 8 Context
  9. 9. Corporate Identity Corporate Design Corporate Architecture Corporate Lighting Marketing: Corporate communication - Brands communicate their identity for differentiation - Visual elements contribute to building an identity > Usage of design guidelines for lighting to install corporate identity 9 Context
  10. 10. Marketing analysis - Sociology: Social milieus as model for life style of target groups - Marketing: Personality to describe characteristic brand attributes > Examining the effects of lighting in regard to communication models in marketing 10 Context
  11. 11. Research questions Corporate visual image 4. Investment costs 1. Perception of light 2. Types of lighting 3. Coloured lighting Price perception 11 Context
  12. 12. Stimulus - Space - Light Response - Attribution Independent variables - Lighting - Environment - Visual perception - Individual differences - Cultural context Dependent variables - Light - Social milieu - Brand personality Model Methods Process - Psychobiological 12
  13. 13. Pro - Controllable variables - Close to reality Contra - High costs for using variations - Fixed site Pro - Controllable variables - Flexibility - Online survey Contra - No 3D perception of space Pro - Close to reality Contra - Environmental effects - Variables non- controllable Pro - Close to reality Contra - Representativeness Experiments Real space Case studies Real space Survey Real space Methods Simulation 13 Methods
  14. 14. Light Types of lighting Coloured lighting Dynamic lighting Light Types of lighting Coloured lighting Experiments Real space Variables, independant Simulation 14 Methods
  15. 15. Light Types of lighting Coloured lighting Space Material Architecture Variables, independant Simulation 15 Methods
  16. 16. Social milieu Becker & Nowak, 1982 Pro - repeated implementation Contra - no spatial pattern Pro - widely spread Contra - inner consistancy Pro - tested for architecture Contra - not yet widely spread Brightness Variables, dependant Colour temperature Contrast Chromaticity Price Style Temperament Competence Attractiveness Naturalness Brand personality Aaker, 1997; Raffelt, 2012 16 Light Tiller & Rea, 1992 Methods
  17. 17. Experiments - 16 experiments - 210 light scenes - 30% real space, 70% simulations - 56% white light scenes, 46% coloured light scenes Probands - On average n = 30 per stimulus, min. 14, max. 99 - Mean age: 26 - 59% women, 41% men Overview experiments 17 Evaluation - Max. 8 scenes per test group - Evaluation after each light scene - Likert scale, 7 points - 2 items per Index Methods
  18. 18. - Conformity for 7-8 of 10 indexes between reality and simulation - Difference mainly applies to colour, but hardly brand image - Option: Colour calibration > Image techniques provide valid basis for brand indexes Validity Display screen ≠ Colour temperature ≠ Chromaticity Video projector ≠ Colour temperature ≠ Chromaticity ≠ Naturalness Reality 18 Methods
  19. 19. Analysis: Experiments 19 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality+ Price Style Temperament Competence Attractiveness Naturalness General lighting Wall washing Accent lighting with projection Accent lighting
  20. 20. 20 Wall washing Accent lighting with projection Accent lightingGeneral lighting + Analysis: Experiment #8 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
  21. 21. 21 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  22. 22. 22 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 Friedman test: No significant results Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  23. 23. 23 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 5,7 5,5 5,0 Friedman test: Significant results Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  24. 24. 24 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 5,7 5,5 5,0 3,7 3,8 Friedman test: Significant results Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  25. 25. 25 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 5,7 5,5 5,0 3,7 3,8 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  26. 26. Space neutral Interiors Space neutral Interiors Limitations: Based on 95% accordance of significant results. Significant results not for all experiments. Low speed used for dynamics. Social milieu Price Style Brand personality Temp. Comp. Attract. Naturl. General 26 +Types of lighting Analysis: Experiments #1-16
  27. 27. Types of lighting - Conformity of results from light lab and interior application experiments with interior case studies Analysis: Case studies Supermarket Fashion retail Computer stores 27
  28. 28. Influence environment - Wall materials, furniture and neighbouring buildings partially change corporate image factors - Limitation: Limited number of variables > Environment has partially influence on corporate image Analysis: Experiments Wall materials Furniture 28
  29. 29. Investment costs and price perception - Hight investment costs do not necessarily result in a higher price perception - Planning enables high price perception without maximum budget > Value of lighting also includes value for brand communication Analysis: Experiments 29 0 500 1000 1500 Total cost per year EUR/a 6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 Price perception
  30. 30. Design guidelines in practice - Automotive industry - 7 of 10 automotive companies use design guidelines for lighting - Survey: In Germany active automotive companies with 3800 showrooms. 2009: 66% share of new car registrations > Widely spread usage of design guidelines for light in automotive segment Analysis: Survey 30
  31. 31. Design guidelines in practice - Automotive industry Relevance for corporate design in general: Logo/Brand name Material of the interior Furniture Light Colour concepts Decoration objects Building type/Construction Visual displays Music 31 7,0 6,1 5,7 5,4 5,4 5,0 4,7 3,9 3,7 Analysis: Survey
  32. 32. Evaluation of findings - New interpretation of lighting as a message - Closing research gap between light, architecture and marketing - High relevance for brand communication - Valuable basis for various brand concepts Critique 32
  33. 33. Method Pro - Broad focus - In relation to existing models - Proof of causal relations between light and brand - Results mainly base on multiple experiments - Close to reality due to realistic simulations and case studies 33 Critique
  34. 34. Method Contra - Simulations allow limited spatial perception - Nocalibrationofprobandsbefore tests for evaluation criteria - Coloured lighting was used with a limited number of variables - Few causal effects for brand values based on light perception factors 34 Critique
  35. 35. Design guidelines for lighting in practice - Implementation is dependant on organisation: Owned showroom versus franchise - Finance programs: Promotions, sanctions - Budget assignment: Architecture versus interior design 35 Critique
  36. 36. 1. Method - Field tests for more practice orientation as well as interactions - Increasing the test group for older age group and international comparisons - Inclusion of long term effects - Optimisation for reliability regarding index style - Testing more exteriors Outlook 36
  37. 37. 2. Lighting design und technology - Stronger consideration of daylight - Integration of sensors for dynamic lighting concepts 37 Outlook
  38. 38. 3. Interdisciplinary Stronger cooperation with other disciplines: - Environmental psychology: Information models (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) - Semiotics: Matrix (Bense & Walther, 1973) - Medicine: Studies of neuronal effects 38 Outlook
  39. 39. 39 Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication Thomas Schielke Doctoral thesis from Darmstadt University of Technology. 4.3.2014
  40. 40. 40 Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication Online access to complete doctoral thesis: Contact for correspondence: Thomas Schielke Doctoral thesis from Darmstadt University of Technology
  41. 41. - Lighting changes corporate visual image - Accentuation for modern and temperament image - Blue wallwashing increases price image, competence, attractiveness and naturalness - Accentuation or wallwashing results in higher temperament and attractiveness - Combined luminous intensity distributions lead to modernised and temperamental images - Coloured light results in a modernised and temperamental image - Dynamic saturated colours result in cheaper, less temperamental and less competent images - Lighting alters price perception - Interaction with materials and neighbourhood - Design guidelines for lighting - Semiotics for analysing interdependencies - Sustainability concept 41 Executive summary
  42. 42. People Phillip Anzalone, Borisuit Apiparn, Edward Bartholomew, Helmut Bien, Frieder Blickle, Erik Bohr, Peter Boyce, Howard Brandston, Susanne Brenninkmeijer, Louis Brill, Jason Bruges, Jean-Luc Capron, Jimmy Chorssen, Jens Christoffersen, Acharawan Chutarat, James Crowley, Christopher Cuttle, Mike Day, Hannelore Deubzer, Johann Eisele, Agneta Ejhed, Jan Ejhed, ERCO colleagues, Oscar Falk, Family, Steve Fotios, Friends, Bernadette Fülscher, Chris Gascoigne, David Gersten, Kathleen Gibson, Paul Gregory, Axel Groß, Marit Haase, Rainer Hartmann, Simone Heinze, Harald Hofmann, Christian Hoffmann, Mareike Höhler, Swee Hong Ong, Claudia Horbert, Kevin Houser, Sabine Hürrig, Ashok Iyer, Davina Jackson, Thomas Jantscher, Jan Jennings, Noah Kalina, Bernhard Knaus, Thomas Kotzur, Simone Kraft, Michael Kröger, Agnes Krüger, Thomas Krumm, William Lam, Karin Lehmann, Dieter Leistner, Sascha Lense, Andres Lepik, Maren Leudesdorff, David Levenson, Hao Luoxi, Margaret Maile, Stephen Margulies, Estudio Mariscal, Thomas Mayer, Diana Möllenbeck, Veronika Monheim, Stephane Muratet, Birgit Nelissen, Dietrich Neumann, Jin-Wie Nie, Carolin Oelsner, Werner Osterhaus, Konstantinos Papamichael, Jens Passoth, Enrique Peiniger, Karl-Heinz Petzinka, Derek Porter, Vanessa Quirk, Ursula Raffelt, Riklef Rambow, Mark Rea, Christoph Reinhart, Peter Richter, Christian Richters, Alexander Ring, Thomas Römhild, Alexander Rümmele, Lukas Schaller, Christoph Schierz, Jeff Schnabel, Nona Schulte-Roemer, Kai Schuster, Susanne Seitinger, Jochen Siegemund, Tom Sillack, David Singer, Charles Stone, Tan Szue Hann, Mariko Takagi, Maria Thompson, Clemens Tropp, Dzmitry Tsishkou, Philippe Ulmann, Henk van der Geest, Jennifer Veitch, Marc Wathieu, Bernd Weber, Roger Weber, Joachim Wessel, Frank Widemann, Andrea Wilkerson, Lin Yi, Stephan Zielke, Anne Ziesenitz Institutions Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Aarhus University, Akademie für Kommunikationsdesign Köln, Bauhaus University Weimar, Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Brown University, California Lighting Technology Center, Center for Economics and Neuroscience, China Central Academy of Fine Arts Beijing, Chung Yuan Christian University, Coburg University of Applied Sciences, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Cornell University, Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences, Darmstadt University of Technology, Dortmund University, Dresden University of Technology, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Eindhoven University of Technology, Forschungsstelle Automobilwirtschaft, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, Ilmenau University of Technology, International Association of Lighting Designers , Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Manipal University Dubai, Marta Herford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT Media Lab , Münster University of Applied Sciences, Nürtingen-Geislingen University of Applied Science, Parsons The New School for Design, Pennsylvania State University, Peter Behrens School of Architecture, Portland State University, Princeton University, Professional Lighting Designers' Association, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Shanghai Illuminating Engineering Society, Singapore Institute of Architects, Sydney University of Technology, Technical University of Munich, Temasek Design School, Tongji University, Université catholique de Louvain, University of Applied Sciences Bochum, University of Applied Sciences Cologne, University of Applied Sciences Mainz, University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart, University of Göttingen, University of Sheffield, University of Siegen, University of Technology Sydney, University of Wuppertal, Wismar University of Technology, Business and Design, Yale University Companies Aldi Nord, Allmann Sattler Wappner, Apple, Aral, Arc Light Design, ArchDaily, archithese, ATP Architekten und Ingenieure, Audi, Barthel & Maus, Bernhard Knaus Fine Art, BMW, Citti, Commerzbank, CUA Architekten, Daimler, Dexia, Dial, Diesel, Dinse Feest Zurl Architekten, Edeka, EHI Retail Institute, Electric Gobo, Engelhardt/Sellin Architekturfotografie, ERCO, Esprit, Europcar, Fisher Marantz Stone, Focus Lighting, Ford, Galleria Department Store, Hagen Stier Architektur + Fotografie, Hertz, Hollister, Horten, ION Orchard, Jason Bruges Studio, KiK, Kohn Pedersen Fox, Kramm & Strigl, La Rinascente, Lanzillotta Translations, Leonardo, Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Louis Vuitton, Mazda, Mini, Motel One, MPREIS, Mr. Wash, Niessing Manufaktur, Nordic Light Hotel, Nordsee GmbH, Office for Visual Interaction, One Lux Studio, Opel, Pimkie, Pimsler Hoss Architects, Porsche, realities:united, RKW Architektur + Städtebau, Saab, Saturn, Selux, Sixt, Speirs + Major, Street One, Swarovski, Tchibo, Telekom, Tom Tailor, UN Studio, Viceroy Hotel Group, Vobis, Volkswagen, W Hotel, Zara, Zeilgalerie for the invaluable support Thank you 42
  43. 43. Image credits 43 1: La Rinascente, Mailand, 2007, © Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Chris Gascoigne; photo: Chris Gascoigne. 3: American Eagle; photo: Schielke. 4: Huntington Beach, 2013; photo: Schielke. Eye, Wikimedia Commons; photo: Rotfloleb. American Eagle. photo: Schielke. 5: Citroen: Wikimedia Commons; photo: Unknown. Tankstellen, 1998-2001. Photo: Ralf Peters. © Bernhard Knaus Fine Art. Adidas, 2008; photo: Schielke. 6: Aldi Nord, 2006, Wikimedia Common; photo: Kira Nerys. Edeka. Ingolstadt, 2007, ATP Architekten und Ingenieure; photo: Engelhardt/Sellin Architekturfotografie, München. La Rinascente, Mailand, 2007, © Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Chris Gascoigne; photo: Chris Gascoigne. 7-8, 28: Multifunctional room, © ERCO, Author: Axel Groß. 10: Beijing, 2013; photo: Schielke. 11: Piktograms, © ERCO. Author: Simone Heinze / ERCO. 13, 17, 18, 29: Neutral interior space, © ERCO; photo: Alexander Ring / ERCO. 13: Department store, © ERCO; Author: Axel Groß. Sixt, Berlin, 2008; photo: Schielke. Porsche Museum, Stuttgart, 2009; photo: Schielke. 14-15: Lighting simulation; © ERCO; Author: Axel Groß. 16, 18-29: Piktograms, © ERCO. Author: Simone Heinze / ERCO. 17: Survey; photo: Schielke. 18: Display screen iMac, © Apple. Image editing: Schielke. 20-24: Fashion retail stores; Author: Maren Leudesdorff / KTH Stockholm. 27: KiK Rostock, 2012. © Citti-Park. Zara. Barcelona, © ERCO; photo: Thomas Mayer. Saturn, Apple, Lüdenscheid, 2007; photo: Schielke. Apple Store Tysons Corner, McLean/VA, 2001, © Apple. 28: Material simulation, © ERCO, Author: Christian Hofmann. 30: BMW Hamburg, 2010, © Dinse Feest Zurl Architekten; photo: Hagen Stier Architektur + Fotografie. 31: Volkswagen Kassel, 2001, © Barthel & Maus GmbH; photo: Barthel & Maus GmbH. 32-35: Mannequins; photo: Schielke. 36: Zara, München, 2007, © ERCO; photo: Frank Widemann. 37: MPreis, Telfs, 2001, © MPreis; photo: Thomas Jantscher. 38: Brain, © istockphoto; image: Yakobchuk. 39: Lego store, Dubai; photo: Schielke