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Causal Argument Essay
Causal Argument: Will Lowering the Drinking Age Solve the Problem of Binge Drinking among
College Students? Research has supported the observation that young people in America consume
alcohol regularly; this prevalence of use increases rapidly during adolescence, as well as a few years
afterward (Wagenaar and Wolfson 37). This has come to be a problem among college students. It has
been shown through extensive quantitative and qualitative research that those under twenty–one
years of age are able to obtain alcohol, which allows them to binge drink. Binge drinking holds
many problems for college students: alcohol poisoning, DUIs, traffic accidents, and even fatalities.
In 1984, the federal drinking age was raised to twenty–one. This...show more content...
Louisiana has the lowest rate of arrests for liquor law violations with a rate of 12 arrests per
100,000 in the population; South Dakota has the highest rate with 561 per 100,000 (Wagenaar and
Wolfson 39). Despite these numbers of arrests through appropriate law enforcement, underage
individuals are still able to access alcohol in many areas. In a recent study, underage males
successfully purchased packaged beer in 97 percent of attempts in Washington D.C., 80 percent in
Westchester County, New York, and 44 percent in Albany/Schenectady Counties in New York. A
similar study found that underage youth were refused alcohol sales in only one–third of 100
establishments tested in eight sights across the United States (Wagenaar and Wolfson 38). It is
believe that this perceived leniency in the enforcement creates an environment that enables binge
drinking among those that are underage. Those in favor of lowering the drinking age also claim
that social norms play a major role in perception of alcohol, which is believe to end in the
justification of binge drinking. Key social constraints such as community acceptance and perceived
influence of the political power of the alcohol industry that work to divert attention from commercial
sources of alcohol for those that are underage. Other social aspects of the cultural and policy
environment in communities affect the issue of alcohol use in youth. Exposure to billboards,
magazines, and
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Qualitative Research Summary
Population The population of interest for the proposed study includes college freshmen in Texas.
This study considers college freshmen in Texas to be first–year and full–time students enrolled in
any college or university in the state, aged 18 to 24 years old. As 44 percent of college students
drink excessively, there is a clear need for effective alcohol education (Champion, Lewis, & Meyers,
2015). This study hypothesizes students also need alcohol education programs that cater to their
university or college environment, whether it is urban or rural. Rural college students are considered
those who attend college in a city with less than 50,000 residents, while urban college students attend
college in a city with more than 50,000 residents...show more content...
If the hypothesis that urban and rural college students have different perceptions and habits
concerning alcohol use, social workers will have the knowledge to provide these clients with
resources specific to population needs. This study will also impact social work practice and policies,
as more population specific resources and education will be encouraged. In regards to social work
research, this study will promote further research on the differences in perceptions and habits of
people within different locations and environments. Additionally, this study relates to social work
theories like systems theory, as it examines a population that is influenced by various systems, such
as environment and population size (Dudley, 2011). By looking into the comparisons between urban
and rural students, this study expands into another system that previous research did not consider
(Brown–Rice, Furr, & Jorgensen, 2015; Frequency of Drinking Games, 2015; Kenny & Grim,
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Social Learning Theory
Undergraduates and youths in general have different opinions on the outcome of drinking alcohol
alone and mixing it with energy drinks. Their perceptions differ because of the variant experiences
the individuals have had for long. There are different articles used in this report that have significant
information to the opinions of undergraduates concerning the outcome of drinking alcohol alone and
mixing it with energy drinks. This report includes different journal articles with different and
relevant information on the mixed consumption of alcohol and energy drinks.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory plays an elemental role in the identification and analysis of the opinions of
the undergraduates and other youths (Skewes,...show more content...
25). Huntley gives expectancies for the effects of drugs including relapses and cessations and relates
them to caffeine, which is in energy drinks (Huntley & Juliano, 2012, p.27), which relates the effects
of mixed drinking of the AMEDs. In a letter to the editor, the university students drink more
hazardously than their peers do (Peacock, Pennay, Droste, Bruno & Lubman, 2014, p. 11). AEAS
have tangible effects on the issue (Mallet, Marzell, Scaglione, Hultgren & Turrisi, 2014, p.28).
AMEDs have psychological and hazardous drinking practices (Varvil–Weld, Marzell, Turrisi, Mallet
& Cleveland, 2013,
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Teenage Alcohol Abuse Essay
Teenage alcohol abuse is one of the major problems that affect academic performance, cause
health problems and is responsible for the death of teenage drivers and sometime their
passengers. Many teens drink because they think it is cool and do not understand the dangers of
drinking alcohol. In 2008 a survey on the students views on alcohol was conducted in the Atlanta
Public School System of 4,241 students surveyed results showed 74% of sixth graders felt there
was a health risk while 25% felt there was no health risk; 81% of eighth graders felt there was a
health risk, while 19% felt there was none; 82% of tenth graders felt there was a health risk, while
18% felt there was none, and 84% of twelve graders felt there was a health risk,...show more
content...
Statistics show that prevention programs decrease binge drinking in students 6th through 12 grades,
as indicated by the successful intervention programs of Project Northland and Life Skills Training.
Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of both programs, The Atlanta Public School System
decided to use strategies from both program which addressed the closest positive results that matched
the Atlanta Public School System's objectives of decreasing substance use (alcohol), improvements
in positive attitudes/behavior and reductions in negative attitudes/behavior, and reduce the
possibility of automobile accidents and health problems related to alcohol abuse. SUMMARY
Teenage binge drinking (consumption of five or more alcohol drinks in a row) has grown to be a
serious problem in the United States. A report in 2009 from the Surgeon General's office show
alcohol consumption by teens start as early as 11 years of age for boys and 13 years of age for
girls (Grant & Dawson, 1997). In the youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Report (2007), data results
showed that over three million teenagers in grades 6 through 12 are alcoholics, and several million
teens have serious health issues due to drinking. Further research conducted by the Harvard School
of Public health (2006) show a direct correlation of automobile accidents, alcohol poisoning, poor
academic performance. violence and
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Essay On Causal Argument
Argument #2 Causal Argument A causal argument is the regularity of a cause
–and–effect
relationship. It applies to causation of trends or patterns among populations. If A occurs, then B
occurs. "A is sufficient for B" means that if A occurs the B occurs. "A is necessary for B" means
that if B occurs the A occurs. Most genetically engineered foods produce a more nutritious, grander
looking, cost–effective, and improved tasting product. This argument is strong stands strong if A
happens, the B happens. If B happens then A could have happened. If genetically engineered foods
are healthier, viewed as cost effective and improved in taste consequently, they can also cause
crippling effects, endorse disease–resistant pests, and speed up the diseases across species fences.
Reference Thompson, (1998, Nov). The introduction of genetically altered foods: why we should not
tamper with Mother Nature Retrieved from https://www.uky.edu/ Argument #3 Appeals to Authority
Means a common argument form which can be fallacious, such as when an it is cited on a topic
outside there are of expertise or when cited to be that of non–truth. –Approximately 11–20 out of
100 Veterans who participated in (OIF) Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom (OEF)
have PTSD in a set year....show more content...
In 2014, President Obama launched the BRAIN Initiative as part of a large–scale effort to help
researchers treat a wide variety of brain disorders like PTSD, Alzheimer's, autism, and other
traumatic brain injuries. These new tools and this deeper insight will ultimately catalyze new
treatments and cures for devastating brain disorders and diseases that are estimated by the World
Health Organization to affect more than one billion people
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Jeremy Rifkin Enemies Of Promise
Causal
Science has helped improve many people's lifestyle from eating a healthy diet to stopping
different form of disease that are attacking the human body. Science also provides intolerable
lifestyle to people such as the elders as when the elderly have an incurable disease and the elderly
are suffering for this incurable disease and wants to die, but cannot due to science advancement in
technology making impossible to die at that moment. The possible future of science is
uncontrollable. The power of science provides possibility and with this possibility doesn't always
generate a good possibility. Jeremy Rifkin in "Biotech Century" and Michael Bishop in "Enemies of
Promise" talks about the science as their argument in a casual sense of...show more content...
The creation with all the religions belief or attachment will suddenly shatter as people relied or
set their whole life around that belief. There are people whom committed suicide because of a
belief that was stated "It was the end of the world in May 21, 2011, Judgment day" and also went
into financial shambles as those people who believed in their belief sold everything they own and
left with nothing. Rifkin quoted, "Genesis could lead to a far different future–a biological Tower of
Babel and the spread of chaos throughout the biological world, drowning out the ancient language
of creation" (312).This states that with biological creation creates more nonsense as the idea of the
beginning creation of life seem invalid; in doing so, creates the idea of an ordinary human creating
the whole world itself, due to time as time fades away the ancient language of creation. If
creationism became true then many people would changes their ways as they thrives to find a
religious purpose where sins or deeds that they acquired previously won't have any effects against
them such as killing a person previously and hoping that the person that he or she killed won't
affected by the idea of eternal darkness after death. The fear of unknowing and suddenly becomes the
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Confirmation Bias Essay
Do you have a friend who say things that are not true all the times? A friend who will point to
selective events that help with their points while completely disregarding the events that goes
against them? The ones that will tell you that they are on a hot streak after five wins and twenty
loses. This person is demonstrating a sense of confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the tendency
to ignore or forget evidence that could disprove a prefer belief in favor of proof that would support
the belief. People everyday has fallen victim to this fallacy when making important and mundane
decisions. The problem is that people do not realize that they are committing this tendency.
Understanding how confirmation bias appears in our decision making and training with that
knowledge will help us avoid it.
So how does confirmation bias manifest in our thinking? It all starts with your pet belief. As you
may be well aware, your beliefs directs the way you gather and interpret information. You may not be
aware that your beliefs are putting all incoming information through a bias filter. This filter causes a
person to unintentionally sift through the information for ones that are supportive of their beliefs.
Information that does not sound helpful for this belief can be filtered in order for the interpretation
to be sound. Recalling memories deal with the same problem as the information that is being recall
has...show more content...
These techniques are simply questions that you must ask yourself when gathering information. Are
you looking for information that will lean towards your beliefs or are you actively looking the the
evidence needed to disconfirm it? Did your search begin with and desirable outcome in mind? Are
you ready to give up your belief if the evidence suggest otherwise? These questions are designed to
help you find information that will lead to a belief and not the other way
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Causal Essay
Prohibition of drugs and alcohol causes crime.
Ostrowski a political analyst from the Cato institute, states that drug laws greatly increase the price
of illegal drugs, often forcing users to steal to get the money to obtain them. Although difficult to
estimate the black market prices of heroin and cocaine, these drugs appear to be many times greater
than their pharmaceutical prices. For example, a hospital–dispensed dose of morphine (a drug from
which heroin is relatively easily derived) costs only pennies; cocaine costs about a dollar per ounce.
It is frequently estimated that a good percentage of all property crime in the United States is
committed by drug users so that they can maintain their habits. That amounts to about four million
...show more content...
Every property crime committed by a drug user is potentially a violent crime. Many victims are
beaten, severely injured, and murdered each year. A New York City crack user murdered five
people in an eight–day period to get the money to buy drugs. The user survived the crack, but his
victims did not. So in actuality, the act of prohibiting drugs is to blame for so called "drug–related
violence." Legal drugs like morphine, alcohol, and a pack of smokes are more detrimental to the
user and those around the user than one joint smoked a week. Plus, if pot were to be legalized, it
would be regulated, and DUIs could be given to those who drive while high.
Legalization will not increase drug use. Ostrowski says that long–term trends in legal drug use
suggest that there would be no substantial increase in drug use under decriminalization. As a society,
we are gradually moving away from the harmful use of alcohol and tobacco. Alcohol consumption
and death caused by alcohol have also been gradually declining as people switch from hard liquor to
less potent formulations. Finally, use of marijuana has declined according to the National Institute
on Drug Abuse (NIDA). As our society grows increasingly
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Causal Argument Essay

  • 1. Causal Argument Essay Causal Argument: Will Lowering the Drinking Age Solve the Problem of Binge Drinking among College Students? Research has supported the observation that young people in America consume alcohol regularly; this prevalence of use increases rapidly during adolescence, as well as a few years afterward (Wagenaar and Wolfson 37). This has come to be a problem among college students. It has been shown through extensive quantitative and qualitative research that those under twenty–one years of age are able to obtain alcohol, which allows them to binge drink. Binge drinking holds many problems for college students: alcohol poisoning, DUIs, traffic accidents, and even fatalities. In 1984, the federal drinking age was raised to twenty–one. This...show more content... Louisiana has the lowest rate of arrests for liquor law violations with a rate of 12 arrests per 100,000 in the population; South Dakota has the highest rate with 561 per 100,000 (Wagenaar and Wolfson 39). Despite these numbers of arrests through appropriate law enforcement, underage individuals are still able to access alcohol in many areas. In a recent study, underage males successfully purchased packaged beer in 97 percent of attempts in Washington D.C., 80 percent in Westchester County, New York, and 44 percent in Albany/Schenectady Counties in New York. A similar study found that underage youth were refused alcohol sales in only one–third of 100 establishments tested in eight sights across the United States (Wagenaar and Wolfson 38). It is believe that this perceived leniency in the enforcement creates an environment that enables binge drinking among those that are underage. Those in favor of lowering the drinking age also claim that social norms play a major role in perception of alcohol, which is believe to end in the justification of binge drinking. Key social constraints such as community acceptance and perceived influence of the political power of the alcohol industry that work to divert attention from commercial sources of alcohol for those that are underage. Other social aspects of the cultural and policy environment in communities affect the issue of alcohol use in youth. Exposure to billboards, magazines, and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. Qualitative Research Summary Population The population of interest for the proposed study includes college freshmen in Texas. This study considers college freshmen in Texas to be first–year and full–time students enrolled in any college or university in the state, aged 18 to 24 years old. As 44 percent of college students drink excessively, there is a clear need for effective alcohol education (Champion, Lewis, & Meyers, 2015). This study hypothesizes students also need alcohol education programs that cater to their university or college environment, whether it is urban or rural. Rural college students are considered those who attend college in a city with less than 50,000 residents, while urban college students attend college in a city with more than 50,000 residents...show more content... If the hypothesis that urban and rural college students have different perceptions and habits concerning alcohol use, social workers will have the knowledge to provide these clients with resources specific to population needs. This study will also impact social work practice and policies, as more population specific resources and education will be encouraged. In regards to social work research, this study will promote further research on the differences in perceptions and habits of people within different locations and environments. Additionally, this study relates to social work theories like systems theory, as it examines a population that is influenced by various systems, such as environment and population size (Dudley, 2011). By looking into the comparisons between urban and rural students, this study expands into another system that previous research did not consider (Brown–Rice, Furr, & Jorgensen, 2015; Frequency of Drinking Games, 2015; Kenny & Grim, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Social Learning Theory Undergraduates and youths in general have different opinions on the outcome of drinking alcohol alone and mixing it with energy drinks. Their perceptions differ because of the variant experiences the individuals have had for long. There are different articles used in this report that have significant information to the opinions of undergraduates concerning the outcome of drinking alcohol alone and mixing it with energy drinks. This report includes different journal articles with different and relevant information on the mixed consumption of alcohol and energy drinks. The Social Learning Theory The social learning theory plays an elemental role in the identification and analysis of the opinions of the undergraduates and other youths (Skewes,...show more content... 25). Huntley gives expectancies for the effects of drugs including relapses and cessations and relates them to caffeine, which is in energy drinks (Huntley & Juliano, 2012, p.27), which relates the effects of mixed drinking of the AMEDs. In a letter to the editor, the university students drink more hazardously than their peers do (Peacock, Pennay, Droste, Bruno & Lubman, 2014, p. 11). AEAS have tangible effects on the issue (Mallet, Marzell, Scaglione, Hultgren & Turrisi, 2014, p.28). AMEDs have psychological and hazardous drinking practices (Varvil–Weld, Marzell, Turrisi, Mallet & Cleveland, 2013, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. Teenage Alcohol Abuse Essay Teenage alcohol abuse is one of the major problems that affect academic performance, cause health problems and is responsible for the death of teenage drivers and sometime their passengers. Many teens drink because they think it is cool and do not understand the dangers of drinking alcohol. In 2008 a survey on the students views on alcohol was conducted in the Atlanta Public School System of 4,241 students surveyed results showed 74% of sixth graders felt there was a health risk while 25% felt there was no health risk; 81% of eighth graders felt there was a health risk, while 19% felt there was none; 82% of tenth graders felt there was a health risk, while 18% felt there was none, and 84% of twelve graders felt there was a health risk,...show more content... Statistics show that prevention programs decrease binge drinking in students 6th through 12 grades, as indicated by the successful intervention programs of Project Northland and Life Skills Training. Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of both programs, The Atlanta Public School System decided to use strategies from both program which addressed the closest positive results that matched the Atlanta Public School System's objectives of decreasing substance use (alcohol), improvements in positive attitudes/behavior and reductions in negative attitudes/behavior, and reduce the possibility of automobile accidents and health problems related to alcohol abuse. SUMMARY Teenage binge drinking (consumption of five or more alcohol drinks in a row) has grown to be a serious problem in the United States. A report in 2009 from the Surgeon General's office show alcohol consumption by teens start as early as 11 years of age for boys and 13 years of age for girls (Grant & Dawson, 1997). In the youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Report (2007), data results showed that over three million teenagers in grades 6 through 12 are alcoholics, and several million teens have serious health issues due to drinking. Further research conducted by the Harvard School of Public health (2006) show a direct correlation of automobile accidents, alcohol poisoning, poor academic performance. violence and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Essay On Causal Argument Argument #2 Causal Argument A causal argument is the regularity of a cause –and–effect relationship. It applies to causation of trends or patterns among populations. If A occurs, then B occurs. "A is sufficient for B" means that if A occurs the B occurs. "A is necessary for B" means that if B occurs the A occurs. Most genetically engineered foods produce a more nutritious, grander looking, cost–effective, and improved tasting product. This argument is strong stands strong if A happens, the B happens. If B happens then A could have happened. If genetically engineered foods are healthier, viewed as cost effective and improved in taste consequently, they can also cause crippling effects, endorse disease–resistant pests, and speed up the diseases across species fences. Reference Thompson, (1998, Nov). The introduction of genetically altered foods: why we should not tamper with Mother Nature Retrieved from https://www.uky.edu/ Argument #3 Appeals to Authority Means a common argument form which can be fallacious, such as when an it is cited on a topic outside there are of expertise or when cited to be that of non–truth. –Approximately 11–20 out of 100 Veterans who participated in (OIF) Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom (OEF) have PTSD in a set year....show more content... In 2014, President Obama launched the BRAIN Initiative as part of a large–scale effort to help researchers treat a wide variety of brain disorders like PTSD, Alzheimer's, autism, and other traumatic brain injuries. These new tools and this deeper insight will ultimately catalyze new treatments and cures for devastating brain disorders and diseases that are estimated by the World Health Organization to affect more than one billion people Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Jeremy Rifkin Enemies Of Promise Causal Science has helped improve many people's lifestyle from eating a healthy diet to stopping different form of disease that are attacking the human body. Science also provides intolerable lifestyle to people such as the elders as when the elderly have an incurable disease and the elderly are suffering for this incurable disease and wants to die, but cannot due to science advancement in technology making impossible to die at that moment. The possible future of science is uncontrollable. The power of science provides possibility and with this possibility doesn't always generate a good possibility. Jeremy Rifkin in "Biotech Century" and Michael Bishop in "Enemies of Promise" talks about the science as their argument in a casual sense of...show more content... The creation with all the religions belief or attachment will suddenly shatter as people relied or set their whole life around that belief. There are people whom committed suicide because of a belief that was stated "It was the end of the world in May 21, 2011, Judgment day" and also went into financial shambles as those people who believed in their belief sold everything they own and left with nothing. Rifkin quoted, "Genesis could lead to a far different future–a biological Tower of Babel and the spread of chaos throughout the biological world, drowning out the ancient language of creation" (312).This states that with biological creation creates more nonsense as the idea of the beginning creation of life seem invalid; in doing so, creates the idea of an ordinary human creating the whole world itself, due to time as time fades away the ancient language of creation. If creationism became true then many people would changes their ways as they thrives to find a religious purpose where sins or deeds that they acquired previously won't have any effects against them such as killing a person previously and hoping that the person that he or she killed won't affected by the idea of eternal darkness after death. The fear of unknowing and suddenly becomes the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Confirmation Bias Essay Do you have a friend who say things that are not true all the times? A friend who will point to selective events that help with their points while completely disregarding the events that goes against them? The ones that will tell you that they are on a hot streak after five wins and twenty loses. This person is demonstrating a sense of confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the tendency to ignore or forget evidence that could disprove a prefer belief in favor of proof that would support the belief. People everyday has fallen victim to this fallacy when making important and mundane decisions. The problem is that people do not realize that they are committing this tendency. Understanding how confirmation bias appears in our decision making and training with that knowledge will help us avoid it. So how does confirmation bias manifest in our thinking? It all starts with your pet belief. As you may be well aware, your beliefs directs the way you gather and interpret information. You may not be aware that your beliefs are putting all incoming information through a bias filter. This filter causes a person to unintentionally sift through the information for ones that are supportive of their beliefs. Information that does not sound helpful for this belief can be filtered in order for the interpretation to be sound. Recalling memories deal with the same problem as the information that is being recall has...show more content... These techniques are simply questions that you must ask yourself when gathering information. Are you looking for information that will lean towards your beliefs or are you actively looking the the evidence needed to disconfirm it? Did your search begin with and desirable outcome in mind? Are you ready to give up your belief if the evidence suggest otherwise? These questions are designed to help you find information that will lead to a belief and not the other way Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Causal Essay Prohibition of drugs and alcohol causes crime. Ostrowski a political analyst from the Cato institute, states that drug laws greatly increase the price of illegal drugs, often forcing users to steal to get the money to obtain them. Although difficult to estimate the black market prices of heroin and cocaine, these drugs appear to be many times greater than their pharmaceutical prices. For example, a hospital–dispensed dose of morphine (a drug from which heroin is relatively easily derived) costs only pennies; cocaine costs about a dollar per ounce. It is frequently estimated that a good percentage of all property crime in the United States is committed by drug users so that they can maintain their habits. That amounts to about four million ...show more content... Every property crime committed by a drug user is potentially a violent crime. Many victims are beaten, severely injured, and murdered each year. A New York City crack user murdered five people in an eight–day period to get the money to buy drugs. The user survived the crack, but his victims did not. So in actuality, the act of prohibiting drugs is to blame for so called "drug–related violence." Legal drugs like morphine, alcohol, and a pack of smokes are more detrimental to the user and those around the user than one joint smoked a week. Plus, if pot were to be legalized, it would be regulated, and DUIs could be given to those who drive while high. Legalization will not increase drug use. Ostrowski says that long–term trends in legal drug use suggest that there would be no substantial increase in drug use under decriminalization. As a society, we are gradually moving away from the harmful use of alcohol and tobacco. Alcohol consumption and death caused by alcohol have also been gradually declining as people switch from hard liquor to less potent formulations. Finally, use of marijuana has declined according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). As our society grows increasingly Get more content on HelpWriting.net