Sulcal anatomy supratentorial brain, excluding the temporal lobe.

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Brief sulcal anatomy of brain .

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  • The frontal lobe is bounded by the central sulcus and the lateral fissure.
    The parietal lobe is bounded by the central sulcus and by two lines: one that connects the parieto-occipital sulcus with the preoccipital notch and one that connects this line with the lateral fissure.
    The temporal lobe is bounded by these two lines and the lateral fissure.
    The occipital lobe is separated from the parietal and temporal lobes by the line between the parieto- occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch.
    Red : lateral parietotemporal line blue : occipitotemporal line




  • The post-central gyrus is area 3 – primary somatosensory area.
  • Supramarginal gyrus is involved in language perception. – Brodmann area 40– responsible for receptive aphasia.
    Angular gyrus – Brodmann area 39– language and number processing.
  • Cuneus is brodmann area 17– visual information from contralateral superior retina.
  • Anterior , middle and posterior short insular gyrus &
    Anterior and middle long insular gyrus.
  • Sulcal anatomy supratentorial brain, excluding the temporal lobe.

    1. 1. SULCAL ANATOMY OF EXTRA TEMPORAL SUPRATENTORIAL BRAINPresented by – Dr. Sarbesh Tiwari
    2. 2. THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES  Both the cerebral hemispheres constitute the largest part of the brain.  Separated by interhemispheric fissure, interconnected by the corpus callosum, and merged with the diencephalon to establish continuity with the brainstem and the spinal cord.  They encase the lateral and third ventricles.
    3. 3. The cerebral hemispheres have  3 surfaces: lateral, medial, and basal;  3 margins: superior, inferior, and medial;  3 poles: frontal, temporal, and occipital;
    4. 4. THE LOBES OF CEREBRAL HEMISPEHRE The cerebral hemispheres consists of five lobe :-  Frontal lobe.  Parietal lobe.  Temporal lobe.  Occipital lobe.  Insula.
    5. 5. LANDMARKS AND DIVISION Depicting the four lobes on the lateral surface of the brain
    6. 6. SULCI & GYRI.. Gyrus :- A gyrus (pl. gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. It is generally surrounded by one or more sulci. Sulci :- Depression on the surface of brain. The course and pattern of the sulci and gyri varies not only from person to person, but also between the hemispheres of the same brain. The greatest variability can be seen in the frontal and parieto-occipital regions.
    7. 7. Ono et al. have classified the cerebral sulci into three groups based on their degree of continuity: The first group are those that are commonly continuous or uninterrupted; The second group are those that have low interruption rates; and The third group are those that are regularly interrupted.
    8. 8.  According to Rhoton et al, the sulci that were uniformly continuous, not being broken in several segments by gyral bridges crossing the sulcus, were the sylvian fissure ,the callosal and parieto-occipital sulci.  Another group that has a high, but not 100%, rate of continuity are the central, collateral, and calcarine sulci.  Those sulci that are less commonly but still regularly interrupted are the postcentral, superior, and inferior frontal, superior temporal, cingulate, occipitotemporal, and the intraparietal sulci.  Those which are usually interrupted by gyral bridges that break up their continuity are the precentral and inferior temporal sulci
    9. 9. PLAN IDENTIFY THE SYLVIAN FISSURE FIRST, IDENTIFY THE RAMI OF THE SYLVIAN FISSURE IDENTIFY THE CENTRAL SULCUS NEXT. Identify the lobes. Identify the sulci on each surface and each lobe.
    10. 10. SYLVIAN FISSURE  Most distinct and consistent landmark on the lateral surface.  Separating the frontal and parietal lobes above from the temporal lobe below.  Superficial and a deep part  Superficial part is visible on the surface of the brain and the deep part (sylvian cistern) is hidden below the basal surface
    11. 11. SYLVIAN FISSURE The superficial part has a stem and three rami; anterior horizontal, anterior ascending, and the posterior rami The posterior ramus (the longest), represents the posterior continuation of the fissure. Its posterior end turns more sharply upward to terminate in the inferior parietal lobule, where the supramarginal gyrus wraps around. The deep part is divided into sphenoidal and operculoinsular compartments.
    12. 12. CENTRAL SULCUS The central sulcus separates the motor and sensory areas and the frontal and parietal lobes. Begins at the superior border of the lateral surface extending onto the medial surface of the hemisphere in nearly 90% of cases. It intersects the upper hemispheric border approximately 2 cm behind the midpoint between the frontal and occipital poles. Below, it usually ends about 2.0 to 2.5 cm behind the anterior ascending ramus of the sylvian fissure without intersecting the sylvian fissure
    13. 13. Directed laterally, inferiorly, and anteriorly, forming an angle of approximately 70o Comprises of 2 sinusoidal curves, the superior curve, has its convexity directed posteriorly, and an inferior curve, that is convex anteriorly, and together they resemble the shape of an inverted letter S.
    14. 14. IDENTIFICATION OF CENTRAL SULCUS ON MRI The central sulcus is easily spotted on the MR scan , with the help of following signs :- 1. Superior frontal sulcus - pre cs sign 2. Sigmoidal hook sign 3. Pars bracket sign 4. Bifid post-cs sign 5. Thin postcentral gyrus sign 6. Intraparital sulcus - post-cs 7. Midline sulcus sign.
    15. 15. NP/MGH Superior frontal sulcus – pre-CS sign the posterior end of the superior frontal sulcus joins the precentral sulcus in 85% THE CENTRAL SULCUS (CS) Precentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral gyrus Central sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus
    16. 16. NP/MGH Sigmoid “Hook” – Hook-like configuration of the posterior surface of the precentral gyrus – the “hook” corresponds to the motor hand area. – The “hook” is well seen on CT (89%) and MRI (98%). The Central Sulcus (CS) Precentral sulcus Central sulcus
    17. 17.  pars bracket sign The paired pars marginalis form a “bracket” to each side of the interhemispheric fissure at or behind the central sulcus (96%). THE CENTRAL SULCUS (CS) Precentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral gyrus Central sulcus Pars bracket Paracentral lobule
    18. 18. pars bracket sign The Central Sulcus (CS) Precentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral gyrus Central sulcus Pars bracketPars bracket
    19. 19. NP/MGH Bifid post-CS sign  the post central sulcus is bifid (85%).  The bifid post-CS encloses the lateral end of the pars marginalis (88%). THE CENTRAL SULCUS (CS) Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus Central sulcus Postcentral sulcus Pars bracket
    20. 20. Intraparietal Sulcus (IPS) and the post-CS – in axial MRI, the IPS intersects the post central sulcus (99%). The Central Sulcus (CS) Pars bracket IPS Postcentral sulcus IPS Pars bracket
    21. 21. NP/MGH Precentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral gyrus Central sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Midline Sulcus sign – the most prominent convexity sulcus that reaches the midline interhemispheric fissure is the CS (70%). The Central Sulcus (CS)
    22. 22. NP/MGH SFS-preCS sign Hook sign Pars bracket sign Bifid post-CS sign Thin postcentral gyrus sign IPS - postCS sign The Central Sulcus (CS)
    23. 23. FRONTAL LOBE –ANATOMY The frontal lobe includes approximately a third of the hemispheric surface. It extends from the frontal pole to the central sulcus and is separated from the temporal lobe by the sylvian fissure. The frontal lobe presents four surfaces: three formed by a part of the lateral, medial, and basal cerebral surfaces, and a fourth sylvian surface .
    24. 24. LATERAL SURFACE OF FRONTAL LOBE  3 sulci : The precentral sulci , the superior frontal sulci & the inferior frontal sulci.  The precentral gyrus parallels the central sulcus. Superior and inferior frontal sulci divide the area into three roughly horizontal convolutions, the superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri. The inferior frontal convolution is divided into the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis The pars opercularis and adjacent triangularis are frequently referred to as Broca’s speech area.
    25. 25. MEDIAL SURFACE OF THE FRONTAL LOBE  Formed predominantly by the medial surface of the superior frontal gyrus, the anterior half of the paracentral lobule, and the cingulate gyrus. The frontal lobe is separated from the corpus callosum by the callosal sulcus and from the parietal lobe by central sulcus. The paracentral lobule is on the medial surface of the hemisphere and is the continuation of the precentral and postcentral gyri. The cingulate gyrus is the crescent-shaped, or arched,
    26. 26. BASAL (ORBITAL) SURFACE OF FRONTAL LOBE Rests on the cribriform plate, orbital roof, and the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone. Inferior surface of the frontal lobe presents the olfactory sulcus medial to which lies the gyrus rectus and laterally lie a number of orbital gyri. The orbital gyri are divided by the roughly H-shaped orbital sulcus into the anterior, medial, posterior, and lateral orbital groups.
    27. 27. PARIETAL LOBE – LATERAL SURFACE The parietal lobe has three surfaces: lateral, medial, and a sylvian surface The lateral surface of the parietal lobe is bounded anteriorly by the central sulcus, posteriorly by the upper half of the parietotemporal line, and inferiorly by the posterior end of the sylvian fissure and the extended sylvian line. Two main sulci, the post central and intraparietal sulci, divide the lateral surface into three parts
    28. 28. The post central sulcus divides the parietal lobe into  an anterior convolution, the post central gyrus, situated behind and parallel to the central sulcus,  a large posterior part subdivided by the horizontal sulcus, the intraparietal sulcus, into superior and inferior parietal lobules.  The intraparietal sulcus is oriented anteroposteriorly, parallel, and 2 to 3 cm lateral to the superior border of the hemisphere.
    29. 29.  The superior parietal lobule extends from the intraparietal sulcus to the superior margin of the hemisphere.  The inferior parietal lobule, the larger of the two lobules, is divided into an anterior part formed by the supramarginal gyrus,  A posterior part formed by the angular gyrus, which arches over the upturned end of the superior temporal sulcus.
    30. 30. MEDIAL SURFACE OF PARIETAL LOBE The medial parietal surface is situated between the line from the upper end of the central sulcus to the corpus callosum anteriorly and the parieto-occipital sulcus posteriorly. It is formed by the precuneus and paracentral lobule. The precuneus is a quadrilateral area bounded anteriorly by the ascending ramus of the cingulate sulcus, posteriorly by the parieto-occipital sulcus, above by the superior hemispheric border, and inferiorly from the cingulate gyrus by the sub parietal sulcus.
    31. 31. OCCIPITAL LOBE - LATERAL SURFACE  The occipital lobe has three surfaces: lateral, medial, and basal.  The most consistent sulci, the lateral occipital sulcus, divides the lobe into superior and inferior occipital gyri.  The transverse occipital sulcus descends on the lateral surface behind the posterior part of the parieto-occipital arcus.
    32. 32. MEDIAL SURFACE OF OCCIPITAL LOBE The medial surface of the occipital lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the parieto- occipital sulcus  The calcarine fissure extends from the occipital pole toward the splenium and divides into an upper cuneus, and a lower lingula.  The cuneus is a wedge-shaped lobule, bounded by parieto- occipital sulcus, calcarine sulcus, and the superior border of the hemisphere.  The lingula blends anteriorly
    33. 33. BASAL SURFACE OF THE OCCIPITAL LOBE  Basal surface of the temporal and occipital lobes are formed by the same gyri that continue from anterior to posterior across their uninterrupted border.  They are traversed longitudinally by the longer collateral and occipitotemporal sulci and the shorter rhinal sulcus that divide the region from medial to lateral into the parahippocampal and occipitotemporal gyri and the lower surface of the inferior temporal gyrus.  The parahippocampal gyrus forms the medial part of the inferior surface.
    34. 34.  The collateral sulcus, one of the most constant cerebral sulci,begins near the occipital pole and extends anteriorly, parallel,and lateral to the calcarine sulcus.  Posteriorly, it separates the lingula and occipitotemporal gyrus; anteriorly, it courses between the parahippocampal and the occipitotemporal gyri.  The rhinal sulcus, is the short sulcus extending along the lateral edge of the uncus.  The occipitotemporal sulcus courses parallel and lateral to the collateral sulcus and separates the occipitotemporal gyrus and basal surface of the inferior temporal gyrus.  The basal surface of the occipital lobe overlying the tentorium cerebelli is formed by the lower part of the lingual gyrus or lingula.
    35. 35. NP/MGH NORMAL CORTICAL ANATOMY Sagittal Axial Coronal
    36. 36. NP/MGH Sagittal Neuroanatomy
    37. 37. NP/MGH Subcallosal gyrus Gyrus rectus Parietooccipital sulcus Fastigium, fourth ventricle Cingulate gyrus Calcarine sulcus Marginal ramus of Cingulate sulcus Precuneus Paracentral lobule Cingulate sulcusSuperior frontal gyrus Cuneus Lingual gyrus
    38. 38. NP/MGH Gyrus rectus Parietooccipital sulcus Cingulate gyrus Calcarine sulcus Lingual gyrus Marginal ramus of Cingulate sulcus Superior parietal lobule Cingulate sulcus Caudothallamic groove Precuneus Central sulcus Cuneus Precentral gyrus Frontomarginal gyrus Superior frontal gyrus
    39. 39. NP/MGH Parietooccipital sulcus Calcarine sulcus Superior parietal lobule Marginal ramus of Cingulate sulcus Central sulcus Precentral sulcus Precuneus Corona radiata Superior frontal gyrus Lingual gyrus Inferior occipital gyrus
    40. 40. Inferior temporal gyrus Temporal horn, lateral ventricle Central sulcus Posterior orbital gyrus Frontomarginal gyrus Medial orbital gyrus Frontopolar gyrus Parietooccipital sulcus Lingual gyrus Inferior occipital gyrus Superior occipital gyrus Middle occipital gyrus Superior parietal lobule
    41. 41. NP/MGH Central sulcus Inferior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Superior Temporal gyrus
    42. 42. NP/MGH Central sulcus Lingual gyrus Inferior occipital gyrus Superior parietal gyrus Middle occipital gyrus Superior occipital gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Superior Temporal gyrus Posterior orbital gyrus Anterior orbital gyrus Frontomarginal gyrus Inferior frontal gyrus
    43. 43. NP/MGH Inferior Temporal gyrus Superior Temporal sulcus Superior Temporal gyrus Anterior occipital sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral sulcus Central sulcus Postcentral sulcus Angular gyrus Lateral fissure, posterior segment Inferior frontal gyrus, pars orbitalis Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior occipital gyrus Middle occipital gyrus Inferior frontal gyrus, pars triangularis
    44. 44. NP/MGH Axial Neuroanatomy
    45. 45. NP/MGH Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus Hippocampal gyrus
    46. 46. NP/MGH Temporo-occipital fissure Inferior occipital gyrus Lingual gyrus Gyrus descendens Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Amygdala Hippocampus
    47. 47. NP/MGH Gyrus rectus Olfactory sulcusMedial orbital gyrus Subcallosal gyrus Posterior orbital gyrus Temporo-occipital fissure Middle occipital gyrus Lingual gyrus Amygdala Hippocampus Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Gyrus descendens
    48. 48. NP/MGH Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Gyrus rectus Olfactory sulcus Medial orbital gyrus Anterior orbital gyrus Posterior orbital gyrus Lingual gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus Calcarine sulcus CuneusGyrus descendens Temporo-occipital fissure Middle occipital gyrus Intra-occipital sulcus
    49. 49. NP/MGH Superior frontal gyrus Anterior orbital gyrus Posterior orbital gyrus Frontomarginal gyrus Cingulate gyrus Superior occipital gyrusIntra-occipital sulcus Middle occipital gyrus
    50. 50. NP/MGH Superior occipital gyrus Intra-occipital sulcus Middle occipital gyrus Cingulate gyrus Parieto-occipital fissure Calcarine sulcus Cuneus Middle temporal gyrus Superior temporal sulcus Superior temporal gyrus Insula Inferior frontal gyrus, pars orbitalis Superior frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis Lateral fissure Lateral fissure Inferior parietal gyrus
    51. 51. NP/MGH Middle occipital gyrus Superior temporal gyrus Intra-occipital sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Central sulcus Superior occipital gyrus Parieto-occipital sulcus Superior temporal sulcus Lateral fissure Inferior parietal gyrus Postcentral gyrus Lateral fissure Middle frontal gyrus Inferior frontal gyrus
    52. 52. NP/MGH Superior occipital gyrus Cuneus Intra-occipital sulcus Middle occipital gyrus Central sulcus Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus Central sulcus
    53. 53. NP/MGH Postcentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Central sulcus Intraparietal sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Superior parietal gyrus Centrum semiovale Parietooccipital sulcus Precuneus Angular gyrus Central sulcus Inferior frontal gyrus Supramarginal gyrus Postcentral sulcus
    54. 54. NP/MGH Postcentral sulcus Central sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Pars marginalis Intraparietal sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Superior parietal gyrus Angular gyrus Supramarginal gyrus Intraparietal sulcus Central sulcus
    55. 55. NP/MGH Central sulcus Postcentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral sulcus Pars marginalis Intraparietal sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Superior parietal gyrus Angular gyrus Postcentral gyrus Supramarginal gyrus Precentral gyrus
    56. 56. NP/MGH Central sulcus Postcentral sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Precentral sulcus Pars marginalis Intraparietal sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Precuneus Paracentral lobule Superior parietal gyrus
    57. 57. NP/MGH Coronal Neuroanatomy
    58. 58. NP/MGH Olfactory bulb Gyrus rectus Medial Orbital gyrus Inferior Frontal gyrus Superior Frontal gyrus Middle Frontal gyrus Interhemispheric Fissure Inferior Frontal gyrus
    59. 59. NP/MGH Forceps minor Olfactory SulcusLateral orbital gyrus Inferior Frontal gyrus Superior Frontal gyrus Superior Frontal sulcus Middle Frontal gyrus Medial Orbital gyrus Gyrus rectus Anterior Orbital gyrus Lateral orbital sulcus
    60. 60. NP/MGH Inferior Frontal gyrus pars opercularis Superior Frontal gyrus Middle Frontal gyrus Sylvian Fissure Posterior Orbital gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Cingulate gyrusCircular insular sulcus Olfactory Sulcus Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Frontal sulcusshort insular gyrus Gyrus rectus Medial Orbital gyrus
    61. 61. NP/MGH Superior Frontal gyrus Superior Frontal sulcus Middle Frontal gyrus Superior Temporal Sulcus Sylvian Fissure Amygdala Precentral sulcus Anterior commissure Cingulate sulcus Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Precentral gyrus
    62. 62. NP/MGH Superior Frontal gyrus Middle Frontal gyrus Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Superior Temporal Sulcus Sylvian Fissure Heschl’s gyrus Inferior Temporal sulcus Inferior Temporal gyrusAmygdala Ambient gyrus Entorhinal area Cingulate gyrus Superior Frontal sulcus Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus
    63. 63. NP/MGH Superior Frontal gyrus Middle Frontal gyrus Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Fusiform gyrus Hippocampus CA1, cornu ammonisParahippocampal gyrus Central Sulcus
    64. 64. NP/MGH Paracentral lobule Superior Temporal gyrus Middle Temporal gyrus Inferior Temporal gyrus Central Sulcus Postcentral gyrus Cingulate gyrusIntraparietal sulcus Fusiform gyrus Collateral sulcus Parahippocampal gyrus Supramarginal gyrus Intraparietal sulcus
    65. 65. NP/MGH Fusiform gyrus Lingual gyrus Calcarine sulcus Cingulate gyrus Inferior temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus Supramarginal gyrus Intraparietal sulcus Central sulcus Paracentral lobule Postcentral gyrus
    66. 66. NP/MGH Lingual gyrus Calcarine sulcus Superior parietal lobule precuneus Cingulate gyrus Tentorium cerebelli Fusiform gyrus Inferior parietal lobule Middle occipital gyrus Inferior occipital gyrus Lingual gyrus Collateral sulcus
    67. 67. OPERCULUM OF THE BRAIN  “Operculum” means `little lid`. The cerebral operculum refers to portions of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes adjacent to the sylvian fissure and overlying the insula.  It includes the posterior inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior precentral and postcentral gyri, the supramarginal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.  It covers the insula.
    68. 68. INSULAR CORTEX BRAIN  The word “ Insula” means Island. The insula is the fifth lobe of the brain which lies folded deep within the sylvian fissure. The insular cortex is divided into two parts: the larger anterior insula and the smaller posterior insula. The anterior part of the insula is subdivided by shallow sulci into three or four short gyri. The posterior part of the insula is formed by a long gyrus. Function - consciousness, cognetive functioning, motor and visceral function.
    69. 69. FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF BRAIN Broca’s area :- Broca's area is now typically defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus.  Area 44-45  Linked to speech production. Wernicke’ area  Involving the posterior section of superior temporal gyrus. Brodmann area 22, assocaited with areas 39 &40. Linked to understanding of written and spoken language.
    70. 70. Precentral gyrus (posterior short gyrus) of the anterior lobule of the insula. Lesions of Dronker’s area produce speech apraxia. Dronker’s area
    71. 71. VENTROLATERAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX  part of the prefrontal cortex, is located on the inferior frontal gyrus, is bounded superiorly by the inferior frontal sulcus and inferiorly by the lateral sulcus. Corresponds to brodmann areas 47,45 & 44.  Function : Inhibition of motor activity, updating action plans & decision making.
    72. 72. THANK YOU…

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