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THE UNITED STATES
IN WORLD WAR II
AMERICA
TURNS THE
TIDE
MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE
• After Japan attacked Pearl
Harbor, they thought
America would avoid further
conflict with them
• The Japan Times newspaper
said America was “trembling
in their shoes”
• But if America was trembling,
it was with rage, not fear
• “Remember Pearl Harbor”
was the rallying cry as
America entered WWII
AMERICANS RUSH TO ENLIST
• After Pearl Harbor
five million
Americans enlisted
to fight in the war
• The Selective
Service expanded
the draft and
eventually provided
an additional 10
million soldiers
WOMEN JOIN THE FIGHT
• Army Chief of Staff
General George
Marshall pushed for the
formation of the
Women’s Auxiliary Army
Corps (WAAC)
• Under this program
women worked in non-
combat roles such as
nurses, ambulance
drivers, radio operators,
and pilots
5
6
Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise
• Economic depression
• Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World
War I)
• Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire)
• Striped Germany of military, navy, air force
• Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many
resources)
• German had to take explicit blame for the war
• Pay War Repartitions
• Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were
fighting for control
• Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for some
German voters
7
Nazi Rally, 1937 (take a look at the link in moodle for
some other pictures)
ALL AMERICANS FOUGHT
Despite discrimination at
home, minority populations
contributed to the war effort
• 1,000,000 African Americans
served in the military
• 300,000 Mexican-Americans
• 33,000 Japanese Americans
• 25,000 Native Americans
• 13,000 Chinese Americans
These “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers
scored the highest marks ever on the
Officers exam in 1944
9
Someone asked yesterday in
regards to concentration camps...
What were we (U.S.) doing during all
this?
What were we (U.S.) doing during all
this?• 1941 Started segregating Jews
• After Pearl Harbor, United States enters
war in December 1941
• Next two year started deporting them
• Casablanca Conference January 1943
9
10
• At the Casablanca Conference, Roosevelt and
Churchill agreed to step up the bombing of Germany.
• Goal being “the progressive destruction of the German
military, industrial, and economic system, and the
undermining of the morale of the German people.”
• The Allies had been bombing Germany even before
the Casablanca Conf.
• Britian’s royal air force had dropped 2,300 tons of
explosives on Germany every month for more than 3
years.
• The U.S. Eighth Army Air Force had dropped an
additional 1,500 tons of bombs the last 6 months of
1942.
• Between Jan 1943 and May 1945, the Royal Air Force
and the U.S. dropped approximately 53,000 tons on10
11
• YouTube
• 100 Tons of Explosives
• 10,000 Tons of Explosives
A PRODUCTION MIRACLE
• Americans converted
their auto industry into a
war industry
• The nation’s automobile
plants began to produce
tanks, planes, boats,
and command cars
• Many other industries
also converted to war-
related supplies
LABOR’S CONTRIBUTION
• By 1944, nearly 18
million workers were
laboring in war
industries (3x the #
in 1941)
• More than 6 million
of these were
women and nearly 2
million were minority
MOBILIZATION OF
SCIENTISTS
• In 1941, FDR created
the Office of Scientific
Research and
Development (OSRD)
to bring scientists into
the war effort
• Focus was on radar and
sonar to locate
submarines
• Also the scientists
worked on penicillin and
pesticides like DDT
MANHATTAN PROJECT
• The most important
achievement of the
OSRD was the secret
development of the
atomic bomb
• Einstein wrote to FDR
warning him that the
Germans were
attempting to develop
such a weapon
• The code used to
describe American
efforts to build the bomb
was the “Manhattan
Project”
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TAKES
CONTROL OF INFLATION
• With prices of goods
threatening to rise out of
control, FDR responded
by creating the Office of
Price Administration
(OPA)
• The OPA froze prices
on most goods and
encouraged the
purchase of war bonds
to fight inflation
America wwii
18
Problem of Inflation
• Prices rise with full inflation
• Full employment: GDP Doubles 1940-
1945 to $211.9 billion
• Office of Price Administration is
created to manage prices
• Freezes prices
• Rations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar,
shoes, coffee, canned goods (Ration
books-needed coupons to purchase
goods)
WAR PRODUCTION BOARD
• To ensure the troops
had ample resources,
FDR created the WPB
• The WPB decided
which companies would
convert to wartime
production and how to
best allocate raw
materials to those
industries
COLLECTION DRIVES
• The WPB also
organized nationwide
drives to collect scrap
iron, tin cans, paper,
rags and cooking fat for
recycling
• Additionally, the OPA
set up a system of
rationing
• Households had set
allocations of scarce
goods – gas, meat,
shoes, sugar, coffee
WWII Poster
encouraging
conservation
America wwii
THE WAR FOR EUROPE AND
NORTH AFRICA
• Days after Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill arrived at the White House and
spent three weeks working out war plans with FDR
• They decided to focus on defeating Hitler first and
then turn their attention to Japan
THE BATTLE OF THE
ATLANTIC
• After America’s entry into the
war, Hitler was determined to
prevent foods and war
supplies from reaching Britain
and the USSR from
America’s east coast
• He ordered submarine raids
on U.S. ships on the Atlantic
• During the first four months
of 1942 Germany sank 87
U.S. shipsThe power of the German submarines was
great, and in two months' time almost two
million tons of Allied ships were resting on the
ocean floor. Efforts were soon made to restrict
German subs' activities.
America wwii
ALLIES
CONTROL
U-BOATS
• In the first seven months of
1942, German U-boats sank
681 Allied ships in the Atlantic
• Something had to be done or
the war at sea would be lost
• First, Allies used convoys of
ships & airplanes to transport
supplies
• Destroyers used sonar to
track U-boats
• Airplanes were used to track
the U-boats ocean surfaces
• With this improved tracking,
Allies inflicted huge losses on
German U-boats U-426 sinks after attack from the air,
January 1944. Almost two-thirds of all
U-boat sailors died during the Battle
of the Atlantic.
America wwii
THE EASTERN FRONT &
MEDITERRANEAN
• Hitler wanted to wipe out
Stalingrad – a major
industrial center
• In the summer of 1942, the
Germans took the offensive
in the southern Soviet Union
• By the winter of 1943, the
Allies began to see victories
on land as well as sea
• The first great turning point
was the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad was a huge
Allied victory
BATTLE OF
STALINGRAD
• For weeks the Germans pressed in on
Stalingrad
• Then winter set in and the Germans were
wearing summer uniforms
• The Germans surrendered in January of
1943
• The Soviets lost
more than
1 million
men in the battle
(more than twice the
number of deaths the U.S.
Wounded in the Battle
of Stalingrad
THE NORTH
AFRICAN FRONT
• “Operation
Torch” – an
invasion of Axis -controlled
North Africa --was launched
by American General Dwight
D. Eisenhower in 1942
• Allied troops landed in
Casablanca, Oran and the
Algiers in Algeria
• They sped eastward chasing
the Afrika Korps led by
German General Edwin
Rommel
American tanks roll in the deserts
of Africa and defeat German and
Axis forces
Allied
troops
landed in
Casa-
blanca,
Oran and
the
Algiers
CASABLANCA MEETING
• FDR and Churchill met
in Casablanca and
decided their next
moves
• 1) Plan amphibious
invasions of France and
Italy
• 2) Only unconditional
surrender would be
accepted
FDR and Churchill in Casablanca
ITALIAN CAMPAIGN –
ANOTHER ALLIED VICTORY
• The Italian Campaign got off
to a good start as the Allies
easily took Sicily
• At that point King Emmanuel
III stripped Mussolini of his
power and had him arrested
• However, Hitler’s forces
continued to resist the Allies
in Italy
• Heated battles ensued and it
wasn’t until 1945 that Italy
was secured by the Allies
TUSKEGEE
AIRMEN
• Among the brave men
who fought in Italy were
pilots of the all-black 99th
squadron – the
Tuskegee Airmen
• The pilots made
numerous effective
strikes against Germany
and won two
distinguished Unit
Citations
On May 31, 1943, the 99th
Squadron, the first group of African-American pilots
trained at the Tuskegee Institute, arrived in North Africa
ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE
• Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a
dramatic invasion of France
• It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was
American General Dwight D. Eisenhower
• Also called “D-Day,” the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British
troops and was set for June 6, 1944
Allies sent fake
coded
messages
indicating they
would attack
here
D-DAY JUNE
6, 1944
• D-Day was the
largest land-sea-air
operation in military
history
• Despite air support,
German retaliation
was brutal –
especially at Omaha
Beach
• Within a month, the
Allies had landed 1
million troops,
567,000 tons of
supplies and
170,000 vehicles
D-Day was an amphibious landing – soldiers
going from sea to land
OMAHA BEACH 6/6/44
Landing at Normandy
Planes drop paratroopers behind enemy lines at Normandy, France
Losses were
extremely
heavy on D-
Day
FRANCE
FREED• By September 1944, the
Allies had freed France,
Belgium and
Luxembourg
• That good news – and
the American’s people’s
desire not to “change
horses in midstream” –
helped elect FDR to an
unprecedented 4th
term General George Patton (right)
was instrumental in Allies freeing
France
VS.
BATTLE OF THE
BULGE
• In October 1944,
Americans captured
their first German town
(Aachen)– the Allies
were closing in
• Hitler responded with
one last ditch massive
offensive
• Hitler hoped breaking
through the Allied line
would break up Allied
supply lines
BATTLE OF THE
BULGE
• The battle raged for a month
– the Germans had been
pushed back
• Little seemed to have
changed, but in fact the
Germans had sustained
heavy losses
• Germany lost 120,000
troops, 600 tanks and 1,600
planes
• From that point on the Nazis
could do little but retreat
The Battle of the Bulge was Germany’s
last gasp
LIBERATION OF DEATH CAMPS
• While the British and
Americans moved
westward into Germany,
the Soviets moved
eastward into German-
controlled Poland
• The Soviets discovered
many death camps that
the Germans had set up
within Poland
• The Americans also
liberated Nazi death
camps within Germany
America wwii
ALLIES TAKE BERLIN; HITLER
COMMITS SUICIDE
• By April 25, 1945, the Soviet
army had stormed Berlin
• In his underground
headquarters in Berlin, Hitler
prepared for the end
• On April 29, he married his
longtime girlfriend Eva Braun
then wrote a last note in which
he blamed the Jews for starting
the war and his generals for
losing it
• The next day he gave poison to
his wife and shot himself
V-E DAY
• General Eisenhower
accepted the
unconditional surrender
of the Third Reich
• On May 8, 1945, the
Allies celebrated V-E
Day – victory in Europe
Day
• The war in Europe was
finally over
Famous
picture of an
American
soldier
celebrating
the end of the
war
FDR DIES; TRUMAN
PRESIDENT
• President
Roosevelt did not
live to see V-E
Day
• On April 12, 1945,
he suffered a
stroke and died–
his VP Harry S
Truman became
the nation’s 33rd
president
THE WAR IN THE
PACIFIC
• The Americans did not
celebrate long, as
Japan was busy
conquering an empire
that dwarfed Hitler’s
Third Reich
• Japan had conquered
much of southeast Asia
including the Dutch East
Indies, Guam, and most
of China
America wwii
BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA
• The main Allied forces in the Pacific were
Americans and Australians
• In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the
Japanese drive toward Australia in the five-
day Battle of the Coral Sea
THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY
• Japan’s next thrust was
toward Midway Island – a
strategic Island northwest
of Hawaii
• Admiral Chester Nimitz,
the Commander of
American Naval forces in
the Pacific, moved to
defend the Island
• The Americans won a
decisive victory as their
planes destroyed 4
Japanese aircraft carriers
and 250 planes
•The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war – soon the
Allies were island hopping toward Japan
KAMIKAZE PILOTS
ATTACK ALLIES
• The Americans continued
leapfrogging across the
Pacific toward Japan
• Japanese countered by
employing a new tactic –
Kamikaze (divine wind)
attacks
• Pilots in small bomb-
laden planes would crash
into Allied shipsIn the Battle for the Philippines, 424
Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and
damaged 80 more
IWO JIMA
• General MacArthur
and the Allies next
turned to the Island
of Iwo Jima
• The island was
critical to the Allies
as a base for an
attack on Japan
• It was called the
most heavily
defended spot on
earth
• Allied and
Japanese forces
suffered heavy
casualties American soldiers plant the flag on the
Island of Iwo Jima after their victory
THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA
• In April 1945, U.S.
marines invaded
Okinawa
• The Japanese
unleashed 1,900
Kamikaze attacks
sinking 30 ships and
killing 5,000 seamen
• Okinawa cost the
Americans 7,600
marines and the
Japanese 110,000
soldiers
INVADE JAPAN?
• After Okinawa,
MacArthur predicted
that a Normandy
type amphibious
invasion of Japan
would result in
1,500,000 Allied
deaths
• President Truman
saw only one way to
avoid an invasion of
Japan . . . The loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa
convinced Allied leaders that an invasion of
Japan was not the best idea
Okinawa
ATOMIC BOMB
DEVELOPED
• Japan had a huge army
that would defend every
inch of the Japanese
mainland
• So Truman decided to
use a powerful new
weapon developed by
scientists working on
the Manhattan Project –
the Atomic Bomb
U.S. DROPS TWO
ATOMIC BOMBS
ON JAPAN
• Truman warned
Japan in late July 1945
that without a immediate
Japanese surrender, it
faced “prompt and utter
destruction”
• On August 6 (Hiroshima)
and August 9 (Nagasaki)
a B-29 bomber dropped
Atomic Bombs on Japan
The plane and crew that dropped an
atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
August 6, 1945
HIROSHIMA
August 9,
1945
NAGASAKI
65
66
JAPAN SURRENDERS
At the White House, President Harry Truman
announces the Japanese surrender, August
14, 1945
• Japan surrendered
days after the second
atomic bomb was
dropped
• General MacArthur
said, “Today the guns
are silent. The skies no
longer rain death . . .the
entire world is quietly at
peace.”
THE YALTA
CONFERENCE
• In February 1945, as
the Allies pushed
toward victory in
Europe, an ailing
FDR met with
Churchill and Stalin
at the Black Sea
resort of Yalta in the
USSR
• A series of
compromises were
worked out
concerning postwar
Europe
(L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin at
Yalta
YALTA AGREEMENTS
• 1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after
the war
• 2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe
• 3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and
to join the United Nations
NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS
• The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving
Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the
peace, and war crimes
• The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany
• “I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of
the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison
Herman Goering, Hitler's right-hand man and chief architect
of the German war effort, testifies at his trial. He was found
guilty of war crimes but avoided execution by swallowing
potassium cyanide.
THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN
• Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of
General MacArthur
• During the seven- year occupation, MacArthur reshaped
Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices that led
to a remarkable economic recovery
• Additionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day
is called the MacArthur Constitution
THE HOME FRONT
• The war provided a lift to
the U.S. economy
• Jobs were abundant and
despite rationing and
shortages, people had
money to spend
• By the end of the war,
America was the world’s
dominant economic and
military power
ECONOMIC GAINS
• Unemployment fell
to only 1.2% by
1944 and wages
rose 35%
• Farmers too
benefited as
production doubled
and income tripled
WOMEN MAKE GAINS
• Women enjoyed
economic gains during
the war, although many
lost their jobs after the
war
• Over 6 million women
entered the work force
for the first time
• Over 1/3 were in the
defense industry
POPULATION SHIFTS
• The war triggered the
greatest mass migration
in American history
• More than a million
newcomers poured into
California between
1941-1944
• African Americans again
shifted from south to
north
GI BILL HELPS RETURNING
VETS
• To help returning
servicemen ease back
into civilian life,
Congress passed the
Servicemen’s
Readjustment Act (GI
Bill of Rights)
• The act provided
education for 7.8 million
vets
INTERNMENT OF
JAPANESE AMERICANS
• When the war began,
120,000 Japanese
Americans lived in the
U.S. – mostly on the West
Coast
• After Pearl Harbor, many
people were suspicious of
possible spy activity by
Japanese Americans
• In 1942, FDR ordered
Japanese Americans into
10 relocation centers Japanese Americans felt the sting
of discrimination during WWII
78
Japanese Relocation
• 120,000 Japanese lived on the West
coast
• Were accused of potentially aiding
Japanese espionage
• Some people, racist, and wanted to use
the opportunity to take Japanese land
• February 1942 FDR signed an
executive order
• “Remove any and all persons who
might pose a threat to national
security.”
Location of the
10 Internment
camps
Jerome camp in Arkansas
81
Japanese Internment
• In the entire course
of the war, 10
people were
convicted of spying
for Japan, all of
whom were
Caucasian.
• Roosevelt interned
120,000 Japanese
• 2/3 were American
citizens and had
never shown
disloyalty
82
• Famous quote attributed to one
individual at Manzanar.
• He was asked who he wanted to win
the war. His response? "If your mother
and father are fighting do you want one
to kill the other? Or do you just want
them to stop fighting?"
• Point being that the majority of the
citizenry were just as opposed to a war
with America. 82
83
Japanese American Heroes
• 33,000 Japanese
Americans served
• Volunteers
• 442 Combat Regiment
Team
• The 442nd received more
medals than any other unit
in US military history. Some
survivors swear it's because
they were kept in combat
U.S. PAYS REPARATIONS
TO JAPANESE
• In the late 1980s, President
Reagan signed into law a bill
that provided $20,000 to
every Japanese American
sent to a relocation camp
• The checks were sent out in
1990 along with a note from
President Bush saying, “We
can never fully right the
wrongs of the past . . . we
now recognize that serious
wrongs were done to
Japanese Americans during
WWII.”Today the U.S. is home to more
than 1,000,000 Japanese-
Americans
Nearly 59 years after the end of World War II, the
National World War II Memorial was dedicated in
Washington, D.C., on Saturday, May 29, 2004 to
honor the 408,680 Americans who died in the
conflict

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America wwii

  • 1. THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE
  • 2. MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE • After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, they thought America would avoid further conflict with them • The Japan Times newspaper said America was “trembling in their shoes” • But if America was trembling, it was with rage, not fear • “Remember Pearl Harbor” was the rallying cry as America entered WWII
  • 3. AMERICANS RUSH TO ENLIST • After Pearl Harbor five million Americans enlisted to fight in the war • The Selective Service expanded the draft and eventually provided an additional 10 million soldiers
  • 4. WOMEN JOIN THE FIGHT • Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) • Under this program women worked in non- combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6 Factors that Contributed to Hitler’s Rise • Economic depression • Treaty of Versailles (Peace Treaty Germany and Allies World War I) • Striped Germany of land (East Prussia, Danzig and empire) • Striped Germany of military, navy, air force • Allies had a right to intervene (Saar Basin Rhineland, many resources) • German had to take explicit blame for the war • Pay War Repartitions • Socialists/Communists vs Right Wing groups were fighting for control • Created conditions for popularity of Nazis for some German voters
  • 7. 7 Nazi Rally, 1937 (take a look at the link in moodle for some other pictures)
  • 8. ALL AMERICANS FOUGHT Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort • 1,000,000 African Americans served in the military • 300,000 Mexican-Americans • 33,000 Japanese Americans • 25,000 Native Americans • 13,000 Chinese Americans These “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers scored the highest marks ever on the Officers exam in 1944
  • 9. 9 Someone asked yesterday in regards to concentration camps... What were we (U.S.) doing during all this? What were we (U.S.) doing during all this?• 1941 Started segregating Jews • After Pearl Harbor, United States enters war in December 1941 • Next two year started deporting them • Casablanca Conference January 1943 9
  • 10. 10 • At the Casablanca Conference, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to step up the bombing of Germany. • Goal being “the progressive destruction of the German military, industrial, and economic system, and the undermining of the morale of the German people.” • The Allies had been bombing Germany even before the Casablanca Conf. • Britian’s royal air force had dropped 2,300 tons of explosives on Germany every month for more than 3 years. • The U.S. Eighth Army Air Force had dropped an additional 1,500 tons of bombs the last 6 months of 1942. • Between Jan 1943 and May 1945, the Royal Air Force and the U.S. dropped approximately 53,000 tons on10
  • 11. 11 • YouTube • 100 Tons of Explosives • 10,000 Tons of Explosives
  • 12. A PRODUCTION MIRACLE • Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry • The nation’s automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars • Many other industries also converted to war- related supplies
  • 13. LABOR’S CONTRIBUTION • By 1944, nearly 18 million workers were laboring in war industries (3x the # in 1941) • More than 6 million of these were women and nearly 2 million were minority
  • 14. MOBILIZATION OF SCIENTISTS • In 1941, FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort • Focus was on radar and sonar to locate submarines • Also the scientists worked on penicillin and pesticides like DDT
  • 15. MANHATTAN PROJECT • The most important achievement of the OSRD was the secret development of the atomic bomb • Einstein wrote to FDR warning him that the Germans were attempting to develop such a weapon • The code used to describe American efforts to build the bomb was the “Manhattan Project”
  • 16. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TAKES CONTROL OF INFLATION • With prices of goods threatening to rise out of control, FDR responded by creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA) • The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation
  • 18. 18 Problem of Inflation • Prices rise with full inflation • Full employment: GDP Doubles 1940- 1945 to $211.9 billion • Office of Price Administration is created to manage prices • Freezes prices • Rations- Gas, tires, meat, sugar, shoes, coffee, canned goods (Ration books-needed coupons to purchase goods)
  • 19. WAR PRODUCTION BOARD • To ensure the troops had ample resources, FDR created the WPB • The WPB decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries
  • 20. COLLECTION DRIVES • The WPB also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat for recycling • Additionally, the OPA set up a system of rationing • Households had set allocations of scarce goods – gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee
  • 23. THE WAR FOR EUROPE AND NORTH AFRICA • Days after Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived at the White House and spent three weeks working out war plans with FDR • They decided to focus on defeating Hitler first and then turn their attention to Japan
  • 24. THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC • After America’s entry into the war, Hitler was determined to prevent foods and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America’s east coast • He ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships on the Atlantic • During the first four months of 1942 Germany sank 87 U.S. shipsThe power of the German submarines was great, and in two months' time almost two million tons of Allied ships were resting on the ocean floor. Efforts were soon made to restrict German subs' activities.
  • 26. ALLIES CONTROL U-BOATS • In the first seven months of 1942, German U-boats sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic • Something had to be done or the war at sea would be lost • First, Allies used convoys of ships & airplanes to transport supplies • Destroyers used sonar to track U-boats • Airplanes were used to track the U-boats ocean surfaces • With this improved tracking, Allies inflicted huge losses on German U-boats U-426 sinks after attack from the air, January 1944. Almost two-thirds of all U-boat sailors died during the Battle of the Atlantic.
  • 28. THE EASTERN FRONT & MEDITERRANEAN • Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad – a major industrial center • In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the offensive in the southern Soviet Union • By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea • The first great turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Stalingrad was a huge Allied victory
  • 29. BATTLE OF STALINGRAD • For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad • Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing summer uniforms • The Germans surrendered in January of 1943 • The Soviets lost more than 1 million men in the battle (more than twice the number of deaths the U.S. Wounded in the Battle of Stalingrad
  • 30. THE NORTH AFRICAN FRONT • “Operation Torch” – an invasion of Axis -controlled North Africa --was launched by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1942 • Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran and the Algiers in Algeria • They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Korps led by German General Edwin Rommel American tanks roll in the deserts of Africa and defeat German and Axis forces
  • 32. CASABLANCA MEETING • FDR and Churchill met in Casablanca and decided their next moves • 1) Plan amphibious invasions of France and Italy • 2) Only unconditional surrender would be accepted FDR and Churchill in Casablanca
  • 33. ITALIAN CAMPAIGN – ANOTHER ALLIED VICTORY • The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as the Allies easily took Sicily • At that point King Emmanuel III stripped Mussolini of his power and had him arrested • However, Hitler’s forces continued to resist the Allies in Italy • Heated battles ensued and it wasn’t until 1945 that Italy was secured by the Allies
  • 34. TUSKEGEE AIRMEN • Among the brave men who fought in Italy were pilots of the all-black 99th squadron – the Tuskegee Airmen • The pilots made numerous effective strikes against Germany and won two distinguished Unit Citations
  • 35. On May 31, 1943, the 99th Squadron, the first group of African-American pilots trained at the Tuskegee Institute, arrived in North Africa
  • 36. ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE • Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France • It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower • Also called “D-Day,” the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944 Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they would attack here
  • 37. D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944 • D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in military history • Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal – especially at Omaha Beach • Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles D-Day was an amphibious landing – soldiers going from sea to land
  • 40. Planes drop paratroopers behind enemy lines at Normandy, France
  • 42. FRANCE FREED• By September 1944, the Allies had freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg • That good news – and the American’s people’s desire not to “change horses in midstream” – helped elect FDR to an unprecedented 4th term General George Patton (right) was instrumental in Allies freeing France
  • 43. VS.
  • 44. BATTLE OF THE BULGE • In October 1944, Americans captured their first German town (Aachen)– the Allies were closing in • Hitler responded with one last ditch massive offensive • Hitler hoped breaking through the Allied line would break up Allied supply lines
  • 45. BATTLE OF THE BULGE • The battle raged for a month – the Germans had been pushed back • Little seemed to have changed, but in fact the Germans had sustained heavy losses • Germany lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes • From that point on the Nazis could do little but retreat The Battle of the Bulge was Germany’s last gasp
  • 46. LIBERATION OF DEATH CAMPS • While the British and Americans moved westward into Germany, the Soviets moved eastward into German- controlled Poland • The Soviets discovered many death camps that the Germans had set up within Poland • The Americans also liberated Nazi death camps within Germany
  • 48. ALLIES TAKE BERLIN; HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE • By April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had stormed Berlin • In his underground headquarters in Berlin, Hitler prepared for the end • On April 29, he married his longtime girlfriend Eva Braun then wrote a last note in which he blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it • The next day he gave poison to his wife and shot himself
  • 49. V-E DAY • General Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich • On May 8, 1945, the Allies celebrated V-E Day – victory in Europe Day • The war in Europe was finally over
  • 51. FDR DIES; TRUMAN PRESIDENT • President Roosevelt did not live to see V-E Day • On April 12, 1945, he suffered a stroke and died– his VP Harry S Truman became the nation’s 33rd president
  • 52. THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC • The Americans did not celebrate long, as Japan was busy conquering an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third Reich • Japan had conquered much of southeast Asia including the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and most of China
  • 54. BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA • The main Allied forces in the Pacific were Americans and Australians • In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five- day Battle of the Coral Sea
  • 55. THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY • Japan’s next thrust was toward Midway Island – a strategic Island northwest of Hawaii • Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Commander of American Naval forces in the Pacific, moved to defend the Island • The Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and 250 planes
  • 56. •The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war – soon the Allies were island hopping toward Japan
  • 57. KAMIKAZE PILOTS ATTACK ALLIES • The Americans continued leapfrogging across the Pacific toward Japan • Japanese countered by employing a new tactic – Kamikaze (divine wind) attacks • Pilots in small bomb- laden planes would crash into Allied shipsIn the Battle for the Philippines, 424 Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and damaged 80 more
  • 58. IWO JIMA • General MacArthur and the Allies next turned to the Island of Iwo Jima • The island was critical to the Allies as a base for an attack on Japan • It was called the most heavily defended spot on earth • Allied and Japanese forces suffered heavy casualties American soldiers plant the flag on the Island of Iwo Jima after their victory
  • 59. THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA • In April 1945, U.S. marines invaded Okinawa • The Japanese unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships and killing 5,000 seamen • Okinawa cost the Americans 7,600 marines and the Japanese 110,000 soldiers
  • 60. INVADE JAPAN? • After Okinawa, MacArthur predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in 1,500,000 Allied deaths • President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan . . . The loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa convinced Allied leaders that an invasion of Japan was not the best idea Okinawa
  • 61. ATOMIC BOMB DEVELOPED • Japan had a huge army that would defend every inch of the Japanese mainland • So Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon developed by scientists working on the Manhattan Project – the Atomic Bomb
  • 62. U.S. DROPS TWO ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN • Truman warned Japan in late July 1945 that without a immediate Japanese surrender, it faced “prompt and utter destruction” • On August 6 (Hiroshima) and August 9 (Nagasaki) a B-29 bomber dropped Atomic Bombs on Japan The plane and crew that dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
  • 65. 65
  • 66. 66
  • 67. JAPAN SURRENDERS At the White House, President Harry Truman announces the Japanese surrender, August 14, 1945 • Japan surrendered days after the second atomic bomb was dropped • General MacArthur said, “Today the guns are silent. The skies no longer rain death . . .the entire world is quietly at peace.”
  • 68. THE YALTA CONFERENCE • In February 1945, as the Allies pushed toward victory in Europe, an ailing FDR met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the USSR • A series of compromises were worked out concerning postwar Europe (L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin at Yalta
  • 69. YALTA AGREEMENTS • 1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war • 2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe • 3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and to join the United Nations
  • 70. NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS • The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimes • The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany • “I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison Herman Goering, Hitler's right-hand man and chief architect of the German war effort, testifies at his trial. He was found guilty of war crimes but avoided execution by swallowing potassium cyanide.
  • 71. THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN • Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of General MacArthur • During the seven- year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices that led to a remarkable economic recovery • Additionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day is called the MacArthur Constitution
  • 72. THE HOME FRONT • The war provided a lift to the U.S. economy • Jobs were abundant and despite rationing and shortages, people had money to spend • By the end of the war, America was the world’s dominant economic and military power
  • 73. ECONOMIC GAINS • Unemployment fell to only 1.2% by 1944 and wages rose 35% • Farmers too benefited as production doubled and income tripled
  • 74. WOMEN MAKE GAINS • Women enjoyed economic gains during the war, although many lost their jobs after the war • Over 6 million women entered the work force for the first time • Over 1/3 were in the defense industry
  • 75. POPULATION SHIFTS • The war triggered the greatest mass migration in American history • More than a million newcomers poured into California between 1941-1944 • African Americans again shifted from south to north
  • 76. GI BILL HELPS RETURNING VETS • To help returning servicemen ease back into civilian life, Congress passed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) • The act provided education for 7.8 million vets
  • 77. INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS • When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. – mostly on the West Coast • After Pearl Harbor, many people were suspicious of possible spy activity by Japanese Americans • In 1942, FDR ordered Japanese Americans into 10 relocation centers Japanese Americans felt the sting of discrimination during WWII
  • 78. 78 Japanese Relocation • 120,000 Japanese lived on the West coast • Were accused of potentially aiding Japanese espionage • Some people, racist, and wanted to use the opportunity to take Japanese land • February 1942 FDR signed an executive order • “Remove any and all persons who might pose a threat to national security.”
  • 79. Location of the 10 Internment camps
  • 80. Jerome camp in Arkansas
  • 81. 81 Japanese Internment • In the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted of spying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian. • Roosevelt interned 120,000 Japanese • 2/3 were American citizens and had never shown disloyalty
  • 82. 82 • Famous quote attributed to one individual at Manzanar. • He was asked who he wanted to win the war. His response? "If your mother and father are fighting do you want one to kill the other? Or do you just want them to stop fighting?" • Point being that the majority of the citizenry were just as opposed to a war with America. 82
  • 83. 83 Japanese American Heroes • 33,000 Japanese Americans served • Volunteers • 442 Combat Regiment Team • The 442nd received more medals than any other unit in US military history. Some survivors swear it's because they were kept in combat
  • 84. U.S. PAYS REPARATIONS TO JAPANESE • In the late 1980s, President Reagan signed into law a bill that provided $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to a relocation camp • The checks were sent out in 1990 along with a note from President Bush saying, “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past . . . we now recognize that serious wrongs were done to Japanese Americans during WWII.”Today the U.S. is home to more than 1,000,000 Japanese- Americans
  • 85. Nearly 59 years after the end of World War II, the National World War II Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., on Saturday, May 29, 2004 to honor the 408,680 Americans who died in the conflict