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INTRODUCTION TO
ECONOMICS
Choices, Choices, Choices, . . .
WHAT IS ECONOMICS?
Economics – the study
of how individuals and
societies make
decisions about ways
to use scarce
resources to fulfill
wants and needs.
The Study of Economics
Macroeconomics
– The big picture: growth,
employment, etc.
– Choices made by large
groups (like countries)
Microeconomics
– How do individuals make
economic decisions
ECONOMICS: 5 Economic
Questions
Society (we) must figure out
WHAT to produce (make)
HOW MUCH to produce
(quantity)
HOW to Produce it
(manufacture)
FOR WHOM to Produce
(who gets what)
WHO gets to make these
decisions?
What are resources?
Definition: The things used to make other
goods
BUT, there’s a
Fundamental Problem:
SCARCITY: unlimited wants and
needs but limited resources
List five (5) of your
favorite items (goods)
(boots, phone, etc.
Where did you buy
these items?
Where were they
made?
Choices, Choices
Because ALL resources,
goods, and services are
limited – WE MUST MAKE
CHOICES!!!!
Why Choices?
We make choices about how we spend our
money, time, and energy so we can fulfill
our NEEDS and WANTS.
What are NEEDS and WANTS?
Wants and Needs,
Needs and Wants
NEEDS – “stuff” we must have to survive,
generally: food, shelter, clothing
WANTS – “stuff” we would really like to
have (Fancy food, shelter, clothing, big
screen TVs, jewelry, conveniences . . .
Also known as LUXURIES
VS.
TRADE-OFFS
You can’t have it all (SCARCITY –
remember) so you have to
choose how to spend your
money, time, and energy. These
decisions involve picking one
thing over all the other
possibilities – a TRADE-OFF
Trade-Offs, cont.
What COULD you have done instead of come
to school today?
The result of your Trade-Off is the
OPPORTUNITY COST =
The Value of the Next Best Choice
(Ex: Sleeping is the opportunity cost of studying for a test)
“There is no such thing as a free
lunch.” Imagine that the friendly
neighborhood pizza restaurant set
up a table full of pizza boxes outside
your school about lunchtime and put
up a sign that said Pizza and soda
$0.00. Why wouldn’t that be a free
lunch? It didn’t cost you anything
right? Well, it may not have cost you
in terms of money, but any situation
which forces you to make a choice
results in an opportunity cost.
Or consider this: you may spend several hours this evening tweeting
and texting friends at no additional monetary cost to your phone
plan. You may think of this as free, but there is a cost. What
opportunity did you give up? In his famous quote, Milton Friedman
was reminding us of the lessons we have learned today: because of
scarcity we must choose and choice means that there is an
opportunity cost
Opportunity Costs
This is really IMPORTANT – when you choose to do
ONE thing, its value (how much it is worth) is
measured by the value of the NEXT BEST CHOICE.
– This can be in time, energy, or even MONEY
If I buy a
pizza…
Then I
can’t afford
the
movies…
Q: What is the opportunity cost of buying pizza?
Aralin 3 Ekonomiks
WHAT IS ECONOMICS?
Economics – the study of how
individuals and societies make
decisions about ways to use
scarce resources to fulfill
wants and needs
What is Macroeconomics?
Macroeconomics
The big picture: growth, employment, etc.
Choices made by large groups (like
countries)
What is Microeconomics?
How individuals make
economic decisions
What is the difference between
a need and a want?
Needs: items for survival, water, food,
shelter
Wants: luxuries, fancy cars, vacations
Things used to make other
goods.
What are resources?
What is Scarcity:
unlimited wants and needs
but limited resources
What is Opportunity Cost?
The costs of the choice NOT
taken
when you choose to do ONE
thing, its value (how much it is
worth) is measured by the value of
the NEXT BEST CHOICE. This
can be in time, energy, or even
MONEY
What are the 5 Economic Questions
Society (we) must figure out
WHAT to produce (make)
HOW MUCH to produce (quantity)
HOW to Produce it (manufacture)
FOR WHOM to Produce (who gets what)
WHO gets to make these decisions?
Where
did this
come
from?
Production
So how do we get all
this “stuff” that we
have to decide about?
Decisions, decisions
…
PRODUCTION, cont.
Production is
how much stuff
an individual,
business,
country, even
the WORLD
makes.
STUFF – Goods and
Services.
Goods – tangible (you can
touch it) products we can
buy
Services – work that is
performed for others
Capital Goods – goods used
to provide services or to
make money
Capital Goods and Consumer
Goods
Capital Goods: are
used to make other
goods
Consumer Goods:
final products that are
purchased directly by
the consumer
Factors of Production
So, what do we need to make all of this Stuff?
4 Factors of Production
LAND – Natural Resources
– Water, natural gas, oil, trees (all the stuff we find on,
in, and under the land)
LABOR – Physical and Intellectual
– Labor is manpower
CAPITAL - Tools, Machinery, Factories
– The things we use to make things
– Human capital is brainpower, ideas, innovation
ENTREPRENEURSHIP – Investment $$$
– Investing time, natural resources, labor and capital
are all risks associated with production
Which Factor of Production?
Which Factor of Production?
Which Factor of Production?
Which Factor of production?
THREE parts to the Production
Process
Factors of Production – what we need to make
goods and services
Producer – company that makes goods and/or
delivers services
Consumer – people who buy goods and
services (formerly known as “stuff”)
Which Came First?
Production Process
Capital
Labor
Land
Entrepreneurship
Production/Manufacturing
“Factory”
Goods
Services
Consumers
CHANGES IN PRODUCTION
Specialization –
dividing up production
so that Goods are
produced efficiently
Nike makes shoes, not
hamburgers
Hardee’s makes
hamburgers, not
shoes!!
Specialization?
CHANGES IN PRODUCTION
Division of Labor –
different people
perform different jobs
to achieve greater
efficiency (assembly
line).
You do your job, and
I will do my Job and
we will be more
EFFICIENT
Aralin 3 Ekonomiks
CHANGES IN PRODUCTION
Consumption – how
much we buy
(Consumer
Sovereignty)
The DELL store is
empty because….
Everyone is at the
APPLE STORE!!!
Why?
CHANGES IN PRODUCTION
If we INCREASE land, labor, capital we
INCREASE production
– Many entrepreneurs invest profit back into production
If we DECREASE land, labor, capital we
DECREASE production
BUT WHY would we ever DECREASE
production?
The Circular Flow Model
• Economic model illustrating the flow of goods
and services though the economy.
• In the model, producers are termed as "firms"
while consumers are referred to as
"households."
• Firms supply goods and services
Households consume these goods and
services.
• Factors of production (land, labor, capital) are
supplied by the household to firms and the
firms convert these into finished products for
household consumption
Aralin 3 Ekonomiks
Aralin 3 Ekonomiks
Part 2: Costs and Revenues
Costs and Revenues
Cost – the total
amount of money it
takes to produce an
item (to pay for ALL
Factors of
Production).
Costs and Revenues
Revenues – the total
amount of $ a
company or the
government takes in.
Costs and Revenues
Fixed Costs – the
amount of money a
business MUST pay each
month or year (like rent
and Capital expenses).
Costs and Revenues
Variable Costs – the
amount of money a
business pays that
changes over time (Labor
and Raw Materials).
Costs and Revenues
Total Costs = Fixed +
Variable Costs.
Costs and Revenues - Chart
Marginal Costs – the
additional Cost of the
NEXT UNIT produced.
Margin=Extra
Space
Costs and Revenues
Profit – the difference
between Total Costs
and Revenues. This
is WHY you’re in
BUSINESS (Profit
Motive!)
– Profit=Revenues-Total cost
– Profit Motive=why you are
in business---to make
MONEY
(principles of Capitalism)
Costs and Revenues
Cost Benefit Analysis
– weighing the
Marginal Costs vs.
the Marginal Benefits
of producing an item
or making any
economic decision. If
the Benefit is
GREATER than the
Cost, then business
does it.
Marginal
Benefits
Marginal
Costs
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Immediate or short term satisfaction can
lead to missing the long-term benefits.#7
For Example
Immediate spending on cheap stuff
instead of long-term savings will lead to
lower economic prosperity.
Aralin 3 Ekonomiks
Part 3: Comparative
Economics
Traditional Economies
Def: Economic
Questions answered by
custom
Predominately
Agricultural
Developing or “3rd
World”
Trade and barter
oriented
Low GDP & PCI (per
capita income = avg.
inc.)
Command Economies
Def: Economic
questions answered by
the government
Very little economic
choice
No private ownership
Communism
Old Soviet Union, old
Communist China,
Cuba and North Korea
Karl Marx
19th century German
economist
Author of “Communist
Manifesto” and “ Das
Kapital”
– Government should
control economy and
distribute goods and
services to the people
Founder of
revolutionary
socialism and
communism
Communism Falls
Market reforms in China in the
mid 1970s.
Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Collapse of the Soviet Union
1991.
Free Market Capitalism (w/
some Mixed Economies) the
only show in town.
Free Market (Capitalist) Economies
Economic questions
answered by
producers and
consumers
Limited government
involvement
Private property rights
Wide variety of
choices and products
U.S., Japan
Adam Smith
18th century Scottish
economist
Published “The Wealth of
Nations” in 1776
Explained the workings of
the free market within
capitalist economies
Invisible hand of the
market
Adam Smith (cont.)
Laissez-faire - Government stays out of
business practices “hands off” to let the
market place determine production,
consumption and distribution.
Individual freedom and choice
emphasized.
Principles of Capitalism
Competition – more
businesses means
lower prices and
higher quality
products for
consumers (US!) to
buy.
Principles of Capitalism
Voluntary Exchange –
businesses and
consumers MUST be
free to buy or sell
what and when they
want.
Principles of Capitalism
Private Property –
Individuals and
businesses MUST be
able to get the
benefits of owning
their OWN property.
Government doesn’t
control it.
Principles of Capitalism
Consumer
Sovereignty –
consumers get to
make free choices
about what to buy
and this helps drive
production
(Demand drives
Supply).
Principles of Capitalism
Profit Motive – people
want to make or save
$$$$. Their “Self
Interest” motivates
Capitalism.
Principles of Capitalism
Social Safety Net –
“Mixed Economy” idea
that says the government
should NOT allow people
to suffer in economic
crisis (natural part of
Capitalism’s “Business
Cycle”), but provide
security instead – Social
Security, Unemployment
Insurance, etc.
Mixed Economy/Socialism
Government involvement
and ownership and control
of property, of decision
making, and companies.
Government control of
business
Social “safety net” for
people
Socialism
Common in Europe, Latin
America, and Africa
John Maynard Keynes
The Invisible Hand
doesn’t always work.
“The long run is a
misleading guide to
current affairs. In the
long run we are all
dead.” or . . . the
trouble is people eat
in the short run.
Keynesian Economics (cont.)
Government should intervene in economic
emergencies through tax and spending
(Fiscal Policy) and changing the money
supply (Monetary Policy).
This is done to smooth out the business
cycle (expansion and recession) and keep
inflation low.
Part 4: Labor Issues
LABOR
Wages – what companies
pay employees for their
labor (usually based upon
an hourly rate).
Blue Collar
Manufacturing, work with
hands
Usually the ‘labor’ in
production
Salary – the amount of
pay a person gets over a
year (especially for
“professional” jobs).
White Collar
‘Office’ jobs
Usually control production
When Production Decreases
Downsizing – laying off employees to save costs.
Outsourcing – sending jobs and manufacturing overseas
or contracting to outside companies to save money.
Bankruptcy – government allows business to restructure
it’s debt, but now all profits go to paying off debt rather
than to the owners/investors.
Out of Business – lose all your business, money, and
profits.
The current trend in the U.S. is that manufacturing jobs
are declining
How does ‘Labor’ protect itself?
Labor Unions: organization of workers who
have banded together to achieve common
goals
– Wage protection
– Workplace safety
– Benefits
– Job protection
Collective Bargaining and Strikes
Collective
Bargaining
– Representatives of
the Union and the
company negotiate
a contract for the
workers; usually
they rely on
compromise
Strikes
– When an agreement
can’t be reached,
workers stop
working to try to
force the hand of the
company

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Aralin 3 Ekonomiks

  • 1. List (20) things you have purchased in the last month
  • 3. WHAT IS ECONOMICS? Economics – the study of how individuals and societies make decisions about ways to use scarce resources to fulfill wants and needs.
  • 4. The Study of Economics Macroeconomics – The big picture: growth, employment, etc. – Choices made by large groups (like countries) Microeconomics – How do individuals make economic decisions
  • 5. ECONOMICS: 5 Economic Questions Society (we) must figure out WHAT to produce (make) HOW MUCH to produce (quantity) HOW to Produce it (manufacture) FOR WHOM to Produce (who gets what) WHO gets to make these decisions?
  • 6. What are resources? Definition: The things used to make other goods
  • 7. BUT, there’s a Fundamental Problem: SCARCITY: unlimited wants and needs but limited resources
  • 8. List five (5) of your favorite items (goods) (boots, phone, etc. Where did you buy these items? Where were they made?
  • 9. Choices, Choices Because ALL resources, goods, and services are limited – WE MUST MAKE CHOICES!!!!
  • 10. Why Choices? We make choices about how we spend our money, time, and energy so we can fulfill our NEEDS and WANTS. What are NEEDS and WANTS?
  • 11. Wants and Needs, Needs and Wants NEEDS – “stuff” we must have to survive, generally: food, shelter, clothing WANTS – “stuff” we would really like to have (Fancy food, shelter, clothing, big screen TVs, jewelry, conveniences . . . Also known as LUXURIES
  • 12. VS.
  • 13. TRADE-OFFS You can’t have it all (SCARCITY – remember) so you have to choose how to spend your money, time, and energy. These decisions involve picking one thing over all the other possibilities – a TRADE-OFF
  • 14. Trade-Offs, cont. What COULD you have done instead of come to school today?
  • 15. The result of your Trade-Off is the OPPORTUNITY COST = The Value of the Next Best Choice (Ex: Sleeping is the opportunity cost of studying for a test)
  • 16. “There is no such thing as a free lunch.” Imagine that the friendly neighborhood pizza restaurant set up a table full of pizza boxes outside your school about lunchtime and put up a sign that said Pizza and soda $0.00. Why wouldn’t that be a free lunch? It didn’t cost you anything right? Well, it may not have cost you in terms of money, but any situation which forces you to make a choice results in an opportunity cost. Or consider this: you may spend several hours this evening tweeting and texting friends at no additional monetary cost to your phone plan. You may think of this as free, but there is a cost. What opportunity did you give up? In his famous quote, Milton Friedman was reminding us of the lessons we have learned today: because of scarcity we must choose and choice means that there is an opportunity cost
  • 17. Opportunity Costs This is really IMPORTANT – when you choose to do ONE thing, its value (how much it is worth) is measured by the value of the NEXT BEST CHOICE. – This can be in time, energy, or even MONEY If I buy a pizza… Then I can’t afford the movies… Q: What is the opportunity cost of buying pizza?
  • 19. WHAT IS ECONOMICS? Economics – the study of how individuals and societies make decisions about ways to use scarce resources to fulfill wants and needs
  • 20. What is Macroeconomics? Macroeconomics The big picture: growth, employment, etc. Choices made by large groups (like countries)
  • 21. What is Microeconomics? How individuals make economic decisions
  • 22. What is the difference between a need and a want? Needs: items for survival, water, food, shelter Wants: luxuries, fancy cars, vacations
  • 23. Things used to make other goods. What are resources? What is Scarcity: unlimited wants and needs but limited resources
  • 24. What is Opportunity Cost? The costs of the choice NOT taken when you choose to do ONE thing, its value (how much it is worth) is measured by the value of the NEXT BEST CHOICE. This can be in time, energy, or even MONEY
  • 25. What are the 5 Economic Questions Society (we) must figure out WHAT to produce (make) HOW MUCH to produce (quantity) HOW to Produce it (manufacture) FOR WHOM to Produce (who gets what) WHO gets to make these decisions?
  • 27. Production So how do we get all this “stuff” that we have to decide about? Decisions, decisions …
  • 28. PRODUCTION, cont. Production is how much stuff an individual, business, country, even the WORLD makes. STUFF – Goods and Services. Goods – tangible (you can touch it) products we can buy Services – work that is performed for others Capital Goods – goods used to provide services or to make money
  • 29. Capital Goods and Consumer Goods Capital Goods: are used to make other goods Consumer Goods: final products that are purchased directly by the consumer
  • 30. Factors of Production So, what do we need to make all of this Stuff?
  • 31. 4 Factors of Production LAND – Natural Resources – Water, natural gas, oil, trees (all the stuff we find on, in, and under the land) LABOR – Physical and Intellectual – Labor is manpower CAPITAL - Tools, Machinery, Factories – The things we use to make things – Human capital is brainpower, ideas, innovation ENTREPRENEURSHIP – Investment $$$ – Investing time, natural resources, labor and capital are all risks associated with production
  • 32. Which Factor of Production?
  • 33. Which Factor of Production?
  • 34. Which Factor of Production?
  • 35. Which Factor of production?
  • 36. THREE parts to the Production Process Factors of Production – what we need to make goods and services Producer – company that makes goods and/or delivers services Consumer – people who buy goods and services (formerly known as “stuff”) Which Came First?
  • 38. CHANGES IN PRODUCTION Specialization – dividing up production so that Goods are produced efficiently Nike makes shoes, not hamburgers Hardee’s makes hamburgers, not shoes!!
  • 40. CHANGES IN PRODUCTION Division of Labor – different people perform different jobs to achieve greater efficiency (assembly line). You do your job, and I will do my Job and we will be more EFFICIENT
  • 42. CHANGES IN PRODUCTION Consumption – how much we buy (Consumer Sovereignty) The DELL store is empty because…. Everyone is at the APPLE STORE!!!
  • 43. Why?
  • 44. CHANGES IN PRODUCTION If we INCREASE land, labor, capital we INCREASE production – Many entrepreneurs invest profit back into production If we DECREASE land, labor, capital we DECREASE production BUT WHY would we ever DECREASE production?
  • 45. The Circular Flow Model • Economic model illustrating the flow of goods and services though the economy. • In the model, producers are termed as "firms" while consumers are referred to as "households." • Firms supply goods and services Households consume these goods and services. • Factors of production (land, labor, capital) are supplied by the household to firms and the firms convert these into finished products for household consumption
  • 48. Part 2: Costs and Revenues
  • 49. Costs and Revenues Cost – the total amount of money it takes to produce an item (to pay for ALL Factors of Production).
  • 50. Costs and Revenues Revenues – the total amount of $ a company or the government takes in.
  • 51. Costs and Revenues Fixed Costs – the amount of money a business MUST pay each month or year (like rent and Capital expenses).
  • 52. Costs and Revenues Variable Costs – the amount of money a business pays that changes over time (Labor and Raw Materials).
  • 53. Costs and Revenues Total Costs = Fixed + Variable Costs.
  • 54. Costs and Revenues - Chart Marginal Costs – the additional Cost of the NEXT UNIT produced. Margin=Extra Space
  • 55. Costs and Revenues Profit – the difference between Total Costs and Revenues. This is WHY you’re in BUSINESS (Profit Motive!) – Profit=Revenues-Total cost – Profit Motive=why you are in business---to make MONEY (principles of Capitalism)
  • 56. Costs and Revenues Cost Benefit Analysis – weighing the Marginal Costs vs. the Marginal Benefits of producing an item or making any economic decision. If the Benefit is GREATER than the Cost, then business does it. Marginal Benefits Marginal Costs
  • 57. Cost-Benefit Analysis Immediate or short term satisfaction can lead to missing the long-term benefits.#7 For Example Immediate spending on cheap stuff instead of long-term savings will lead to lower economic prosperity.
  • 60. Traditional Economies Def: Economic Questions answered by custom Predominately Agricultural Developing or “3rd World” Trade and barter oriented Low GDP & PCI (per capita income = avg. inc.)
  • 61. Command Economies Def: Economic questions answered by the government Very little economic choice No private ownership Communism Old Soviet Union, old Communist China, Cuba and North Korea
  • 62. Karl Marx 19th century German economist Author of “Communist Manifesto” and “ Das Kapital” – Government should control economy and distribute goods and services to the people Founder of revolutionary socialism and communism
  • 63. Communism Falls Market reforms in China in the mid 1970s. Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Collapse of the Soviet Union 1991. Free Market Capitalism (w/ some Mixed Economies) the only show in town.
  • 64. Free Market (Capitalist) Economies Economic questions answered by producers and consumers Limited government involvement Private property rights Wide variety of choices and products U.S., Japan
  • 65. Adam Smith 18th century Scottish economist Published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776 Explained the workings of the free market within capitalist economies Invisible hand of the market
  • 66. Adam Smith (cont.) Laissez-faire - Government stays out of business practices “hands off” to let the market place determine production, consumption and distribution. Individual freedom and choice emphasized.
  • 67. Principles of Capitalism Competition – more businesses means lower prices and higher quality products for consumers (US!) to buy.
  • 68. Principles of Capitalism Voluntary Exchange – businesses and consumers MUST be free to buy or sell what and when they want.
  • 69. Principles of Capitalism Private Property – Individuals and businesses MUST be able to get the benefits of owning their OWN property. Government doesn’t control it.
  • 70. Principles of Capitalism Consumer Sovereignty – consumers get to make free choices about what to buy and this helps drive production (Demand drives Supply).
  • 71. Principles of Capitalism Profit Motive – people want to make or save $$$$. Their “Self Interest” motivates Capitalism.
  • 72. Principles of Capitalism Social Safety Net – “Mixed Economy” idea that says the government should NOT allow people to suffer in economic crisis (natural part of Capitalism’s “Business Cycle”), but provide security instead – Social Security, Unemployment Insurance, etc.
  • 73. Mixed Economy/Socialism Government involvement and ownership and control of property, of decision making, and companies. Government control of business Social “safety net” for people Socialism Common in Europe, Latin America, and Africa
  • 74. John Maynard Keynes The Invisible Hand doesn’t always work. “The long run is a misleading guide to current affairs. In the long run we are all dead.” or . . . the trouble is people eat in the short run.
  • 75. Keynesian Economics (cont.) Government should intervene in economic emergencies through tax and spending (Fiscal Policy) and changing the money supply (Monetary Policy). This is done to smooth out the business cycle (expansion and recession) and keep inflation low.
  • 76. Part 4: Labor Issues
  • 77. LABOR Wages – what companies pay employees for their labor (usually based upon an hourly rate). Blue Collar Manufacturing, work with hands Usually the ‘labor’ in production Salary – the amount of pay a person gets over a year (especially for “professional” jobs). White Collar ‘Office’ jobs Usually control production
  • 78. When Production Decreases Downsizing – laying off employees to save costs. Outsourcing – sending jobs and manufacturing overseas or contracting to outside companies to save money. Bankruptcy – government allows business to restructure it’s debt, but now all profits go to paying off debt rather than to the owners/investors. Out of Business – lose all your business, money, and profits. The current trend in the U.S. is that manufacturing jobs are declining
  • 79. How does ‘Labor’ protect itself? Labor Unions: organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals – Wage protection – Workplace safety – Benefits – Job protection
  • 80. Collective Bargaining and Strikes Collective Bargaining – Representatives of the Union and the company negotiate a contract for the workers; usually they rely on compromise Strikes – When an agreement can’t be reached, workers stop working to try to force the hand of the company