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MICROBIAL
BIOREMEDIATION
BIOREMEDIATION
Bioremediation refers to the process of using microorganisms to
remove the environmental pollutants or prevent pollution.
The removal of organic wastes by microbes for environmental
clean-up is the essence of bioremediation.
The other names used for bioremediation are biotreatment,
bioreclamation and biorestoration.
Xenobiotics broadly refer to the unnatural, foreign and
synthetic chemicals such as pesticide, herbicide & other organic
compounds.
TYPES OFBIOREMEDIATION :
1. Biostimulation
2. Bioaugmentation
3. Intrinsic bioremediation
BIOREMEDIATION ISATRIPLE-CORNERS
PROCESS
Organisms
Pollutants
Environments
Microorganisms
Plants
Enzymes
Soil
Water
Air
Organic
Inorganic
Solid
Liquid
Gas
REDOX CLEAN-UP REACTIONS
Anaerobic or aerobic metabolism involve oxidation and
reduction reactions or Redox reactions for detoxification.
Oxygen could be reduced to water and oxidize organic
compounds.Anaerobic reaction can use nitrate.
In return, biomass is gained for bacterial or fungal growth.
In many cases, combined efforts are needed, indigenous
microbes found naturally in polluted sites are useful.
USE OF BACTERIAIN BIOREMEDIATION
Greatly affected by unstable climatic and environmental factors
from moisture to temperature.
For examples, pH in soil is slightly acidic; petroleum hydrocarbon
degrading bacteria do not work well < 10º C.
These microbes are usually thermophilic anaerobic.
Fertilizers are needed. Seeding or bioaugmentation could be useful
too.
They contain monooxygenases and dehydrogenases to break down
organic matters including most toxic substances.
PSEUDOMONAS
Genetically engineered bacteria (Pseudomonas) with
plasmid producing enzymes to degrade octane and many
different organic compounds from crude oil.
Aselected list of genetically engineered microorganisms
GEMs XENOBIOTICS
Pseudomonas putida Mono-and dichloro
aromatic compounds
P.diminuta Parathion
P.oleovorans Alkane
P.cepacia 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
Acinetobacter species 4-Chlorobenzene
Alcaligenes species 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy
acetic acid
USE OF FUNGI IN BIOREMEDIATION
• Candida can degrade formaldehyde.
• Gibeberella can degrade cyanide.
• Slurry-phase bioremediation is useful too but only for small
• amounts of contaminated soil.
• Composting can be used to degrade household wastes.
WHITE ROT FUNGI
• White rot fungi can degrade organic pollutants in soil and
effluent and decolorize kraft black liquor, e.g.
Phanerochaete chrysosporium can produce aromatic
mixtures with its lignolytic system.
• Pentachlorophenol, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (e.g.
DDT), even TNT (trinitrotoluene) can be degraded by
white rot fungi.
ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP
PROCESS
The basis of removal and transportation of wastes for
treatment, basically there are two methods.
1.Insitu bioremediation
2.Ex situ bioremediation
 INSITU BIOREMEDIATION:
* It involves direct approach for the microbial
degradation of xenobiotics at the sites of pollution (soil, ground
water).
* It has been successfully applied for clan-up oil
spillages, beaches etc.
* There are 2 types of insitu bioremediation ,
‡ Intrinsic bioremediation
‡ Engineered bioremediation
EXSITU BIOREMEDIATION
* The waste or toxic materials can be collected from the
polluted sites and the bioremediation with the requisite
microorganisms can be carried out at designed places.
METABOLIC EFFECT OFMO’S ON XENOBIOTICS:
¤ Detoxification
¤ Degradation
¤ Activation
¤ Conjugation
TYPES OF REACTIONS IN BIOREMEDIATION:
»Aerobic bioremediation
»Anaerobic bioremediation
» Sequential bioremediation
BIOREMEDIATION OF HYDROCARBONS
Petroleum and its products are hydrocarbons. Oil constitute a
variety of hydrocarbons (xylanes, naphthalenes, octane's, camphor
etc,).
The pollutants can be degraded by a consortium of microorganisms,
e.g Pseudomoas, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and
Nocardia.
• Genetically engineered bacterial strains are used to enhance
bioremediation.
• In 1979, Anand Mohan Chakrabarty - obtained a strain of
Pseudomonas putida that contained the XYL and NAH plasmid as
well as a hybrid plasmid derived by recombinating parts of CAM
and OCT.
• In 1990, the USA Govt allowed him to use this superbug for
cleaning up of an oil spill in water of State of Texas. It was
produced on a large scale in laboratory, mixed with straw and dried.
s
Sewage from cities
Industrial effluents
Oil slick
Pollution from warship
Military activities
MARINE POLLUTION
MARINE POLLUTION
OIL SPILL
11 million gallon oil spill from the
supertanker EXXON VALDEZ-
ALASKA in March- 1989.
A Conjugation B C D
CAM-OCT E XYL F NAH
G
• straw was spread over oil slicks, the straw soaked up the oil and bacteria
broke up the oil into non-polluting and harmless products.
CREATION OFTHE SUPERBUG BYTRANSFER OF PLASMIDS.
CAM plasmid OCT plasmid XYLplasmid NAH plasmid
PHYTOREMEDIATION
• Phytoremediation is use of plants for accumulation,
removal or conversion of pollutants.
Phytoremediation
Phytostabilization
Phytotransformation Phytoextraction
Phytovolatilization Phytostimulation
• Approximately 400 plant species have been classified as
sunflower, corn, hemp, flax, alfalfa, tobacco,
hyperaccumulators of heavy metals, such as grasses,
willow,
Indian mustard, poplar, water hyacinth, etc.
The root exudates of these plants play an important role in
phytoremediation as it activate the surrounded microorganisms.
Genetic engineering are used as in case of BT protein or insect
pheromones producing plants to reduce the use of pesticides.
PHYTO-REMEDIATION
Effective and low cost , environmental friendly.
Soil clean up of heavy metals and organic compounds.
Pollutants are absorbed in roots, thus plants removed
could be disposed or burned.
Sunflower plants were used to remove cesium and
strontium from ponds at the Chernobyl nuclear power
plant.
Transgenic plants with exogenous metallothionein (a
metal binding protein) used to remove metals .
METALS
BIOREMEDIAT
ION
MECHANISMS
Solubilization
(Bioleaching)
Complexation
(Bioaccumulation)
(Biosorption)
Metal
immobilization
Precipitation
- H2S producing bacteria
- Siderophores.
- Metal reduction.
- Exopolysaccharide.
- Lipoproteins.
- Organic acids.
- Siderophores.
- Root exudates.
Industries
plastics, textiles,
microelectronics, wood
preservatives, refineries
etc.
Agrochemicals
Excessive use of fertilizers
and pesticides etc.
Waste disposal
sewage sludge leach ate
from landfill, fly ash disposal
etc.
Mining activities
smelting, river dredging,
mine spoils and tailings,
metal industries etc.
Atmospheric
deposition
urban refuse disposal,
hydrometallurgical
industries,
automobile exhausts,
fossil
fuel combustion etc.
Heavy metals
sources in the
environmental
SOURCES OF HEAVYMETALS IN THE
ENVIRONMET
The biosurfactants are chemical compounds characterized by
hydrophobic and hydrophilic (non-polar and polar) regions in
one molecule (amphipathic molecules).
Biosurfactants from bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and yeast
are classified into:
1. Glycolipids.
2. Lipopeptides.
3. Phospholipids.
4. Glycoproteins.
5. Polymeric biosurfactants.
BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCING GEM
 A genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
 This new strain can produce a glycolipid emulsifier.
 It can reduce the surface tension of an oil water interface.
The reduced interfacial tension promotes biodegradation of
oils.
BIOSURFACTANTS
BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL
WASTES
 Avariety of pollutants are discharged in the environment from a
large no of industries & mills.
1. Bioremediation of Dyes
2. Bioremediation in the paper and pulp industry
BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS & WASTE LANDS
SLURRY-PHASE BIOREACTOR LANDFARMING-BIOREMEDIATION
PREVENTIONAND CONTROLOF POLLUTION
THESE ACTIVITIES ARE SUPPORTED BY A SET OF
LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY PROMOTIONAL
MEASURES SUCH AS POLICY STATEMENT ON
ABATEMENT OF POLLUTION, 1992; AND THE
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY, 2006.
The major actions on Abatement of Pollution and Environmental
Cleanup are as follows: Clean Technology (CT), Control of Pollution
(CP), Environment Education (EE), Environmental Impact Assessment
(IA), Environmental Information (EI), Environmental
System (ENVIS), Environment Research (RE),
(FPR), Hazardous Substances Management
Forest
(HSM)
Information
Protection
, Climate
Change(CC) , Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
THERE IS AN IMMEDIATE NECESSITY FOR INITIATING
AN “ALL INDIA COORDINATED PROJECT ON
BIOREMEDIATION OF THE CONTAMINATED SITES”
INVOLVING PREMIER INSTITUTIONS IN THIS FIELD FOR
CONDUCTING LARGE SCALE DEMONSTRATION
PROJECTS.
Further, various departmental agencies and related ministries in India may
plan a joint action plan to launch bioremediation from Lab-Pilot –Field
scale projects at specific sites
Environmental
cleanup
Joint action of
Govt.(various
ministries and
their
departments)
Novel lab level
research
Pilot Scale
experiments
PossibleAll India coordinated bioremediation demonstration projects at specifi c sites
BIOREMEDIATION FROM LAB-PILOT –FIELD SCALE
ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES OFBIOREMEDIATION
Bioremediation is a natural process and is therefore perceived by the public.
Bioremediation is useful for the complete destruction of a wide variety of
contaminants.
Instead of transferring contaminants from one environmental medium to
another, for example, from land to water or air, the complete destruction of
target pollutants is possible.
Bioremediation can often be carried out on site, often without causing a
major disruption of normal activities.
Bioremediation can prove less expensive than other technologies that are
used for cleanup of hazardous waste.
DISADVANTAGES OF BIOREMEDIATION
Bioremediation is limited to those compounds that are biodegradable. Not all
compounds are susceptible to rapid and complete degradation.
There are some concerns that the products of biodegradation may be more
persistent or toxic than the parent compound.
Biological processes are often highly specific. microbial populations, suitable
environmental growth conditions, and appropriate levels of nutrients and
contaminants.
It is difficult to extrapolate (deduce) from bench and pilot-scale studies to
fullscale field operations.
Bioremediation often takes longer than other treatment options.
REFERENCE
• Bioremediation, its Applications to
Contaminated Sites
in India, Ministry of Environment &
Forests.
• Text book of Biotechnology-
U.sathyanarayana. A text book of
Biotechnology- R.C.Dubey
, MISR
PPT-Bioremediation methods and its application
university.
http://www.nal.usda.gov/bic/Biorem/biorem.htm.
http://www.lbl.gov/NABIR/index.html
THANK
YOU

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bioremediation_microbial remediationppt.pptx

  • 2. BIOREMEDIATION Bioremediation refers to the process of using microorganisms to remove the environmental pollutants or prevent pollution. The removal of organic wastes by microbes for environmental clean-up is the essence of bioremediation. The other names used for bioremediation are biotreatment, bioreclamation and biorestoration. Xenobiotics broadly refer to the unnatural, foreign and synthetic chemicals such as pesticide, herbicide & other organic compounds. TYPES OFBIOREMEDIATION : 1. Biostimulation 2. Bioaugmentation 3. Intrinsic bioremediation
  • 4. REDOX CLEAN-UP REACTIONS Anaerobic or aerobic metabolism involve oxidation and reduction reactions or Redox reactions for detoxification. Oxygen could be reduced to water and oxidize organic compounds.Anaerobic reaction can use nitrate. In return, biomass is gained for bacterial or fungal growth. In many cases, combined efforts are needed, indigenous microbes found naturally in polluted sites are useful.
  • 5. USE OF BACTERIAIN BIOREMEDIATION Greatly affected by unstable climatic and environmental factors from moisture to temperature. For examples, pH in soil is slightly acidic; petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria do not work well < 10º C. These microbes are usually thermophilic anaerobic. Fertilizers are needed. Seeding or bioaugmentation could be useful too. They contain monooxygenases and dehydrogenases to break down organic matters including most toxic substances.
  • 6. PSEUDOMONAS Genetically engineered bacteria (Pseudomonas) with plasmid producing enzymes to degrade octane and many different organic compounds from crude oil. Aselected list of genetically engineered microorganisms GEMs XENOBIOTICS Pseudomonas putida Mono-and dichloro aromatic compounds P.diminuta Parathion P.oleovorans Alkane P.cepacia 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol Acinetobacter species 4-Chlorobenzene Alcaligenes species 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid
  • 7. USE OF FUNGI IN BIOREMEDIATION • Candida can degrade formaldehyde. • Gibeberella can degrade cyanide. • Slurry-phase bioremediation is useful too but only for small • amounts of contaminated soil. • Composting can be used to degrade household wastes. WHITE ROT FUNGI • White rot fungi can degrade organic pollutants in soil and effluent and decolorize kraft black liquor, e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium can produce aromatic mixtures with its lignolytic system. • Pentachlorophenol, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (e.g. DDT), even TNT (trinitrotoluene) can be degraded by white rot fungi.
  • 8. ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP PROCESS The basis of removal and transportation of wastes for treatment, basically there are two methods. 1.Insitu bioremediation 2.Ex situ bioremediation  INSITU BIOREMEDIATION: * It involves direct approach for the microbial degradation of xenobiotics at the sites of pollution (soil, ground water). * It has been successfully applied for clan-up oil spillages, beaches etc. * There are 2 types of insitu bioremediation , ‡ Intrinsic bioremediation ‡ Engineered bioremediation
  • 9.
  • 10. EXSITU BIOREMEDIATION * The waste or toxic materials can be collected from the polluted sites and the bioremediation with the requisite microorganisms can be carried out at designed places. METABOLIC EFFECT OFMO’S ON XENOBIOTICS: ¤ Detoxification ¤ Degradation ¤ Activation ¤ Conjugation TYPES OF REACTIONS IN BIOREMEDIATION: »Aerobic bioremediation »Anaerobic bioremediation » Sequential bioremediation
  • 11. BIOREMEDIATION OF HYDROCARBONS Petroleum and its products are hydrocarbons. Oil constitute a variety of hydrocarbons (xylanes, naphthalenes, octane's, camphor etc,). The pollutants can be degraded by a consortium of microorganisms, e.g Pseudomoas, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and Nocardia. • Genetically engineered bacterial strains are used to enhance bioremediation. • In 1979, Anand Mohan Chakrabarty - obtained a strain of Pseudomonas putida that contained the XYL and NAH plasmid as well as a hybrid plasmid derived by recombinating parts of CAM and OCT. • In 1990, the USA Govt allowed him to use this superbug for cleaning up of an oil spill in water of State of Texas. It was produced on a large scale in laboratory, mixed with straw and dried.
  • 12. s Sewage from cities Industrial effluents Oil slick Pollution from warship Military activities MARINE POLLUTION
  • 14. OIL SPILL 11 million gallon oil spill from the supertanker EXXON VALDEZ- ALASKA in March- 1989.
  • 15. A Conjugation B C D CAM-OCT E XYL F NAH G • straw was spread over oil slicks, the straw soaked up the oil and bacteria broke up the oil into non-polluting and harmless products. CREATION OFTHE SUPERBUG BYTRANSFER OF PLASMIDS. CAM plasmid OCT plasmid XYLplasmid NAH plasmid
  • 16. PHYTOREMEDIATION • Phytoremediation is use of plants for accumulation, removal or conversion of pollutants. Phytoremediation Phytostabilization Phytotransformation Phytoextraction Phytovolatilization Phytostimulation
  • 17. • Approximately 400 plant species have been classified as sunflower, corn, hemp, flax, alfalfa, tobacco, hyperaccumulators of heavy metals, such as grasses, willow, Indian mustard, poplar, water hyacinth, etc.
  • 18. The root exudates of these plants play an important role in phytoremediation as it activate the surrounded microorganisms. Genetic engineering are used as in case of BT protein or insect pheromones producing plants to reduce the use of pesticides.
  • 19. PHYTO-REMEDIATION Effective and low cost , environmental friendly. Soil clean up of heavy metals and organic compounds. Pollutants are absorbed in roots, thus plants removed could be disposed or burned. Sunflower plants were used to remove cesium and strontium from ponds at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Transgenic plants with exogenous metallothionein (a metal binding protein) used to remove metals .
  • 20. METALS BIOREMEDIAT ION MECHANISMS Solubilization (Bioleaching) Complexation (Bioaccumulation) (Biosorption) Metal immobilization Precipitation - H2S producing bacteria - Siderophores. - Metal reduction. - Exopolysaccharide. - Lipoproteins. - Organic acids. - Siderophores. - Root exudates.
  • 21. Industries plastics, textiles, microelectronics, wood preservatives, refineries etc. Agrochemicals Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides etc. Waste disposal sewage sludge leach ate from landfill, fly ash disposal etc. Mining activities smelting, river dredging, mine spoils and tailings, metal industries etc. Atmospheric deposition urban refuse disposal, hydrometallurgical industries, automobile exhausts, fossil fuel combustion etc. Heavy metals sources in the environmental SOURCES OF HEAVYMETALS IN THE ENVIRONMET
  • 22. The biosurfactants are chemical compounds characterized by hydrophobic and hydrophilic (non-polar and polar) regions in one molecule (amphipathic molecules). Biosurfactants from bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and yeast are classified into: 1. Glycolipids. 2. Lipopeptides. 3. Phospholipids. 4. Glycoproteins. 5. Polymeric biosurfactants. BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCING GEM  A genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  This new strain can produce a glycolipid emulsifier.  It can reduce the surface tension of an oil water interface. The reduced interfacial tension promotes biodegradation of oils. BIOSURFACTANTS
  • 23. BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  Avariety of pollutants are discharged in the environment from a large no of industries & mills. 1. Bioremediation of Dyes 2. Bioremediation in the paper and pulp industry BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS & WASTE LANDS SLURRY-PHASE BIOREACTOR LANDFARMING-BIOREMEDIATION
  • 24.
  • 25. PREVENTIONAND CONTROLOF POLLUTION THESE ACTIVITIES ARE SUPPORTED BY A SET OF LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY PROMOTIONAL MEASURES SUCH AS POLICY STATEMENT ON ABATEMENT OF POLLUTION, 1992; AND THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY, 2006. The major actions on Abatement of Pollution and Environmental Cleanup are as follows: Clean Technology (CT), Control of Pollution (CP), Environment Education (EE), Environmental Impact Assessment (IA), Environmental Information (EI), Environmental System (ENVIS), Environment Research (RE), (FPR), Hazardous Substances Management Forest (HSM) Information Protection , Climate Change(CC) , Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
  • 26. THERE IS AN IMMEDIATE NECESSITY FOR INITIATING AN “ALL INDIA COORDINATED PROJECT ON BIOREMEDIATION OF THE CONTAMINATED SITES” INVOLVING PREMIER INSTITUTIONS IN THIS FIELD FOR CONDUCTING LARGE SCALE DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS. Further, various departmental agencies and related ministries in India may plan a joint action plan to launch bioremediation from Lab-Pilot –Field scale projects at specific sites Environmental cleanup Joint action of Govt.(various ministries and their departments) Novel lab level research Pilot Scale experiments PossibleAll India coordinated bioremediation demonstration projects at specifi c sites
  • 28. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES OFBIOREMEDIATION Bioremediation is a natural process and is therefore perceived by the public. Bioremediation is useful for the complete destruction of a wide variety of contaminants. Instead of transferring contaminants from one environmental medium to another, for example, from land to water or air, the complete destruction of target pollutants is possible. Bioremediation can often be carried out on site, often without causing a major disruption of normal activities. Bioremediation can prove less expensive than other technologies that are used for cleanup of hazardous waste.
  • 29. DISADVANTAGES OF BIOREMEDIATION Bioremediation is limited to those compounds that are biodegradable. Not all compounds are susceptible to rapid and complete degradation. There are some concerns that the products of biodegradation may be more persistent or toxic than the parent compound. Biological processes are often highly specific. microbial populations, suitable environmental growth conditions, and appropriate levels of nutrients and contaminants. It is difficult to extrapolate (deduce) from bench and pilot-scale studies to fullscale field operations. Bioremediation often takes longer than other treatment options.
  • 30. REFERENCE • Bioremediation, its Applications to Contaminated Sites in India, Ministry of Environment & Forests. • Text book of Biotechnology- U.sathyanarayana. A text book of Biotechnology- R.C.Dubey , MISR PPT-Bioremediation methods and its application university. http://www.nal.usda.gov/bic/Biorem/biorem.htm. http://www.lbl.gov/NABIR/index.html