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APPLICATION OF
APPLICATION OF
NUMERICAL DISTANCE
NUMERICAL DISTANCE
RELAYS
RELAYS
A PRESENTATION BY
A PRESENTATION BY
OS DEPARTMENT
OS DEPARTMENT
ER
ER-
-II,KOLKATA
II,KOLKATA
FOREWORD
FOREWORD

 Gazette Notification from GOI dated
Gazette Notification from GOI dated
09.03.2007 regarding Grid
09.03.2007 regarding Grid
connectivity standards applicable to
connectivity standards applicable to
Transmission lines  substation
Transmission lines  substation-
-
Part
Part-
-III(3) stipulates that:
III(3) stipulates that:
“Two Main Numerical Distance
“Two Main Numerical Distance
“Two Main Numerical Distance
“Two Main Numerical Distance
protection scheme shall be provided
protection scheme shall be provided
on all the Transmission Lines of
on all the Transmission Lines of
220KV  above for all new
220KV  above for all new
substations. For existing
substations. For existing
substations,this shall be
substations,this shall be
implemented in a reasonable time
implemented in a reasonable time
frame”
frame”
POWERGRID’s compliance
POWERGRID’s compliance

 “Technology made large populations
“Technology made large populations
possible; large populations now make
possible; large populations now make
technology indispensable
technology indispensable

 POWERGRID is extensively using
POWERGRID is extensively using
Numerical relays for protection schemes of
Numerical relays for protection schemes of
all new Lines  substations.
all new Lines  substations.

 All regional OS departments have
All regional OS departments have
undertaken retrofitting of old relays with
undertaken retrofitting of old relays with
All regional OS departments have
All regional OS departments have
undertaken retrofitting of old relays with
undertaken retrofitting of old relays with
New generation Numerical relays.
New generation Numerical relays.

 POWERGRID,ER
POWERGRID,ER-
-II has completed 1
II has completed 1st
st
stage of retrofitting of Numerical distance
stage of retrofitting of Numerical distance
protection. The work for the 2
protection. The work for the 2nd
nd stage is
stage is
presently being executed.
presently being executed.

 Old static type differential relays for all EHV
Old static type differential relays for all EHV
Transformers are also being retrofitted with
Transformers are also being retrofitted with
New Numerical differential protection.
New Numerical differential protection.
ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES
 Improves dependability as well
as security
 Has Self checking facility
Offers Very low burden
 Offers Very low burden
 More flexible because of
programmable capability
 Adaptive relaying schemes
 Permit Historical data storage
ADVANTAGES…Contd.
ADVANTAGES…Contd.
 Fiber optical communication with
substation LAN
 Allow GPS (Geographical
Positioning System) Time stamping
Positioning System) Time stamping
 Numerical relays simplify interfacing
with CTs and VTs
 Separate connection is not required,
zero sequence voltages and currents
can be derived inside the processor
ENGINEERS CHOICE
ENGINEERS CHOICE
 Numerical relays represent
best compromise between:
a) Economy and performance
Dependability and security
b) Dependability and security
c) Complexity and simplicity
d) Speed and accuracy
e) Credible and conceivable
COMPARISON STATEMENT
COMPARISON STATEMENT
Numerical Distance Relay
Numerical Distance Relay
main functions
main functions
A single Numerical distance relay
has:
 Distance protection
 Power swing Blocking
 Switch on to fault
 Switch on to fault
 Phase-fault (highset) overcurrent
protection
 Directional earth-fault protection
 Sensitive earth-fault protection
 Overvoltage and undervoltage
protection
SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
 Broken conductor detection - To
detect network faults such as open
circuits, where a conductor may be
broken but not in contact with
another conductor or the earth.
another conductor or the earth.
 Circuit breaker failure protection -
Generally set to back-trip upstream
circuit breakers, should the circuit
breaker at the protected terminal fail
to trip.
Numerical Distance protection
Numerical Distance protection
Other functions
Other functions
Control
Control
 Autoreclose
 Check synchronising
Monitoring
Monitoring
 Voltage transformer supervision
System data
 Sequence of event records
 Fault records
 Disturbance recorder
Existing Numerical Distance
Existing Numerical Distance
protection in POWERGRID
protection in POWERGRID-
-ER
ER-
-II
II
Application_of_numerical_distance_relay.pdf
Numerical Differential relay
Numerical Differential relay
main functions
main functions
A single Numerical differential relay
has:

 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
…
…Matching to the vector group
…Stabilization under inrush
(eg:based on the presence of second
harmonic components
harmonic components
…Stabilization under overfluxing
conditions
(eg:based on the ratio of the fifth harmonic
the ratio of the fifth harmonic
to the fundamental wave)
to the fundamental wave)
 RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT
PROTECTION
 DEFINITE TIME AND INVERSE TIME
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Numerical Differential protection
Numerical Differential protection
main functions…Contd.
main functions…Contd.
 THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTION
 OVER-/UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
 OVER-/UNDERFREQUENCY PROTECTION
 OVEREXCITATION PROTECTION
…Overexcitation protection detects
…Overexcitation protection detects
impermissible high magnetic flux densitiy in
the iron core of power transformers in case of
increase in voltage and/or decrease in
frequency. Flux density above the rated value
saturates the iron core  result in power
transformer overheating due to large iron
losses.
Numerical Differential
Numerical Differential
protection:Other functions
protection:Other functions
Monitoring
 Voltage transformer
supervision
System data
System data
 Sequence of event records
 Fault records
 Disturbance recorder
Existing Numerical Differential
Existing Numerical Differential
protection in POWERGRID
protection in POWERGRID-
-ER
ER-
-II
II
MICOM P-633
RET-670
RET-670
7UT613
A TOOL TO SYSTEM
A TOOL TO SYSTEM
ENGINEERS
ENGINEERS

 Numerical relays provide comprehensive
Numerical relays provide comprehensive
fault reporting data for the analysis of
fault reporting data for the analysis of
power system faults and relay operations.
power system faults and relay operations.

 Valuable information from relays
Valuable information from relays
throughout their grid may be gathered.
throughout their grid may be gathered.
After a fault, most precise fault location can
After a fault, most precise fault location can

 After a fault, most precise fault location can
After a fault, most precise fault location can
be reached to narrow the search for
be reached to narrow the search for
possible damage on the line and to cut the
possible damage on the line and to cut the
down time for restoration.
down time for restoration.

 Software system for relay fault records can
Software system for relay fault records can
provide the desired precision to the utility
provide the desired precision to the utility
personnel.
personnel.
FAULT STUDY
FAULT STUDY
Disturbance report
Disturbance report-
-1
1

 Complete and reliable
Complete and reliable
information about disturbances
information about disturbances
in the primary and/or in the
in the primary and/or in the
secondary system together with
secondary system together with
continuous event
continuous event-
-logging is
logging is
accomplished by the
accomplished by the
accomplished by the
accomplished by the
disturbance report functionality.
disturbance report functionality.

 The disturbance report, included
The disturbance report, included
in the IED, acquires sampled
in the IED, acquires sampled
data of all selected analogue
data of all selected analogue
input and binary signals
input and binary signals
connected to the function block
connected to the function block
Disturbance report
Disturbance report-
-2
2

 Any change in Digital Inputs or
Any change in Digital Inputs or
Analog Thresholds function
Analog Thresholds function
blocks may be set to trigger the
blocks may be set to trigger the
disturbance recorder
disturbance recorder.
.

 All signals from start of pre
All signals from start of pre-
-fault
fault

 All signals from start of pre
All signals from start of pre-
-fault
fault
time to the end of post
time to the end of post-
-fault
fault
time, will be in the recording.
time, will be in the recording.

 Every disturbance report
Every disturbance report
recording is saved in the IED in
recording is saved in the IED in
the standard formats.
the standard formats.
Event recorder
Event recorder

 Quick, complete and reliable
Quick, complete and reliable
information about disturbances
information about disturbances
in the primary and/or in the
in the primary and/or in the
secondary system is vital e.g.
secondary system is vital e.g.
time tagged events logged
time tagged events logged
during disturbances.
during disturbances.
during disturbances.
during disturbances.

 This information is used for
This information is used for
different purposes in the short
different purposes in the short
term (e.g. corrective actions)
term (e.g. corrective actions)
and in the long term (e.g.
and in the long term (e.g.
Functional Analysis).
Functional Analysis).
Time synchronization
Time synchronization

 Time synchronization source
Time synchronization source
selector selects a common
selector selects a common
source of absolute time for the
source of absolute time for the
IED.
IED.

 This makes comparison of
This makes comparison of

 This makes comparison of
This makes comparison of
events and disturbance data
events and disturbance data
between all IEDs possible.
between all IEDs possible.

 It is done now with the IRIG
It is done now with the IRIG-
-B
B
Protocol available with the GPS
Protocol available with the GPS
Clock.
Clock.
STATION COMMUNICATION
STATION COMMUNICATION

 Each IED is provided with a communication
Each IED is provided with a communication
interface, enabling it to connect to one or
interface, enabling it to connect to one or
many substation level systems or equipment,
many substation level systems or equipment,
either on the Substation Automation (SA)
either on the Substation Automation (SA)
bus or Substation Monitoring (SM) bus.
bus or Substation Monitoring (SM) bus.

 IEC 60870
IEC 60870-
-5
5-
-103 communication protocol
103 communication protocol
A single glass or plastic port allows design
A single glass or plastic port allows design
of simple substation automation systems
of simple substation automation systems
including equipment from different vendors.
including equipment from different vendors.
including equipment from different vendors.
including equipment from different vendors.
Disturbance files uploading is provided.
Disturbance files uploading is provided.

 IEC 61850
IEC 61850-
-8
8-
-1 communication protocol
1 communication protocol
Single or double optical Ethernet ports for
Single or double optical Ethernet ports for
the new substation communication standard
the new substation communication standard
IEC61850
IEC61850-
-8
8-
-1 allows intelligent devices
1 allows intelligent devices
(IEDs) from different vendors to exchange
(IEDs) from different vendors to exchange
information and simplifies SA engineering.
information and simplifies SA engineering.
Return on Investment
Return on Investment

 Investing on Numerical relays
Investing on Numerical relays
has greater return as it was not
has greater return as it was not
required to invest for discrete
required to invest for discrete
relays line OV/UV,LBB,AR,
relays line OV/UV,LBB,AR,
FL,DR etc.
FL,DR etc.
FL,DR etc.
FL,DR etc.

 Failure Rate of Numerical relays
Failure Rate of Numerical relays
in POWERGRID has been very
in POWERGRID has been very
small, requiring less
small, requiring less
maintenance cost.
maintenance cost.
Return on Investment
Return on Investment
A simple example.
A simple example.

 As per the New tariff regime, Outage of a
As per the New tariff regime, Outage of a
420/220/33 KV 315MVA Autotransformer
420/220/33 KV 315MVA Autotransformer
results a monetary loss of Rs. 2.5L per
results a monetary loss of Rs. 2.5L per
Day.
Day.

 Tripping in case of even for extraneous
Tripping in case of even for extraneous
reasons  not on Transformer fault follows
reasons  not on Transformer fault follows
Health check test program,requiring a full
Health check test program,requiring a full
reasons  not on Transformer fault follows
reasons  not on Transformer fault follows
Health check test program,requiring a full
Health check test program,requiring a full
day.
day.

 DR print, if available may help detect the
DR print, if available may help detect the
above  Transformers can be restored
above  Transformers can be restored
within 10
within 10-
-15 Minutes.
15 Minutes.

 A single event of that order may render
A single event of that order may render
saving of the amount invested for a new
saving of the amount invested for a new
Numerical differential protection
Numerical differential protection
POWERGRID  NUMERICAL
POWERGRID  NUMERICAL
RELAYS
RELAYS
 “Technology does not drive
change -- it enables change

 All new substations in POWERGRID
All new substations in POWERGRID
are coming with Substation
are coming with Substation
Automation,which inevitably comes
Automation,which inevitably comes
Automation,which inevitably comes
Automation,which inevitably comes
with numerical relays with IEC61850
with numerical relays with IEC61850
Communication protocol.
Communication protocol.

 Automation alongwith Numerical
Automation alongwith Numerical
relays eventually results in cost
relays eventually results in cost
effectiveness as well as Better grid
effectiveness as well as Better grid
security.
security.
TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE
SUBSTATION AUTOMATION SYSTEM IN
POWERGRID
POWERGRID  NUMERICAL
POWERGRID  NUMERICAL
RELAYS.. Cond.
RELAYS.. Cond.

 “Once a new technology rolls over you, if
“Once a new technology rolls over you, if
you're not part of the steamroller, you're
you're not part of the steamroller, you're
part of the road
part of the road

 For Older stations, POWERGRID is
For Older stations, POWERGRID is
replacing old  obsolete relays with
replacing old  obsolete relays with
numerical relays.
numerical relays.
numerical relays.
numerical relays.

 Competitive bidding for Numerical distance
Competitive bidding for Numerical distance
relays has resulted an average cost of Rs.
relays has resulted an average cost of Rs.
1.5L per relay for the retrofitting work.
1.5L per relay for the retrofitting work.

 In a few cases, repairing of old relays has
In a few cases, repairing of old relays has
been found costlier than retrofitting with a
been found costlier than retrofitting with a
new numerical relays.
new numerical relays.
ADAPTATION
ADAPTATION

 “Our very survival depends on our ability to
“Our very survival depends on our ability to
stay awake, to adjust to new ideas, to
stay awake, to adjust to new ideas, to
remain vigilant and to face the challenge of
remain vigilant and to face the challenge of
change”
change”

 Control  relay schemes usually came
Control  relay schemes usually came
from OEM’s like ABB,AREVA,
from OEM’s like ABB,AREVA,
SIEMENS,ER etc .
SIEMENS,ER etc .
SIEMENS,ER etc .
SIEMENS,ER etc .

 POWERGRID has achieved expertise in
POWERGRID has achieved expertise in
adaptation of Numerical relay of Make say
adaptation of Numerical relay of Make say
“X” to be installed in the CR scheme of
“X” to be installed in the CR scheme of
Make “Y
Make “Y”.
”.

 However, problem of Lower Making
However, problem of Lower Making
capacity of the Numerical relays in
capacity of the Numerical relays in
comparison to the old distance relay had to
comparison to the old distance relay had to
be solved by incorporating CMR’s of
be solved by incorporating CMR’s of
suitable capacity.
suitable capacity.
LASTWORD
LASTWORD

 “Science and technology
“Science and technology
revolutionize our lives, but
revolutionize our lives, but
memory, tradition and myth
memory, tradition and myth
frame our response.”
frame our response.”

 Numerical relays are here as the
Numerical relays are here as the
best available technology
best available technology
best available technology
best available technology
product as on date.
product as on date.

 The advantages are many 
The advantages are many 
nobody can deny that the
nobody can deny that the
Numerical relays came to stay
Numerical relays came to stay
for years until a further better
for years until a further better
product replaces them.
product replaces them.
Application_of_numerical_distance_relay.pdf

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Application_of_numerical_distance_relay.pdf

  • 1. APPLICATION OF APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL DISTANCE NUMERICAL DISTANCE RELAYS RELAYS A PRESENTATION BY A PRESENTATION BY OS DEPARTMENT OS DEPARTMENT ER ER- -II,KOLKATA II,KOLKATA
  • 2. FOREWORD FOREWORD Gazette Notification from GOI dated Gazette Notification from GOI dated 09.03.2007 regarding Grid 09.03.2007 regarding Grid connectivity standards applicable to connectivity standards applicable to Transmission lines substation Transmission lines substation- - Part Part- -III(3) stipulates that: III(3) stipulates that: “Two Main Numerical Distance “Two Main Numerical Distance “Two Main Numerical Distance “Two Main Numerical Distance protection scheme shall be provided protection scheme shall be provided on all the Transmission Lines of on all the Transmission Lines of 220KV above for all new 220KV above for all new substations. For existing substations. For existing substations,this shall be substations,this shall be implemented in a reasonable time implemented in a reasonable time frame” frame”
  • 3. POWERGRID’s compliance POWERGRID’s compliance “Technology made large populations “Technology made large populations possible; large populations now make possible; large populations now make technology indispensable technology indispensable POWERGRID is extensively using POWERGRID is extensively using Numerical relays for protection schemes of Numerical relays for protection schemes of all new Lines substations. all new Lines substations. All regional OS departments have All regional OS departments have undertaken retrofitting of old relays with undertaken retrofitting of old relays with All regional OS departments have All regional OS departments have undertaken retrofitting of old relays with undertaken retrofitting of old relays with New generation Numerical relays. New generation Numerical relays. POWERGRID,ER POWERGRID,ER- -II has completed 1 II has completed 1st st stage of retrofitting of Numerical distance stage of retrofitting of Numerical distance protection. The work for the 2 protection. The work for the 2nd nd stage is stage is presently being executed. presently being executed. Old static type differential relays for all EHV Old static type differential relays for all EHV Transformers are also being retrofitted with Transformers are also being retrofitted with New Numerical differential protection. New Numerical differential protection.
  • 4. ADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES Improves dependability as well as security Has Self checking facility Offers Very low burden Offers Very low burden More flexible because of programmable capability Adaptive relaying schemes Permit Historical data storage
  • 5. ADVANTAGES…Contd. ADVANTAGES…Contd. Fiber optical communication with substation LAN Allow GPS (Geographical Positioning System) Time stamping Positioning System) Time stamping Numerical relays simplify interfacing with CTs and VTs Separate connection is not required, zero sequence voltages and currents can be derived inside the processor
  • 6. ENGINEERS CHOICE ENGINEERS CHOICE Numerical relays represent best compromise between: a) Economy and performance Dependability and security b) Dependability and security c) Complexity and simplicity d) Speed and accuracy e) Credible and conceivable
  • 8. Numerical Distance Relay Numerical Distance Relay main functions main functions A single Numerical distance relay has: Distance protection Power swing Blocking Switch on to fault Switch on to fault Phase-fault (highset) overcurrent protection Directional earth-fault protection Sensitive earth-fault protection Overvoltage and undervoltage protection
  • 9. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS SPECIAL FUNCTIONS Broken conductor detection - To detect network faults such as open circuits, where a conductor may be broken but not in contact with another conductor or the earth. another conductor or the earth. Circuit breaker failure protection - Generally set to back-trip upstream circuit breakers, should the circuit breaker at the protected terminal fail to trip.
  • 10. Numerical Distance protection Numerical Distance protection Other functions Other functions Control Control Autoreclose Check synchronising Monitoring Monitoring Voltage transformer supervision System data Sequence of event records Fault records Disturbance recorder
  • 11. Existing Numerical Distance Existing Numerical Distance protection in POWERGRID protection in POWERGRID- -ER ER- -II II
  • 13. Numerical Differential relay Numerical Differential relay main functions main functions A single Numerical differential relay has: DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION … …Matching to the vector group …Stabilization under inrush (eg:based on the presence of second harmonic components harmonic components …Stabilization under overfluxing conditions (eg:based on the ratio of the fifth harmonic the ratio of the fifth harmonic to the fundamental wave) to the fundamental wave) RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION DEFINITE TIME AND INVERSE TIME OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
  • 14. Numerical Differential protection Numerical Differential protection main functions…Contd. main functions…Contd. THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTION OVER-/UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION OVER-/UNDERFREQUENCY PROTECTION OVEREXCITATION PROTECTION …Overexcitation protection detects …Overexcitation protection detects impermissible high magnetic flux densitiy in the iron core of power transformers in case of increase in voltage and/or decrease in frequency. Flux density above the rated value saturates the iron core result in power transformer overheating due to large iron losses.
  • 15. Numerical Differential Numerical Differential protection:Other functions protection:Other functions Monitoring Voltage transformer supervision System data System data Sequence of event records Fault records Disturbance recorder
  • 16. Existing Numerical Differential Existing Numerical Differential protection in POWERGRID protection in POWERGRID- -ER ER- -II II MICOM P-633 RET-670 RET-670 7UT613
  • 17. A TOOL TO SYSTEM A TOOL TO SYSTEM ENGINEERS ENGINEERS Numerical relays provide comprehensive Numerical relays provide comprehensive fault reporting data for the analysis of fault reporting data for the analysis of power system faults and relay operations. power system faults and relay operations. Valuable information from relays Valuable information from relays throughout their grid may be gathered. throughout their grid may be gathered. After a fault, most precise fault location can After a fault, most precise fault location can After a fault, most precise fault location can After a fault, most precise fault location can be reached to narrow the search for be reached to narrow the search for possible damage on the line and to cut the possible damage on the line and to cut the down time for restoration. down time for restoration. Software system for relay fault records can Software system for relay fault records can provide the desired precision to the utility provide the desired precision to the utility personnel. personnel.
  • 19. Disturbance report Disturbance report- -1 1 Complete and reliable Complete and reliable information about disturbances information about disturbances in the primary and/or in the in the primary and/or in the secondary system together with secondary system together with continuous event continuous event- -logging is logging is accomplished by the accomplished by the accomplished by the accomplished by the disturbance report functionality. disturbance report functionality. The disturbance report, included The disturbance report, included in the IED, acquires sampled in the IED, acquires sampled data of all selected analogue data of all selected analogue input and binary signals input and binary signals connected to the function block connected to the function block
  • 20. Disturbance report Disturbance report- -2 2 Any change in Digital Inputs or Any change in Digital Inputs or Analog Thresholds function Analog Thresholds function blocks may be set to trigger the blocks may be set to trigger the disturbance recorder disturbance recorder. . All signals from start of pre All signals from start of pre- -fault fault All signals from start of pre All signals from start of pre- -fault fault time to the end of post time to the end of post- -fault fault time, will be in the recording. time, will be in the recording. Every disturbance report Every disturbance report recording is saved in the IED in recording is saved in the IED in the standard formats. the standard formats.
  • 21. Event recorder Event recorder Quick, complete and reliable Quick, complete and reliable information about disturbances information about disturbances in the primary and/or in the in the primary and/or in the secondary system is vital e.g. secondary system is vital e.g. time tagged events logged time tagged events logged during disturbances. during disturbances. during disturbances. during disturbances. This information is used for This information is used for different purposes in the short different purposes in the short term (e.g. corrective actions) term (e.g. corrective actions) and in the long term (e.g. and in the long term (e.g. Functional Analysis). Functional Analysis).
  • 22. Time synchronization Time synchronization Time synchronization source Time synchronization source selector selects a common selector selects a common source of absolute time for the source of absolute time for the IED. IED. This makes comparison of This makes comparison of This makes comparison of This makes comparison of events and disturbance data events and disturbance data between all IEDs possible. between all IEDs possible. It is done now with the IRIG It is done now with the IRIG- -B B Protocol available with the GPS Protocol available with the GPS Clock. Clock.
  • 23. STATION COMMUNICATION STATION COMMUNICATION Each IED is provided with a communication Each IED is provided with a communication interface, enabling it to connect to one or interface, enabling it to connect to one or many substation level systems or equipment, many substation level systems or equipment, either on the Substation Automation (SA) either on the Substation Automation (SA) bus or Substation Monitoring (SM) bus. bus or Substation Monitoring (SM) bus. IEC 60870 IEC 60870- -5 5- -103 communication protocol 103 communication protocol A single glass or plastic port allows design A single glass or plastic port allows design of simple substation automation systems of simple substation automation systems including equipment from different vendors. including equipment from different vendors. including equipment from different vendors. including equipment from different vendors. Disturbance files uploading is provided. Disturbance files uploading is provided. IEC 61850 IEC 61850- -8 8- -1 communication protocol 1 communication protocol Single or double optical Ethernet ports for Single or double optical Ethernet ports for the new substation communication standard the new substation communication standard IEC61850 IEC61850- -8 8- -1 allows intelligent devices 1 allows intelligent devices (IEDs) from different vendors to exchange (IEDs) from different vendors to exchange information and simplifies SA engineering. information and simplifies SA engineering.
  • 24. Return on Investment Return on Investment Investing on Numerical relays Investing on Numerical relays has greater return as it was not has greater return as it was not required to invest for discrete required to invest for discrete relays line OV/UV,LBB,AR, relays line OV/UV,LBB,AR, FL,DR etc. FL,DR etc. FL,DR etc. FL,DR etc. Failure Rate of Numerical relays Failure Rate of Numerical relays in POWERGRID has been very in POWERGRID has been very small, requiring less small, requiring less maintenance cost. maintenance cost.
  • 25. Return on Investment Return on Investment A simple example. A simple example. As per the New tariff regime, Outage of a As per the New tariff regime, Outage of a 420/220/33 KV 315MVA Autotransformer 420/220/33 KV 315MVA Autotransformer results a monetary loss of Rs. 2.5L per results a monetary loss of Rs. 2.5L per Day. Day. Tripping in case of even for extraneous Tripping in case of even for extraneous reasons not on Transformer fault follows reasons not on Transformer fault follows Health check test program,requiring a full Health check test program,requiring a full reasons not on Transformer fault follows reasons not on Transformer fault follows Health check test program,requiring a full Health check test program,requiring a full day. day. DR print, if available may help detect the DR print, if available may help detect the above Transformers can be restored above Transformers can be restored within 10 within 10- -15 Minutes. 15 Minutes. A single event of that order may render A single event of that order may render saving of the amount invested for a new saving of the amount invested for a new Numerical differential protection Numerical differential protection
  • 26. POWERGRID NUMERICAL POWERGRID NUMERICAL RELAYS RELAYS “Technology does not drive change -- it enables change All new substations in POWERGRID All new substations in POWERGRID are coming with Substation are coming with Substation Automation,which inevitably comes Automation,which inevitably comes Automation,which inevitably comes Automation,which inevitably comes with numerical relays with IEC61850 with numerical relays with IEC61850 Communication protocol. Communication protocol. Automation alongwith Numerical Automation alongwith Numerical relays eventually results in cost relays eventually results in cost effectiveness as well as Better grid effectiveness as well as Better grid security. security.
  • 28. POWERGRID NUMERICAL POWERGRID NUMERICAL RELAYS.. Cond. RELAYS.. Cond. “Once a new technology rolls over you, if “Once a new technology rolls over you, if you're not part of the steamroller, you're you're not part of the steamroller, you're part of the road part of the road For Older stations, POWERGRID is For Older stations, POWERGRID is replacing old obsolete relays with replacing old obsolete relays with numerical relays. numerical relays. numerical relays. numerical relays. Competitive bidding for Numerical distance Competitive bidding for Numerical distance relays has resulted an average cost of Rs. relays has resulted an average cost of Rs. 1.5L per relay for the retrofitting work. 1.5L per relay for the retrofitting work. In a few cases, repairing of old relays has In a few cases, repairing of old relays has been found costlier than retrofitting with a been found costlier than retrofitting with a new numerical relays. new numerical relays.
  • 29. ADAPTATION ADAPTATION “Our very survival depends on our ability to “Our very survival depends on our ability to stay awake, to adjust to new ideas, to stay awake, to adjust to new ideas, to remain vigilant and to face the challenge of remain vigilant and to face the challenge of change” change” Control relay schemes usually came Control relay schemes usually came from OEM’s like ABB,AREVA, from OEM’s like ABB,AREVA, SIEMENS,ER etc . SIEMENS,ER etc . SIEMENS,ER etc . SIEMENS,ER etc . POWERGRID has achieved expertise in POWERGRID has achieved expertise in adaptation of Numerical relay of Make say adaptation of Numerical relay of Make say “X” to be installed in the CR scheme of “X” to be installed in the CR scheme of Make “Y Make “Y”. ”. However, problem of Lower Making However, problem of Lower Making capacity of the Numerical relays in capacity of the Numerical relays in comparison to the old distance relay had to comparison to the old distance relay had to be solved by incorporating CMR’s of be solved by incorporating CMR’s of suitable capacity. suitable capacity.
  • 30. LASTWORD LASTWORD “Science and technology “Science and technology revolutionize our lives, but revolutionize our lives, but memory, tradition and myth memory, tradition and myth frame our response.” frame our response.” Numerical relays are here as the Numerical relays are here as the best available technology best available technology best available technology best available technology product as on date. product as on date. The advantages are many The advantages are many nobody can deny that the nobody can deny that the Numerical relays came to stay Numerical relays came to stay for years until a further better for years until a further better product replaces them. product replaces them.