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Towards high quality work-based
learning in the Baltics and beyond
RIGA, 24 JANUARY 2020
Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
– Inspiring Competence Development for Teachers and Students
Dr Sanna Brauer
Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Professional Teacher Education
University of Oulu, Faculty of Education
Learning & Education Technology Research Unit
● 5 institutes of vocational teacher education.
● Regulated by law (356/03) and statute (357/03).
● The Professional Teacher Education Programme consist of 60
ECTS credits and provides a teacher qualification to work as a
teacher at vocational institutions or at universities of applied
sciences.
● Combining study and work: study paths for both practicing
teachers and teacher candidates who want to gain the official
teacher’s qualification diploma.
● A general entrance requirement for vocational teachers is
Bachelor’s (or higher) degree and 3 years of professional work
experience.
● Multidisciplinary groups and multiform studies to meet the
needs of adult students.
● Fast track or flexible part-time studies from 9 months to 3
years.
Professional Teacher Education,
Vocational Programs in Finland
Kuvat: Suomen Partiolaiset - Finlands Scouter ry
1. Why Digital Open Badges?
Future: increasingly numerous ways to develop
competences.
● Digital open badges offer novel possibilities in identifying
and recognising different competences independent of
how they were acquired.
● Electronic microcredentials are used in learning to
encourage students, to pinpoint progress and to support
credentialing.
● Clear principles of judgement: equal, egalitarian and
transparent way of assessment
● Badges as macrocredentials offer an option to digitise
certificates and diplomas.
CASE ”LEARNING ONLINE”
Competence-based Professional Development
for VET trainers
• ”Learning Online” is a national competence
development program designed for
vocational teachers. Over 23000
competence-based badges (three levels of
UNESCO’s ICT-CFT) since 2014.
• Efficient professional development:
• Badges are assessed based on an
application: tangible tasks to apply new
competences in working life.
• Promotes independent self-evaluation of
existing competences and identification
of individual competences needed in
working life.
• Supports validation of prior learning
PERSONAL LEARNING
ENVIRONMENT
Personal Learning Environments and Personal Learning Networks in professional teaching
PROFICIENCY GOALS
-Understand the opportunities and available via a personal learning environment and network e.g. own skills
development and visualising your own processes. -Understand how a personal learning environment can be
utilised in professional teaching.
THEMES
-Personal learning environment and network possibilities and challenges in professional teaching.
SKILLS DEMONSTRATION
-Describe your current or a planned personal learning environment and/or network using any desired media
e.g. video / written document. You may also describe a PLE from the perspective of your students and how
they would utilise a PLE.
-Also describe with which kind of tools or environments your described PLE will be accomplished. Upload your
media e.g. to a cloud service and provide a link in your application.
“an image file embedded with
information” (Grant, 2014, p. 7)
A badge includes an identification
image, graphic or icon, the name of
the badge, issuer identification and
other information content.
The metadata describes the principles
of judgement and explain how the
competence in question should be
demonstrated (e.g., an online
document).
Even if competencies are acquired
differently they should be assessed
equally.
Badge Design and
Criteria Building
“The competition between teams was nice, but the
most important thing was playing. I used to play
Mafia Wars for four hours a day until my husband
banned it. This is how I satisfy the craving when
going to bed but not feeling sleepy yet. One more.
I got one more badge. It seemed to me the best
quality (of education), the most addictive and
interesting learning experience of my life,
although not an easy achievement.”
In-service teacher on skills set developer-level III
EXPERIENCE GAMIFIED
”LEARNING ONLINE”
2. Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning: The Competence-based
Approach, Digital Open Badges and Gamification in
Professional Development
• The first European doctoral dissertation to
address the structure and process of digital
open badge-driven learning
• An application of competence-based
approach and gamified learning process.
• Recent theoretical approaches to digital
badging and principles for designing
motivating gamification with badges.
• Supports a competence-based approach in
continuing professional development to
meet the individual professional needs.
1/23/20 Sanna Brauer 8
Conceptualising Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Brauer, 2019; cf. Salmon, 2018
• A competence-based
learning process grounded
on the badge constellation of
competences.
• Identification and recognition
of different competences,
acquired differently, using
digital open badges.
• The entity involves learning
materials, badge criterion,
instructional badging,
scaffolding and peer support.
3. Digital open badges have become a successful tool in Finland for
fostering professional development
• Several national badge constellations of competences will be published
in 2020-2023.
• Development and pilots should inform ongoing Europass development
Teacher’s Badges
offers to create and
establish a national
digital badges system
to support the
recognition and
acknowledging of
professional
competences of
vocational teachers
during their teacher
studies as well as their
entire professional
career.
Competitive Skills aims to develop a
national system, which enables the
verification of adults’ problem solving skills
in technology-rich environments (PIAAC) by
identifying and recognising competences
acquired outside the formal education
system, at different levels of education, and
in transition phases of the education
structure. In addition, the project provides a
requirement framework of competence
(NQF) for securing IT-related problem-
solving skills in VET.
Chips For Game Skills -
project focuses on
identifying different
professions of games
industry and developing a
common assessment criteria
– a digital open badge
system – which clarifies the
definition and understanding
of the professional
competences required in
such a working life
positions.
Continuing professional development, CPD, is the ongoing process of
developing, maintaining and documenting your professional competences
Competences achieved in VET
Competences achieved in HE
Competences achieved in
WORKING LIFE
GENERIC WORKING LIFE COMPETENCES
VISUALISATION OF
DIFFERENT
COMPETENCES IN A
MODULE
STRUCTURE
Results
4. Who owns the “open”?
Different stakeholders have various value expectations
of badges
• Learning pathways should include collaboration
between different stakeholders so that badges
hold value and are highly recognised in society
• Different development projects share various
networks: municipalities, secondary education,
universities of applied sciences, schools of
professional teacher education and research
universities
• Role of National Ministries and Agencies and
European collaboration
BERLIN DECLARATION of Validation of Prior Learning: The VPL Biennale Book 2019
5. How to get
(Inter)National?
Frameworks, recommendations and official guidelines
(e.g. DigiCompEdu/Org/NQFs/PIAAC)
• Fit the language (ESCO)
• Network! National, international, technical,
pedagogical - different kind of expertise is needed
• Share Experices - Learn from Others!
• Study Research - Do Research!
• Apply for resources for diverse purposes: to
ground theory, to pilot practices, to develop
technologies, to educate trainers, to disseminate
results...
6. Key Success Factors of Microcredentials:
Excellent learning outcomes, by quantity and quality
• Visualise study progress and optional study paths.
• Validates formal, non-formal, and informal studies
• A sense of excitement similar to that of playing games:
inspiring gamification encourages the participant to
proceed.
• Evidence: the demonstration of competence in question
- tangible applications in working life.
• Personal development plans - driver for personal
growth.
• Interaction, collaboration and feedback
7. Main challenges
The criteria for the future skills and knowledge are developing
and evolving while staying compatible with the nationwide
administration and learning management systems.
• Technologies under development
• (Inter)National guidelines for quality badging
• Freely organised networks as stakeholders
• Transition from simplistic grading to assessment of competences can
be a demanding challenge for both teachers and students
• Personalisation, customisation, individual study paths
→ scaffolding resources
Brauer, S. (2019). Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –Competence-based
Professional Development for Vocational Teachers (doctoral dissertation). Acta
Universitatis Lapponiensis 380. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-337-110-1
THANK YOU!
• Please follow my current research on Research Gate:
• https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sanna_Brauer
• LION https://www.linkedin.com/in/sannabrauer
• sanna.brauer@oamk.fi
18
Abuhamdeh, S., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the competitive context: An examination of person-situation interactions. Journal of Personality, 77(5),
1615–1635.
Brauer, S. (2019). Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers (doctoral dissertation). University of Lapland.
http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-337-110-1
Brauer, S., Kettunen, J. & Hallikainen, V. (2018). “Learning Online” for vocational teachers - Visualisation of competence-based-approach in digital open badge-driven learning. The Journal of
Professional and Vocational Education: Vocational education and training in the Nordic countries, 20(2), 13-29.
Brauer, S., Ruhalahti, S., & Hallikainen, V. (2018). Digital professional learning triggers: in an online badge driven process. Education in the North, 25(1-2), 64-86. https://www.abdn.ac.uk/eitn/journal/545/
Brauer, S. & Siklander, P. (2017). Competence-based assessment and digital badging as guidance in vocational teacher education. In H. Partridge, K. Davis, & J. Thomas (Eds.), Me, Us, IT! Proceedings
ASCILITE2017: 34th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education. 191-196.
Brauer, S., Siklander, P. & Ruhalahti, S. (2017). Motivation in digital open badge-driven learning in vocational teacher education. Ammattikasvatuksen Aikakauskirja, 19(3), 7–23.
Deterding, S. (2012). Gamification: designing for motivation. interactions, 19(4), 14–17.
Buckley, P., & Doyle, E., (2014). Gamification and student motivation. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-14. http://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2014.964263
Deterding, S. (2015). The lens of intrinsic skill atoms: A method for gameful design. Human - Computer Interaction, 30(3-4), 294–335. http://doi.org/10.1080/07370024.2014.993471
Dichev, C., Dicheva, D., Angelova, G. & Agre, G. (2014). From gamification to gameful design and gameful experience in learning. Cybernetics and Information Technologies, 14(4), pp.80-100.
Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., De-Marcos, L., Fernandez-Sanz, L., Pages, C., & Martínez-Herraiz, J. J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes.
Computers and Education, 63, 380-392.
Fitz-Walter, Z., Tjondronegoro, D., & Wyeth, P. (2011). Orientation passport: Using gamification to engage university students. Proceedings from the 23rd Australian computer-human interaction
conference. 122-125. ACM.
Gamrat, C., Bixler, B., & Raish, V. (2016). Instructional design considerations for digital badges. Digital Badges in Education: Trends, Issues, and Cases, 71–81.
Hamari, J. (2017). Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on the effects of gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 469-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.036.
Hidi, S. & Renniger, K.A. (2006). The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development. Educational Psychologist, 41,(2), pp.111–127.
Järvelä, S. and Renniger, K.A. (2014). Designing for learning: Interest, motivation, and engagement. In (R.K. Sawyer, Ed.) Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, pp. 668–685. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
Montola, M., Nummenmaa, T., Lucerano, A., Boberg, M., & Korhonen, H. (2009). Applying game achievement systems to enhance user experience in a photo sharing service. Proceedings from the 13th
international Academic Mindtrek conference: Everyday life in the Ubiquitous Era. Tampere, Finland. 94-97.
Renniger, K. A. and Bachrach, J. E. (2015). Studying triggers for interest and engagement using observational methods. Educational Psychologist, 50,(1), pp.58–69.
Reid, A. J., Paster, D., & Abramovich, S. (2015). Digital badges in undergraduate composition courses: effects on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(4), 377–398.
Roberts, D. & Ousey, K. (2004). Problem based learning: Developing the triggers. Experiences from a first wave site. Nurse Education in Practice, 4(3), 154–158.
Rughiniş, R., & Matei, S. (2013). Digital badges: Signposts and claims of achievement. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.). Proceedings from HCI international 2013-posters’ extended abstracts. 84-88. Berlin,
Germany: Springer.
Salmon, G. (2018). Five-stage model. Saatavilla https://www.gillysalmon.com/five-stage-model.html
Sailer, M., Hence, J., Mayr, S. K., & Mandl, H. (2017). How gamification motivates: An experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Computers
in Human Behavior, 69, 371–380.
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References

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Digital Open Badge Learning Inspires Teachers

  • 1. Towards high quality work-based learning in the Baltics and beyond RIGA, 24 JANUARY 2020 Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning – Inspiring Competence Development for Teachers and Students Dr Sanna Brauer Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Professional Teacher Education University of Oulu, Faculty of Education Learning & Education Technology Research Unit
  • 2. ● 5 institutes of vocational teacher education. ● Regulated by law (356/03) and statute (357/03). ● The Professional Teacher Education Programme consist of 60 ECTS credits and provides a teacher qualification to work as a teacher at vocational institutions or at universities of applied sciences. ● Combining study and work: study paths for both practicing teachers and teacher candidates who want to gain the official teacher’s qualification diploma. ● A general entrance requirement for vocational teachers is Bachelor’s (or higher) degree and 3 years of professional work experience. ● Multidisciplinary groups and multiform studies to meet the needs of adult students. ● Fast track or flexible part-time studies from 9 months to 3 years. Professional Teacher Education, Vocational Programs in Finland
  • 3. Kuvat: Suomen Partiolaiset - Finlands Scouter ry
  • 4. 1. Why Digital Open Badges? Future: increasingly numerous ways to develop competences. ● Digital open badges offer novel possibilities in identifying and recognising different competences independent of how they were acquired. ● Electronic microcredentials are used in learning to encourage students, to pinpoint progress and to support credentialing. ● Clear principles of judgement: equal, egalitarian and transparent way of assessment ● Badges as macrocredentials offer an option to digitise certificates and diplomas.
  • 5. CASE ”LEARNING ONLINE” Competence-based Professional Development for VET trainers • ”Learning Online” is a national competence development program designed for vocational teachers. Over 23000 competence-based badges (three levels of UNESCO’s ICT-CFT) since 2014. • Efficient professional development: • Badges are assessed based on an application: tangible tasks to apply new competences in working life. • Promotes independent self-evaluation of existing competences and identification of individual competences needed in working life. • Supports validation of prior learning
  • 6. PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Personal Learning Environments and Personal Learning Networks in professional teaching PROFICIENCY GOALS -Understand the opportunities and available via a personal learning environment and network e.g. own skills development and visualising your own processes. -Understand how a personal learning environment can be utilised in professional teaching. THEMES -Personal learning environment and network possibilities and challenges in professional teaching. SKILLS DEMONSTRATION -Describe your current or a planned personal learning environment and/or network using any desired media e.g. video / written document. You may also describe a PLE from the perspective of your students and how they would utilise a PLE. -Also describe with which kind of tools or environments your described PLE will be accomplished. Upload your media e.g. to a cloud service and provide a link in your application. “an image file embedded with information” (Grant, 2014, p. 7) A badge includes an identification image, graphic or icon, the name of the badge, issuer identification and other information content. The metadata describes the principles of judgement and explain how the competence in question should be demonstrated (e.g., an online document). Even if competencies are acquired differently they should be assessed equally. Badge Design and Criteria Building
  • 7. “The competition between teams was nice, but the most important thing was playing. I used to play Mafia Wars for four hours a day until my husband banned it. This is how I satisfy the craving when going to bed but not feeling sleepy yet. One more. I got one more badge. It seemed to me the best quality (of education), the most addictive and interesting learning experience of my life, although not an easy achievement.” In-service teacher on skills set developer-level III EXPERIENCE GAMIFIED ”LEARNING ONLINE”
  • 8. 2. Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning: The Competence-based Approach, Digital Open Badges and Gamification in Professional Development • The first European doctoral dissertation to address the structure and process of digital open badge-driven learning • An application of competence-based approach and gamified learning process. • Recent theoretical approaches to digital badging and principles for designing motivating gamification with badges. • Supports a competence-based approach in continuing professional development to meet the individual professional needs. 1/23/20 Sanna Brauer 8
  • 9. Conceptualising Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning Brauer, 2019; cf. Salmon, 2018 • A competence-based learning process grounded on the badge constellation of competences. • Identification and recognition of different competences, acquired differently, using digital open badges. • The entity involves learning materials, badge criterion, instructional badging, scaffolding and peer support.
  • 10. 3. Digital open badges have become a successful tool in Finland for fostering professional development • Several national badge constellations of competences will be published in 2020-2023. • Development and pilots should inform ongoing Europass development Teacher’s Badges offers to create and establish a national digital badges system to support the recognition and acknowledging of professional competences of vocational teachers during their teacher studies as well as their entire professional career. Competitive Skills aims to develop a national system, which enables the verification of adults’ problem solving skills in technology-rich environments (PIAAC) by identifying and recognising competences acquired outside the formal education system, at different levels of education, and in transition phases of the education structure. In addition, the project provides a requirement framework of competence (NQF) for securing IT-related problem- solving skills in VET. Chips For Game Skills - project focuses on identifying different professions of games industry and developing a common assessment criteria – a digital open badge system – which clarifies the definition and understanding of the professional competences required in such a working life positions.
  • 11. Continuing professional development, CPD, is the ongoing process of developing, maintaining and documenting your professional competences Competences achieved in VET Competences achieved in HE Competences achieved in WORKING LIFE GENERIC WORKING LIFE COMPETENCES VISUALISATION OF DIFFERENT COMPETENCES IN A MODULE STRUCTURE
  • 13. 4. Who owns the “open”? Different stakeholders have various value expectations of badges • Learning pathways should include collaboration between different stakeholders so that badges hold value and are highly recognised in society • Different development projects share various networks: municipalities, secondary education, universities of applied sciences, schools of professional teacher education and research universities • Role of National Ministries and Agencies and European collaboration BERLIN DECLARATION of Validation of Prior Learning: The VPL Biennale Book 2019
  • 14. 5. How to get (Inter)National? Frameworks, recommendations and official guidelines (e.g. DigiCompEdu/Org/NQFs/PIAAC) • Fit the language (ESCO) • Network! National, international, technical, pedagogical - different kind of expertise is needed • Share Experices - Learn from Others! • Study Research - Do Research! • Apply for resources for diverse purposes: to ground theory, to pilot practices, to develop technologies, to educate trainers, to disseminate results...
  • 15. 6. Key Success Factors of Microcredentials: Excellent learning outcomes, by quantity and quality • Visualise study progress and optional study paths. • Validates formal, non-formal, and informal studies • A sense of excitement similar to that of playing games: inspiring gamification encourages the participant to proceed. • Evidence: the demonstration of competence in question - tangible applications in working life. • Personal development plans - driver for personal growth. • Interaction, collaboration and feedback
  • 16. 7. Main challenges The criteria for the future skills and knowledge are developing and evolving while staying compatible with the nationwide administration and learning management systems. • Technologies under development • (Inter)National guidelines for quality badging • Freely organised networks as stakeholders • Transition from simplistic grading to assessment of competences can be a demanding challenge for both teachers and students • Personalisation, customisation, individual study paths → scaffolding resources Brauer, S. (2019). Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers (doctoral dissertation). Acta Universitatis Lapponiensis 380. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-337-110-1
  • 17. THANK YOU! • Please follow my current research on Research Gate: • https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sanna_Brauer • LION https://www.linkedin.com/in/sannabrauer • sanna.brauer@oamk.fi
  • 18. 18 Abuhamdeh, S., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the competitive context: An examination of person-situation interactions. Journal of Personality, 77(5), 1615–1635. Brauer, S. (2019). Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers (doctoral dissertation). University of Lapland. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-337-110-1 Brauer, S., Kettunen, J. & Hallikainen, V. (2018). “Learning Online” for vocational teachers - Visualisation of competence-based-approach in digital open badge-driven learning. The Journal of Professional and Vocational Education: Vocational education and training in the Nordic countries, 20(2), 13-29. Brauer, S., Ruhalahti, S., & Hallikainen, V. (2018). Digital professional learning triggers: in an online badge driven process. Education in the North, 25(1-2), 64-86. https://www.abdn.ac.uk/eitn/journal/545/ Brauer, S. & Siklander, P. (2017). Competence-based assessment and digital badging as guidance in vocational teacher education. In H. Partridge, K. Davis, & J. Thomas (Eds.), Me, Us, IT! Proceedings ASCILITE2017: 34th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education. 191-196. Brauer, S., Siklander, P. & Ruhalahti, S. (2017). Motivation in digital open badge-driven learning in vocational teacher education. Ammattikasvatuksen Aikakauskirja, 19(3), 7–23. Deterding, S. (2012). Gamification: designing for motivation. interactions, 19(4), 14–17. Buckley, P., & Doyle, E., (2014). Gamification and student motivation. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-14. http://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2014.964263 Deterding, S. (2015). The lens of intrinsic skill atoms: A method for gameful design. Human - Computer Interaction, 30(3-4), 294–335. http://doi.org/10.1080/07370024.2014.993471 Dichev, C., Dicheva, D., Angelova, G. & Agre, G. (2014). From gamification to gameful design and gameful experience in learning. Cybernetics and Information Technologies, 14(4), pp.80-100. Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., De-Marcos, L., Fernandez-Sanz, L., Pages, C., & Martínez-Herraiz, J. J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers and Education, 63, 380-392. Fitz-Walter, Z., Tjondronegoro, D., & Wyeth, P. (2011). Orientation passport: Using gamification to engage university students. Proceedings from the 23rd Australian computer-human interaction conference. 122-125. ACM. Gamrat, C., Bixler, B., & Raish, V. (2016). Instructional design considerations for digital badges. Digital Badges in Education: Trends, Issues, and Cases, 71–81. Hamari, J. (2017). Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on the effects of gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 469-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.036. Hidi, S. & Renniger, K.A. (2006). The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development. Educational Psychologist, 41,(2), pp.111–127. Järvelä, S. and Renniger, K.A. (2014). Designing for learning: Interest, motivation, and engagement. In (R.K. Sawyer, Ed.) Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, pp. 668–685. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Montola, M., Nummenmaa, T., Lucerano, A., Boberg, M., & Korhonen, H. (2009). Applying game achievement systems to enhance user experience in a photo sharing service. Proceedings from the 13th international Academic Mindtrek conference: Everyday life in the Ubiquitous Era. Tampere, Finland. 94-97. Renniger, K. A. and Bachrach, J. E. (2015). Studying triggers for interest and engagement using observational methods. Educational Psychologist, 50,(1), pp.58–69. Reid, A. J., Paster, D., & Abramovich, S. (2015). Digital badges in undergraduate composition courses: effects on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(4), 377–398. Roberts, D. & Ousey, K. (2004). Problem based learning: Developing the triggers. Experiences from a first wave site. Nurse Education in Practice, 4(3), 154–158. Rughiniş, R., & Matei, S. (2013). Digital badges: Signposts and claims of achievement. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.). Proceedings from HCI international 2013-posters’ extended abstracts. 84-88. Berlin, Germany: Springer. Salmon, G. (2018). Five-stage model. Saatavilla https://www.gillysalmon.com/five-stage-model.html Sailer, M., Hence, J., Mayr, S. K., & Mandl, H. (2017). How gamification motivates: An experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 371–380. Siklander, P., Kangas, M., Ruhalahti, S. & Korva. S. (2017). Exploring triggers for arousing interest in the online learning. In L. G. Chova, A. L. Martínez, & I. C. Torres (Eds.). INTED2017 Proceedings 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain, 9081-9089. References