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Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy   Chordate Origins & Phylogeny   Presented  by: Geonyzl Lepiten
<ul><li>Comparative vertebrate anatomy - the study of structure, of the function of structure, & of the range of variation...
Vertebrate characteristics:   <ul><li>1 - notochord (at least in the embryo)  </li></ul><ul><li>2 - pharynx with pouches o...
<ul><li>Notochord  = rod of living cells ventral to central nervous system & dorsal to alimentary canal  </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Adults:  </li></ul><ul><li>Fishes & amphibians - notochord persists the length of the trunk & tail but is constric...
<ul><li>Pharynx  - region of alimentary canal exhibiting pharyngeal pouches in embryo; pouches may open to the exterior as...
<ul><li>Dorsal, hollow central nervous system - consists of brain &  spinal cord  & contains a central cavity (called the ...
Vertebrate beginnings
<ul><li>Among the oldest & best known  </li></ul><ul><li>=  ostracoderms   </li></ul><ul><li>fishes that occurred in the l...
<ul><li>Before ostracoderms?  </li></ul><ul><li>Myllokunmingia   fengjiaoa  (pictured below) &  Haikouichthys   ercaicunen...
Before Vertebrates?  <ul><li>Cathaymyrus   diadexus   (literally the 'Chinese eel of good fortune')  </li></ul><ul><li>= i...
Cathaymyrus
<ul><li>Phylum  Chordata  - established in 1874 & included organisms with:  </li></ul><ul><li>1 - notochord  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Subphylum  Urochordata  =  tunicates   </li></ul><ul><li>Chordate 'ancestor' of vertebrates:  </li></ul><ul><ul><u...
Tunicate anatomy Larval stage of the  tunicate
Subphylum  Cephalochordata = Amphioxus (or Branchiostoma)  <ul><li>Vertebrate features :  </li></ul><ul><li>notochord  </l...
Hemichordates  = acorn worms  <ul><li>Bateson added acorn worms to the phylum Chordata in 1884 because they have:  </li></...
<ul><li>Possible invertebrate ancestors:  </li></ul><ul><li>1 -  annelid worms      </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence for: </li><...
<ul><li>2 -  echinodermata  - chordate characteristics include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>radial cleavage - blastomeres in adj...
<ul><li>Phylum:  Chordata   Subphylum: Vertebrata  Superclass:  Pisces   </li></ul><ul><li>Class  Agnatha   Class  Placode...
<ul><li>Agnathans vs. Gnathostomes:   </li></ul><ul><li>semicircular canals  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agnathans have 1 or 2  ...
<ul><li>Class Agnatha   </li></ul><ul><li>Orders:  </li></ul><ul><li>1 -  Osteostraci  2 - Anaspida  </li></ul><ul><li>3 -...
<ul><li>Ostracoderms (Osteostraci, Anaspida, Heterostraci, & Coelolepid):  </li></ul><ul><li>1 - extinct Paleozoic (Cambri...
<ul><li>Cyclostomes  (Petromyzontia & Myxinoidea):  </li></ul><ul><li>Lampreys  - parasitic with horny, rasping teeth (see...
<ul><li>Gnathostomes   </li></ul><ul><li>Acanthodians:   </li></ul><ul><li>1 - earliest known gnathostomes ( Silurian ; ab...
<ul><li>Class  Placodermii :   </li></ul><ul><li>1 - Silurian (about 420 million years before present) 2 - probably off th...
Vertebrate Eggs
Types  Eggs <ul><li>Alecithal = Eggs  with  little  yolk </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Amphioxus  egg </li></ul><ul><li>b. Mesolec...
<ul><li>C. Megalecithal = massive amount of  yolk </li></ul><ul><li>ex.  Monotremes </li></ul><ul><li>marine lampreys </li...
Types of  distribution of  yolk <ul><li>Isolecithal = even distribution of  yolk </li></ul><ul><li>present in alecithal  e...
Oviparity and Viviparity <ul><li>vivipary : the embryo develops inside the body of the mother and  living  young is  deliv...
<ul><li>:developing fetuses of viviparous animals are connected to a  placenta  in the mother's body  </li></ul><ul><li>Eg...
<ul><li>ovoviviparity   : animals  develop within  eggs  that remain within the mother's body up until they hatch or are a...
In fertilization: <ul><li>Gametes are  essential in fertilizing the  eggs </li></ul><ul><li>- sperm which came from the ma...
Cleavage <ul><li>The  fertilized egg (zygote) is  transformed  by  cell division (cleavage) into a  mutlicellular  cells c...
 
 
<ul><li>In microlecithal eggs  like in  amphioxus have  total or  holoblastic cleavage (the  cleavage  furrows the  entire...
<ul><li>In mesolecithal egg like in  frog have a total  but  unequal cleavage </li></ul><ul><li>Blastomere near the  veget...
 
<ul><li>Macrolecithal egg have unequal and partial or meroblastic cleavage </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to the relatively sma...
Fish  blastula
Grastula
Gastrula <ul><li>When the  blastula developed into an embryo </li></ul><ul><li>= at first  the  gastrula has two germ laye...
Neurulation and Neural Crest <ul><li>Neurulation  is  a process to convert the  gastrula into  neurula . </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>The neural plate folds in upon itself to form the  neural tube , which will later differentiate into the  spinal c...
<ul><li>Neurulation in vertebrates results in the formation of the  neural tube , which gives rise to both the spinal cord...
<ul><li>1. Neurulation begins with the formation of a  neural plate , a thickening of the ectoderm caused when cuboidal ep...
 
 
Organogenesis <ul><li>Organogenesis is the period of animal development during which the embryo is becoming a fully functi...
 
 
The  endoderm  produces tissue within the  lungs ,  thyroid , and  pancreas . The  mesoderm  aids in the production of  ca...
<ul><li>Organogenesis from  Ectoderm </li></ul><ul><li>1.  From Somatic Ectoderm </li></ul><ul><li>- epidermis of  skin </...
<ul><li>2. Neural  Plate  ectoderm </li></ul><ul><li>- Brain and Spinal Cord </li></ul><ul><li>3. Epidermal Placodes </li>...
<ul><li>4. Neural Crest </li></ul><ul><li>- Spinal  Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>- Splanchnocranium </li></ul><ul><li>- Neuro...
Organogenesis From the  mesoderm <ul><li>Epimere (dermatome) – Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Epimere (myotome) – Axial Muscle <...
<ul><li>5. Intermediate  mesoderm (Mesomere) </li></ul><ul><li>-kidney and  Urogenital ducts </li></ul><ul><li>6. Somatic ...
<ul><li>7. Splanchnic hypomere </li></ul><ul><li>- Blood  </li></ul><ul><li>- heart </li></ul><ul><li>- gut </li></ul><ul>...
Organogenesis of the  Endoderm <ul><li>1. Foregut – Oral Cavity   - Gill Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>- nasal cavity  - Lu...
The End of the  Chapter
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Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

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comparison of the vertabrates through lineage, and the types of eggs

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Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

  1. 1. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Chordate Origins & Phylogeny Presented by: Geonyzl Lepiten
  2. 2. <ul><li>Comparative vertebrate anatomy - the study of structure, of the function of structure, & of the range of variation in structure & function among vertebrates: </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum: Vertebrata </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vertebrate characteristics: <ul><li>1 - notochord (at least in the embryo) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - pharynx with pouches or slits in wall (at least in the embryo) </li></ul><ul><li>3 - dorsal, hollow nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>4 - vertebral column </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Notochord = rod of living cells ventral to central nervous system & dorsal to alimentary canal </li></ul><ul><li>Fate of notochord during development: </li></ul><ul><li>Head region - incorporated into floor of skull </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk & tail - surrounded by cartilaginous or bony vertebrate (except in Agnathans) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Adults: </li></ul><ul><li>Fishes & amphibians - notochord persists the length of the trunk & tail but is constricted within the centrum of each vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>Reptiles, birds, & mammals - notochord almost disappears during development (e.g., remains as a pulpy nucleus in the vertebrae of mammals) </li></ul><ul><li>Protochordates - notochord remains as the chief axial skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Agnathans - lateral neural cartilages are located on notochord lateral to the spinal cord </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Pharynx - region of alimentary canal exhibiting pharyngeal pouches in embryo; pouches may open to the exterior as slits : </li></ul><ul><li>permanent slits - adults that live in water & breathe via gills </li></ul><ul><li>temporary slits - adults live on land </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Dorsal, hollow central nervous system - consists of brain & spinal cord & contains a central cavity (called the neurocoel) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vertebrate beginnings
  9. 9. <ul><li>Among the oldest & best known </li></ul><ul><li>= ostracoderms </li></ul><ul><li>fishes that occurred in the late Cambrian period (see The Cambrian Explosion ) through the Devonian (about 400 - 525 million years before present) </li></ul><ul><li>had bony plates and scales (&, therefore, were easily fossilized) </li></ul><ul><li>jawless vertebrates called 'armored fishes' </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Before ostracoderms? </li></ul><ul><li>Myllokunmingia fengjiaoa (pictured below) & Haikouichthys ercaicunensis - primitive fish that have many similarities to living hagfishes and are the oldest vertebrates (530 mybf) ever found. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Before Vertebrates? <ul><li>Cathaymyrus diadexus (literally the 'Chinese eel of good fortune') </li></ul><ul><li>= is not the fossil of an eel. At just 5 cm long, but 535 m.y. old, it is the earliest known chordate. </li></ul><ul><li>= Researchers think that Cathaymyrus is a fossil relative of modern lancelets (amphioxus). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cathaymyrus
  13. 13. <ul><li>Phylum Chordata - established in 1874 & included organisms with: </li></ul><ul><li>1 - notochord </li></ul><ul><li>2 - pharyngeal pouches or slits </li></ul><ul><li>3 - dorsal, hollow nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>4 - cells that produce the hormone thyroxine </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Subphylum Urochordata = tunicates </li></ul><ul><li>Chordate 'ancestor' of vertebrates: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sessile (like adult tunicates) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tail evolved as adaptation in larvae to increase mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>'higher forms' - came about by retention of tail (neoteny) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunicate larva - also called 'sea squirt' </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>notochord is confined to the tail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>notochord is lost during metamorphosis into sessile adult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>possess pharyngeal slits </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Tunicate anatomy Larval stage of the tunicate
  16. 16. Subphylum Cephalochordata = Amphioxus (or Branchiostoma) <ul><li>Vertebrate features : </li></ul><ul><li>notochord </li></ul><ul><li>dorsal, hollow nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>pharyngeal gill slits </li></ul><ul><li>'circulatory' system - vertebrate pattern with 'pumping vessels' (but no heart) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hemichordates = acorn worms <ul><li>Bateson added acorn worms to the phylum Chordata in 1884 because they have: </li></ul><ul><li>1 - a dorsal, hollow nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>2 - gill slits </li></ul><ul><li>3 - a short diverticulum of the gut called the stomochord </li></ul><ul><li>Present consensus = the stomochord is not homologous with the notochord and Hemichordates are placed in a separate phylum </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Possible invertebrate ancestors: </li></ul><ul><li>1 - annelid worms   </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bilateral symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segmented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>central nervous system with brain & longitudinal nerve cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence against: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nerve cord is solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nerve cord is ventral </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>2 - echinodermata - chordate characteristics include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>radial cleavage - blastomeres in adjacent tiers lie directly above one another (as opposed to spiral cleavage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anus forms near or at blastopore (deuterostomous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mesoderm arises as outpocketing of the gut wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indeterminate cleavage (i.e., fate of blastomeres isn't predetermined) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Superclass: Pisces </li></ul><ul><li>Class Agnatha Class Placodermii Class Chondricthyes Class Acanthodii Class Osteichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>Superclass: Tetrapoda </li></ul><ul><li>Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves Class Mammalia </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Agnathans vs. Gnathostomes: </li></ul><ul><li>semicircular canals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agnathans have 1 or 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gnathostomes have 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>jointed, paired lateral appendages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agnathans have none </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gnathostomes do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>jaws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agnathans have none </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gnathostomes do </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Class Agnatha </li></ul><ul><li>Orders: </li></ul><ul><li>1 - Osteostraci 2 - Anaspida </li></ul><ul><li>3 - Thelodonti </li></ul><ul><li>4 - Galeaspida </li></ul><ul><li>5 - Pituriaspida </li></ul><ul><li>6 - Petromyzontia (lampreys) </li></ul><ul><li>7 - Myxinoidea (hagfishes) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Ostracoderms (Osteostraci, Anaspida, Heterostraci, & Coelolepid): </li></ul><ul><li>1 - extinct Paleozoic (Cambrian to Devonian) jawless fish with an external skeleton of bone ('bony armor') 2 - oldest known vertebrates 3 - many had flattened appearance (some may have been bottom-dwellers) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Cyclostomes (Petromyzontia & Myxinoidea): </li></ul><ul><li>Lampreys - parasitic with horny, rasping teeth (see drawing at right) Hagfishes - primarily scavengers </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Gnathostomes </li></ul><ul><li>Acanthodians: </li></ul><ul><li>1 - earliest known gnathostomes ( Silurian ; about 440 mybp) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - probably related to modern bony fishes </li></ul><ul><li>3 - small (less than 20 cm long) with large eyes </li></ul><ul><li>4 - Acanthodians most likely died out because of the rapidly increasing number of ray-finned fishes and sharks during the Permian </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Class Placodermii : </li></ul><ul><li>1 - Silurian (about 420 million years before present) 2 - probably off the main line of vertebrate evolution </li></ul><ul><li>3 - many had bony dermal shields </li></ul><ul><li>4 - some were probably predators (with large, sharp 'tooth plates') </li></ul>
  27. 27. Vertebrate Eggs
  28. 28. Types Eggs <ul><li>Alecithal = Eggs with little yolk </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Amphioxus egg </li></ul><ul><li>b. Mesolecithal = eggs with moderate amount of yolk </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Freshwater lampreys </li></ul><ul><li>ganoid fishes </li></ul><ul><li>lungfishes </li></ul><ul><li>amphibians </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>C. Megalecithal = massive amount of yolk </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Monotremes </li></ul><ul><li>marine lampreys </li></ul><ul><li>teleost </li></ul><ul><li> reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>birds </li></ul>
  30. 30. Types of distribution of yolk <ul><li>Isolecithal = even distribution of yolk </li></ul><ul><li>present in alecithal eggs </li></ul><ul><li>b. Telolecithal = the cytoplasm and yolk tends to concentrate or accumulate at the oposite poles. </li></ul><ul><li>present in mesolecithal eggs </li></ul><ul><li>and in megalecithal eggs </li></ul>
  31. 31. Oviparity and Viviparity <ul><li>vivipary : the embryo develops inside the body of the mother and living young is delivered </li></ul><ul><li>: reared by the mother. </li></ul><ul><li>: but the eggs of viviparous animals lack a hard outer covering or shell like the chicken egg. </li></ul><ul><li>:Viviparous young grow in the adult female until they are able to survive on their own outside her body. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>:developing fetuses of viviparous animals are connected to a placenta in the mother's body </li></ul><ul><li>Egg-laying, or oviparous , animals obtain all nourishment as they develop from the yolk and the protein-rich albumen, or &quot;white,&quot; in the egg itself, not from direct contact with the mother, as is the case with viviparous young. </li></ul><ul><li>: expulsion of undeveloped eggs rather than live young. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>ovoviviparity : animals develop within eggs that remain within the mother's body up until they hatch or are about to hatch </li></ul><ul><li>: employed by many aquatic life forms such as fish and some sharks , reptiles , and invertebrates . The young of ovoviviparous amphibians are sometimes born as larvae , and undergo metamorphosis outside the body of the mother. </li></ul>
  34. 34. In fertilization: <ul><li>Gametes are essential in fertilizing the eggs </li></ul><ul><li>- sperm which came from the male </li></ul><ul><li>- ovum from the females </li></ul><ul><li>when the female and male gametes unite it will form into zygote. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cleavage <ul><li>The fertilized egg (zygote) is transformed by cell division (cleavage) into a mutlicellular cells called Blastula </li></ul><ul><li>During cleavage the individual cells are called blastomere </li></ul><ul><li>The blastula is a hollow ball of cells with a cavity is called blastocoel </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>In microlecithal eggs like in amphioxus have total or holoblastic cleavage (the cleavage furrows the entire yolk) </li></ul><ul><li>Divided equally </li></ul><ul><li>The resultant blastula is a hollow ball of cells with a cavity called blastocoel </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>In mesolecithal egg like in frog have a total but unequal cleavage </li></ul><ul><li>Blastomere near the vegetal pole are larger than those in the animal pole. </li></ul><ul><li>Development is slow </li></ul><ul><li>The blastocoel is displaced on the animal hemisphere. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Macrolecithal egg have unequal and partial or meroblastic cleavage </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to the relatively small yolk-free region at the animal pole </li></ul><ul><li>Yolk mass is to great to be penetrately by the cleavage furrows </li></ul><ul><li>A cellular blastoderm is separated from the uncleaved yolk by a narrow cavity </li></ul>
  39. 42. Fish blastula
  40. 43. Grastula
  41. 44. Gastrula <ul><li>When the blastula developed into an embryo </li></ul><ul><li>= at first the gastrula has two germ layer (ectoderm and endoderm) </li></ul><ul><li>= and then later to three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) </li></ul>Gastrulation of a diploblast: The formation of germ layers from a (1) blastula to a (2) gastrula. Some of the ectoderm cells (orange) move inward forming the endoderm (red).
  42. 45. Neurulation and Neural Crest <ul><li>Neurulation is a process to convert the gastrula into neurula . </li></ul><ul><li>is a part of organogenesis in vertebrate embryos </li></ul><ul><li>Steps of neurulation include the formation of the dorsal nerve cord , and the eventual formation of the central nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>The process begins when the notochord induces the formation of the central nervous system (CNS) by signaling the ectoderm germ layer above it to form the thick and flat neural plate </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>The neural plate folds in upon itself to form the neural tube , which will later differentiate into the spinal cord and the brain , eventually forming the central nervous system. </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Neurulation in vertebrates results in the formation of the neural tube , which gives rise to both the spinal cord and the brain. Neural crest cells are also created during neurulation.  Neural crest cells migrate away from the neural tube and give rise to a variety of cell types, including pigment cells and neurons. </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>1. Neurulation begins with the formation of a neural plate , a thickening of the ectoderm caused when cuboidal epithelial cells become columnar. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Changes in cell shape and cell adhesion cause the edges of the plate fold and rise, meeting in the midline to form a tube . </li></ul><ul><li>3. The cells at the tips of the neural folds come to lie between the neural tube and the overlying epidermis . </li></ul><ul><li>4. These cells become the neural crest cells . Both epidermis and neural plate are capable of giving rise to neural crest cells . </li></ul>
  46. 51. Organogenesis <ul><li>Organogenesis is the period of animal development during which the embryo is becoming a fully functional organism capable of independent survivial. </li></ul><ul><li>process by which specific organs and structures are formed , </li></ul><ul><li>and involves both cell movements and cell differentiation . </li></ul><ul><li>Organogenesis requires interactions between different tissues. These are often reciprocal interactions between epithelial sheets and mesenchymal cells . </li></ul>
  47. 54. The endoderm produces tissue within the lungs , thyroid , and pancreas . The mesoderm aids in the production of cardiac muscle , skeletal muscle , smooth muscle , tissues within the kidneys , and red blood cells . The ectoderm produces tissues within the epidermis and aids in the formation of neurons within the brain, and melanocytes .
  48. 55. <ul><li>Organogenesis from Ectoderm </li></ul><ul><li>1. From Somatic Ectoderm </li></ul><ul><li>- epidermis of skin </li></ul><ul><li>- enamel </li></ul><ul><li>- Stomodeum (mouth) </li></ul><ul><li>- Proctodeum (cloaca or anus ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Gill Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>- Amnion and Chorion (in part) </li></ul>
  49. 56. <ul><li>2. Neural Plate ectoderm </li></ul><ul><li>- Brain and Spinal Cord </li></ul><ul><li>3. Epidermal Placodes </li></ul><ul><li>- Olfactory capsules </li></ul><ul><li>- Optic capsule </li></ul><ul><li>- Otic Capsule </li></ul><ul><li>- Epibranchial capsule </li></ul><ul><li>- Electroreceptors/ neuromsst organs </li></ul><ul><li>- ganglia of some cranial nerves </li></ul>
  50. 57. <ul><li>4. Neural Crest </li></ul><ul><li>- Spinal Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>- Splanchnocranium </li></ul><ul><li>- Neurocranium </li></ul><ul><li>- Dermatocranium </li></ul><ul><li>- Dentine </li></ul><ul><li>- Cornea </li></ul><ul><li>- Chromatophores </li></ul><ul><li>- Branchiomeric muscles </li></ul><ul><li>- aortic arches </li></ul><ul><li>- heart septa </li></ul>
  51. 58. Organogenesis From the mesoderm <ul><li>Epimere (dermatome) – Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Epimere (myotome) – Axial Muscle </li></ul><ul><li> - Appendicular Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- Branchiomeric Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- Hypobranchial </li></ul><ul><li>3. Epimere (sclerotome) – Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>4. Chordamesoderm – notochord </li></ul>
  52. 59. <ul><li>5. Intermediate mesoderm (Mesomere) </li></ul><ul><li>-kidney and Urogenital ducts </li></ul><ul><li>6. Somatic hypomere = </li></ul><ul><li>- ribs - Parietal peritoneum - Sternum - Genital Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>- appendicular skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>- appendicular muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- amnion and chorion </li></ul>
  53. 60. <ul><li>7. Splanchnic hypomere </li></ul><ul><li>- Blood </li></ul><ul><li>- heart </li></ul><ul><li>- gut </li></ul><ul><li>- smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- visceral peritoneum </li></ul><ul><li>- yolk sac and allantois </li></ul>
  54. 61. Organogenesis of the Endoderm <ul><li>1. Foregut – Oral Cavity - Gill Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>- nasal cavity - Lung epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>- Pharynx epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>2. Midgut - Stomach - Liver </li></ul><ul><li>- Bladder - Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>- intestines - Allantois </li></ul><ul><li>- germ cells of gonads </li></ul><ul><li>- yolk sac membrane </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hindgut – Urinary Bladder and Cloaca or anus </li></ul>
  55. 62. The End of the Chapter

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