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Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




                        Utilizing Open Data
        for interactive knowledge transfer



        qKAI (qualifying Knowledge Acquisition and Inquiry)
       PhD research project at the Leibniz University of Hanover
          Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
                                   Institute of Systems Engineering
                                System- and Computer Architecture




DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   1
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Outline

      Introduction
             What is the Social Semantic Web (S2W)?
             How do we define the term Open Data?
             Which l l
             Whi h role plays user i t
                                   interaction i h ?
                                          ti in here?

      Motivation and claims
             How to use Open Data in higher layered applications?
                                     higher-layered

      Refining the concept:
             Main requirements: resource handling, lightweight user interaction, quality of content.

      Main contribution and focus:
             The qKAI application framework serves as conceptual basis and system specification.
             A hybrid data layer embeds distributed resources and non redundant enrichment
                                                                                  enrichment.
             Incentive interaction with Open Data is intended on the example of knowledge games: instancing
             gaming components and sequences.

      Summary and outlook

DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   2
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Introduction: Social Semantic Web (S2W)

      S2W is currently a trend towards a next generation of web applications mixing up Web 2.0
      and Semantic Web technologies.
      Web 2.0 embeds users for content creation and ranking
      (prosumers: producer + consumer Mit Mach Web Read Write Web)
                              consumer, Mit-Mach-Web, Read-Write-Web).
      Desktop-alike web applications with „Rich User Experience“ replace the traditional MVC2
      model (RIA: Rich Internet Applications with usability focus).
      Semantic Web offers technology oriented data representation and p
                                    gy                 p                processing in a formal,
                                                                                  g           ,
      machine interpretable language (RDF: Resource Description Framework, W3C standard).

               Lack of user friendly, agile
               interaction scenarios in Semantic
               Web.

               Lack of standardized
               representation and re sabilit in
                                  reusability
               Web 2.0.

               Promising combination.
                       g


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   3
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Introduction: Linked Open Data (LOD)

      "A piece of knowledge is
      open if you are free to use,
      reuse, and redistribute it.”
      (Open Knowledge
      Foundation)
      Knowledge bases are
      numerously available in RDF
      as huge LOD in SW,
      partially linked with each
      other,
        h
      querying through SPARQL
      (Simple Protocol and RDF
      Query Language, W3C
      standard since 2008).  )

      Often redundant content in
      two representations as e.g.
      (X)HTML and RDF
           Wikipedia, F b
           Wiki di Freebase,
           Dbpedia.
      Additionally there are lots of
      resources outside of LOD like
      ( )
      (X)HTML, databases, further
               ,            ,
      wikis, multimedia, …


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   4
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Introduction: the role of interaction

      Without interaction Open Data remains futile for
      the user. Obviously we need some kind of
      fancy interaction to deploy Open Data for
      further purpose.
              purpose
      Examples for interaction with Open Data:
             Semantic browsing, searching, grouping:
                   Twine, Freebase, Dbpedia, Sindice, Powerset,
                   Swoogle, St
                   S     l Stumpedia.
                                   di
             Rating and ranking:
                   Revyu.
             SPARQL query tools
                   very t h i l littl intuitive.
                        technical, little i t iti



             Searching, displaying, editing, annotating and
             grouping of content.
             There is still little continuative advantage
             without much Incentive for the user to interact
             and deduce new knowledge.


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   5
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Motivation and requirements

      How to reuse Open Data targeted in higher-layered applications?
      Provide standard tasks of knowledge engineering:
             Acquisition, formalization, representation, visualization.
             A   i iti    f    li ti             t ti     i   li ti

      Determine and enhance quality of content:
             Analyzes and enrichment of meta information.
             User’s opinion and knowledge to annotate, rate and rank content.
             The more we know about a resource, the better we can reuse it.

      Tackle
      T kl extended i
                d d interaction and i
                            i     d incentive f user's attendance:
                                          i for     '       d
             Motivating, enjoyable scenarios inaugurating knowledge games,
                   uniting fun and learning is a proved concept (serious games, assessment),
                   strong focus on usability and lightweight intuitive interoperation
                                                  lightweight,         interoperation.
      Interoperation as possibility to deduce new knowledge,
      AFAWK: No applications available so far that are based on Open Data for
      knowledge transfer and learning
                              learning.

DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   6
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 qKAI concept and focus

      We want to offer scenarios based on user-oriented web services for rich and lightweight
      interaction with Open Data:
             Therefore we have to implement standard tasks of knowledge engineering for extended interaction as
             a generic application framework,
               g        pp
             available Java APIs for subtasks have to be combined and respectively extended,
             with a scalable, reusable and unifying software concept: Social Semantic Web and Service Oriented
             Architecture principles are considered as Dreamteam, retaining application autonomy with loosely
             coupling of remote resources and services becomes possible,
             paradigms like extensibility, addressability stateless communication are fulfilled
                             extensibility addressability,                            fulfilled.
      Build a hybrid (Meta) data repository for distributed resources:
             to reach non redundant enrichment of existing resources through semantic interlinking.
      Qualify Open Data through meta data and interoperation:
             automated analyzes of meta data using the Aperture Java framework,
             at the user side we enrich content through interaction based on gaming joker options.

      Game-based knowledge transfer is instanced to simplify interoperation and enhance user
                        g                              p y         p
      participation.
             to enable a proposal of suitable use cases, API- and service compositions for deploying Open Data in
             knowledge transfer and learning.
             User-centered with „Rich User Experience“ using Flex/Flash because of high design and functionality
             issues.
             i


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   7
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 qKAI application framework
                                                                            Designed according to a 5-tier-layer design,
                                                                            in combination of RIA model, mediator-wrapper
                                                                                                        ,              pp
                                                                            concepts and SOA.
                                                                            SOA/REST (Representational State transfer)
                                                                            paradigms
                                                                                   stateless services and server with communication
                                                                                   over http protocol.
                                                                            We get a stateful Client using Flex/Flash plugin.
                                                                            Desktop-alike applications with advantages like
                                                                                   faster reaction to user requests,
                                                                                   less network traffic and server load,
                                                                                   offline usage possibility.
                                                                            We decided for a Rich Thin Client
                                                                                   Business logic remains at server side,
                                                                                   Rich UI Engine delivers GUIs,
                                                                                   the presentation logic is divided from visualization
                                                                                   components.


                                                                            Mediation layer as business logic or controller
                                                                                                                 controller.
                                                                                   „A mediator is a software module that exploits
                                                                                   encoded knowledge about certain sets or subsets
                                                                                   of data to create information for a higher layer of
                                                                                   applications.“ (Wiederhold, 1992)
                                                                                   Middleware, that connects available services with
                                                                                   further technical components (Service Mediation).

DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009                            8
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 qKAI data layer: Linked Data

      How to annotate distributed resources with
      minimal redundancy, access to live resources and
      ability to change management instead of data
      dump copies?
      qKAI produces statements about resources
            for every resource a new qKAI URI is
            generated,
                    t d
            following REST/Linked Data paradigms,
            we get a Linked Data repository with semantic
            interlinking using seeAlso or sameAs
            description in RDF and OWL,
            qKAI stores only new information and not the
            provenance source while adding a new node
            to LOD.
      It is the foundation of a kind of „self-propelled data
      structure“ that grows by and by with increasing
      user interaction.

DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   9
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Quality of content

      Meta data can be seen as a quality feature:
             The more meta data we are snapping, the better we get to know the content.
             There is no absolute quality, but we can compare resources with each other (Open World
             Assumption) and weight them based on the amount and structure of meta information
                                                                                     information.
             Enrichment of a resource happens in the corresponding qKAI URI file.
      One example is a domain ranking visualized as tag clouds
             About which domain we get the most information right now?
      First level criteria:
             Meta data directly included in a resource like format,
             timeliness, author, provenance, language, …
             They can be determined with help of the Java framework Aperture
                                                                    Aperture.
      Second level criteria:
             User interaction for example with gaming jokers helps to
             enhance semantically correctness,
             after users have played j k
              ft         h      l   d jokers, ranking, annotation and
                                                 ki        t ti     d
             even semantic correction becomes possible.
      Third level criteria:
             Employing NLP (Natural Language Processing) might detect some more information hidden inside
             the resource b entity recognition: NER (N
              h           by   i         ii         (Named E i R
                                                         d Entity Recognition), P S (P of S
                                                                        i i ) PoS (Part f Speech)
                                                                                               h)
             Tagging or automated summarization, …

DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   10
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Game-based question answer creation

      We focus on question-answer games first
             gaming elements are a question, a answer and their assignment as knowledge unit,                    !        ?
      Creating questions and answers is the game itself – so we do not
      have to create gaming content laboriously before starting to play
             Users already get rewarded for creating questions and answers or completing
                                                                                                                     ?!
             them to a knowledge unit,
      multiple choice, text-text assignment image-text assignment or ordering questions are
               choice            assignment,
      available as learning standards in LMS too.
      This question types can be easily converted into IMS/QTI format after in game creation,
      embedding of multimedia is also possible.
      Gaming
      G i concepts are described th
                      t       d    ib d through ontologies and th user makes hi choice, what
                                              h t l i        d the        k his h i        h t
      he wants to ask for or what kind of questions he wants to answer
             type (person, location, object), domain like computer science or architecture, …), gaming type or
             question type.
      qKAI concepts use existing ontologies where possible to describe own domains persons
                                                                           domains,
      or themes
             YAGO, SKOS, Dublin Core, FOAF, Dbpedia, ….
      Game-based rating and ranking of content and interaction is done by in game joker options
      and a global point system to reward any kind of interaction.
                                                        interaction


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009                11
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




                                 Examples of gaming
                              components and sequences




DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   12
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Points of Interest (POI): personalized knowledge view

      At the beginning of an knowledge game – or even at many other interaction
      scenarios - we have to define the domain and the search space the user wants
      to play or interact with:
             The web complies to the open world assumption – so we are not able to present a
             absolute complete domain view.
             But we can offer what is available and let the user choose out of it.
             There are lots of domains and themes in the Web of Data.
                                                                   Data

      POI setter offers a frontend to
             limit the search space thro gh the qKAI service repositor
                                    through          ser ice repository,
             suggest available content and concepts,
             filter and select.
             This can be done thematically geographically or both
                                thematically,                 both.

      qKAI builds a personalized knowledge view this way
             handled as RDF graphs
                            graphs.


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   13
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 qFOAF: Semantic user profil

      We need a sustainable user profile to store gaming results and personal
      information in a transparent manner.

      qFOAF is build as qKAI resource in RDF at the beginning of a game
             as extended FOAF file (FriendOfaFriend) with unique URI for every user.
             It connects the user semantically with t i
                      t th              ti ll ith topics, k
                                                          knowledge units, other players, … step
                                                              l d     it    th    l          t
             by step while gaming
                   e.g. http://qkai.org/foaf/msteinberg/foaf.rdf


      The qFOAF file can be enriched
             (semi)automated with given information by the user
                   e.g.
                   e g by including existing FOAF files geocodes or interests
                                                  files,            interests.
             while gaming and interacting
                   with game points and content like created questions, answers, knowledge units, ratings, …
                   with domains, locations, friends, …
                        domains locations friends


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   14
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 qCHUNK: Game goal and sequence

      The user gets presented small textual
                                                                                              qCHUNK             qKAI
      information chunks (out of Wikipedia)
      and has to guess the quested term
      with as less chunks as possible
                                                                                              first chunk
      multimedia chunks like zoom parts out
      of images are conceivable too.
                                                                                              next chunk

      Chunk:
      Ch k ?? i the capital of Lower
                is th    it l f L
      Saxony founded in 1942.                                                                    solve

      Answer: Hanover.
                                                                                                 points


                                                                                               new game



DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009          15
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 SPARQLizer: Game-based SPARQL-Endpoint




      Translates questions                                                                     Available concepts are
      build by the user into                                                                   shown to the user by form
      SPARQL requests and                                                                      based GUI components
      returns human readable                                                                   he can choose of using
      answers out of SPARQL                                                                    auto completion and tag
      responses.                                                                               clouds.
DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009         16
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 SPARQLizer: example questions (questionizer)

      Which are the capitals of Europe?
      Which cities have famous buildings of the gothic epoch?
      …
      Which people are born in Berlin before 1900?


 SELECT ?name ?birth ?death ?person WHERE {
      ?person dbpedia2:birthPlace <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Berlin> .
      ?person dbpedia2:birth ?birth .
      ?person foaf:name ?name .
      ?person dbpedia2:death ?death
      FILTER (?birth < "1900-01-01"^^xsd:date) .
 }
 ORDER BY ?name


 Immanuel Becker
 Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy
 Achim von Arnim
 Adalbert von Preußen
 …

DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   17
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 SPARQLizer: Flickr text image question

      User gets presented randomized terms and images out of
      Flickr (Web 2.0 image sharing platform) and then has to
      assign the right term to the right image (multiple choice or
      drag & drop assignment)
                   assignment).

                        tags             qKAI




                  images + terms



                        solve


                        points



                      new game



DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   18
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 qMAP: Map-based geocode GUI

      Presents a gaming board for
      available knowledge units (questions
      and answers)
             Geocoded placement of locations,
             events, buildings, photos, persons, …
                                                                                     ?!                     ?
             currently e.g. a photo often knows
             where it is taken
                         taken.                                                                                            !
      qMAP provides a frontend for                                           ?                 !                 ?!
      interaction with filtering, searching,
      editing and adding of information or
            g             g
      knowledge units.                                                        ?!                                           ?
                                                                                                        ?
      OpenStreetMap or Yahoo Maps are
      good alternatives to Google Maps                                                                            ?!
                                                                                      !
             especially using Flash/Flex API.
      Map symbols are connected with
      different gaming interactions and                                      ?!                    ?!                  !
      information units.
                   nits

DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009                 19
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 qRANK
      Allows game-based rating and ranking of resources, information and knowledge units by
      joker options
            options,
      Know-it-all-joker bounds player to add missing information,
      Nonsense-joker marks information as semantically wrong and defers it to review mode by
      other users,
      Explorer-joker with predefined time, history-joker enables lookups in played transaction
      protocol, …

 qLINK
      Offers game-based interlinking with new resources,
      Linked Open Data basis will be enhanced,
               p
      new interlinking brings qPOINTS in qFOAF.


 qPOINT
      Is a global point and level system documenting learning progress and personal
      knowledge,
      every interaction is rewarded with qPOINTS
                                         qPOINTS,
      based on an interaction catalog with assigned points,
DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   20
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




 Conclusion

      Requirements are derived to reuse Open Data for knowledge transfer and learning.
      Shown on the example of knowledge games:
             Implemented atomic services allow rearrangement and are suitable for any other purpose in
             information and k
             i f     ti     d knowledge t
                                   l d transfer – not only f game-based use cases.
                                               f      t l for      b     d
             Services are adaptable to several domains like computer science, city guiding, history or
             architecture studies, philosophy, music theory, …

      Summarizing the main aspects in qKAI:
             We are designing and implementing a framework specification following REST, Linked Data und
             RIA paradigms,
             building a hybrid data store for distributed web resources with semantic interlinking,
                    g    y                                                                       g,
             creating incentive game-based interoperation using scalable web services and rich interoperation,
             determining and enhancing contents’ quality by analyzing meta data and enriching content with
             user’s in game annotations.
      Reusing and composing is a precept at all levels the challenge is to merge and to
                                                levels,
      expand:
             Resources, concepts (ontologies), frameworks, APIs, tools, libraries, …
             We are aiming at standardized, machine- and human readable staging of Open Data with
             lightweight interoperation
                         interoperation.


DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   22
Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture




              Thank you very much for your attention!




DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009   23

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Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer

  • 1. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer qKAI (qualifying Knowledge Acquisition and Inquiry) PhD research project at the Leibniz University of Hanover Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Institute of Systems Engineering System- and Computer Architecture DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 1
  • 2. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Outline Introduction What is the Social Semantic Web (S2W)? How do we define the term Open Data? Which l l Whi h role plays user i t interaction i h ? ti in here? Motivation and claims How to use Open Data in higher layered applications? higher-layered Refining the concept: Main requirements: resource handling, lightweight user interaction, quality of content. Main contribution and focus: The qKAI application framework serves as conceptual basis and system specification. A hybrid data layer embeds distributed resources and non redundant enrichment enrichment. Incentive interaction with Open Data is intended on the example of knowledge games: instancing gaming components and sequences. Summary and outlook DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 2
  • 3. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Introduction: Social Semantic Web (S2W) S2W is currently a trend towards a next generation of web applications mixing up Web 2.0 and Semantic Web technologies. Web 2.0 embeds users for content creation and ranking (prosumers: producer + consumer Mit Mach Web Read Write Web) consumer, Mit-Mach-Web, Read-Write-Web). Desktop-alike web applications with „Rich User Experience“ replace the traditional MVC2 model (RIA: Rich Internet Applications with usability focus). Semantic Web offers technology oriented data representation and p gy p processing in a formal, g , machine interpretable language (RDF: Resource Description Framework, W3C standard). Lack of user friendly, agile interaction scenarios in Semantic Web. Lack of standardized representation and re sabilit in reusability Web 2.0. Promising combination. g DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 3
  • 4. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Introduction: Linked Open Data (LOD) "A piece of knowledge is open if you are free to use, reuse, and redistribute it.” (Open Knowledge Foundation) Knowledge bases are numerously available in RDF as huge LOD in SW, partially linked with each other, h querying through SPARQL (Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language, W3C standard since 2008). ) Often redundant content in two representations as e.g. (X)HTML and RDF Wikipedia, F b Wiki di Freebase, Dbpedia. Additionally there are lots of resources outside of LOD like ( ) (X)HTML, databases, further , , wikis, multimedia, … DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 4
  • 5. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Introduction: the role of interaction Without interaction Open Data remains futile for the user. Obviously we need some kind of fancy interaction to deploy Open Data for further purpose. purpose Examples for interaction with Open Data: Semantic browsing, searching, grouping: Twine, Freebase, Dbpedia, Sindice, Powerset, Swoogle, St S l Stumpedia. di Rating and ranking: Revyu. SPARQL query tools very t h i l littl intuitive. technical, little i t iti Searching, displaying, editing, annotating and grouping of content. There is still little continuative advantage without much Incentive for the user to interact and deduce new knowledge. DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 5
  • 6. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Motivation and requirements How to reuse Open Data targeted in higher-layered applications? Provide standard tasks of knowledge engineering: Acquisition, formalization, representation, visualization. A i iti f li ti t ti i li ti Determine and enhance quality of content: Analyzes and enrichment of meta information. User’s opinion and knowledge to annotate, rate and rank content. The more we know about a resource, the better we can reuse it. Tackle T kl extended i d d interaction and i i d incentive f user's attendance: i for ' d Motivating, enjoyable scenarios inaugurating knowledge games, uniting fun and learning is a proved concept (serious games, assessment), strong focus on usability and lightweight intuitive interoperation lightweight, interoperation. Interoperation as possibility to deduce new knowledge, AFAWK: No applications available so far that are based on Open Data for knowledge transfer and learning learning. DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 6
  • 7. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture qKAI concept and focus We want to offer scenarios based on user-oriented web services for rich and lightweight interaction with Open Data: Therefore we have to implement standard tasks of knowledge engineering for extended interaction as a generic application framework, g pp available Java APIs for subtasks have to be combined and respectively extended, with a scalable, reusable and unifying software concept: Social Semantic Web and Service Oriented Architecture principles are considered as Dreamteam, retaining application autonomy with loosely coupling of remote resources and services becomes possible, paradigms like extensibility, addressability stateless communication are fulfilled extensibility addressability, fulfilled. Build a hybrid (Meta) data repository for distributed resources: to reach non redundant enrichment of existing resources through semantic interlinking. Qualify Open Data through meta data and interoperation: automated analyzes of meta data using the Aperture Java framework, at the user side we enrich content through interaction based on gaming joker options. Game-based knowledge transfer is instanced to simplify interoperation and enhance user g p y p participation. to enable a proposal of suitable use cases, API- and service compositions for deploying Open Data in knowledge transfer and learning. User-centered with „Rich User Experience“ using Flex/Flash because of high design and functionality issues. i DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 7
  • 8. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture qKAI application framework Designed according to a 5-tier-layer design, in combination of RIA model, mediator-wrapper , pp concepts and SOA. SOA/REST (Representational State transfer) paradigms stateless services and server with communication over http protocol. We get a stateful Client using Flex/Flash plugin. Desktop-alike applications with advantages like faster reaction to user requests, less network traffic and server load, offline usage possibility. We decided for a Rich Thin Client Business logic remains at server side, Rich UI Engine delivers GUIs, the presentation logic is divided from visualization components. Mediation layer as business logic or controller controller. „A mediator is a software module that exploits encoded knowledge about certain sets or subsets of data to create information for a higher layer of applications.“ (Wiederhold, 1992) Middleware, that connects available services with further technical components (Service Mediation). DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 8
  • 9. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture qKAI data layer: Linked Data How to annotate distributed resources with minimal redundancy, access to live resources and ability to change management instead of data dump copies? qKAI produces statements about resources for every resource a new qKAI URI is generated, t d following REST/Linked Data paradigms, we get a Linked Data repository with semantic interlinking using seeAlso or sameAs description in RDF and OWL, qKAI stores only new information and not the provenance source while adding a new node to LOD. It is the foundation of a kind of „self-propelled data structure“ that grows by and by with increasing user interaction. DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 9
  • 10. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Quality of content Meta data can be seen as a quality feature: The more meta data we are snapping, the better we get to know the content. There is no absolute quality, but we can compare resources with each other (Open World Assumption) and weight them based on the amount and structure of meta information information. Enrichment of a resource happens in the corresponding qKAI URI file. One example is a domain ranking visualized as tag clouds About which domain we get the most information right now? First level criteria: Meta data directly included in a resource like format, timeliness, author, provenance, language, … They can be determined with help of the Java framework Aperture Aperture. Second level criteria: User interaction for example with gaming jokers helps to enhance semantically correctness, after users have played j k ft h l d jokers, ranking, annotation and ki t ti d even semantic correction becomes possible. Third level criteria: Employing NLP (Natural Language Processing) might detect some more information hidden inside the resource b entity recognition: NER (N h by i ii (Named E i R d Entity Recognition), P S (P of S i i ) PoS (Part f Speech) h) Tagging or automated summarization, … DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 10
  • 11. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Game-based question answer creation We focus on question-answer games first gaming elements are a question, a answer and their assignment as knowledge unit, ! ? Creating questions and answers is the game itself – so we do not have to create gaming content laboriously before starting to play Users already get rewarded for creating questions and answers or completing ?! them to a knowledge unit, multiple choice, text-text assignment image-text assignment or ordering questions are choice assignment, available as learning standards in LMS too. This question types can be easily converted into IMS/QTI format after in game creation, embedding of multimedia is also possible. Gaming G i concepts are described th t d ib d through ontologies and th user makes hi choice, what h t l i d the k his h i h t he wants to ask for or what kind of questions he wants to answer type (person, location, object), domain like computer science or architecture, …), gaming type or question type. qKAI concepts use existing ontologies where possible to describe own domains persons domains, or themes YAGO, SKOS, Dublin Core, FOAF, Dbpedia, …. Game-based rating and ranking of content and interaction is done by in game joker options and a global point system to reward any kind of interaction. interaction DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 11
  • 12. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Examples of gaming components and sequences DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 12
  • 13. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Points of Interest (POI): personalized knowledge view At the beginning of an knowledge game – or even at many other interaction scenarios - we have to define the domain and the search space the user wants to play or interact with: The web complies to the open world assumption – so we are not able to present a absolute complete domain view. But we can offer what is available and let the user choose out of it. There are lots of domains and themes in the Web of Data. Data POI setter offers a frontend to limit the search space thro gh the qKAI service repositor through ser ice repository, suggest available content and concepts, filter and select. This can be done thematically geographically or both thematically, both. qKAI builds a personalized knowledge view this way handled as RDF graphs graphs. DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 13
  • 14. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture qFOAF: Semantic user profil We need a sustainable user profile to store gaming results and personal information in a transparent manner. qFOAF is build as qKAI resource in RDF at the beginning of a game as extended FOAF file (FriendOfaFriend) with unique URI for every user. It connects the user semantically with t i t th ti ll ith topics, k knowledge units, other players, … step l d it th l t by step while gaming e.g. http://qkai.org/foaf/msteinberg/foaf.rdf The qFOAF file can be enriched (semi)automated with given information by the user e.g. e g by including existing FOAF files geocodes or interests files, interests. while gaming and interacting with game points and content like created questions, answers, knowledge units, ratings, … with domains, locations, friends, … domains locations friends DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 14
  • 15. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture qCHUNK: Game goal and sequence The user gets presented small textual qCHUNK qKAI information chunks (out of Wikipedia) and has to guess the quested term with as less chunks as possible first chunk multimedia chunks like zoom parts out of images are conceivable too. next chunk Chunk: Ch k ?? i the capital of Lower is th it l f L Saxony founded in 1942. solve Answer: Hanover. points new game DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 15
  • 16. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture SPARQLizer: Game-based SPARQL-Endpoint Translates questions Available concepts are build by the user into shown to the user by form SPARQL requests and based GUI components returns human readable he can choose of using answers out of SPARQL auto completion and tag responses. clouds. DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 16
  • 17. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture SPARQLizer: example questions (questionizer) Which are the capitals of Europe? Which cities have famous buildings of the gothic epoch? … Which people are born in Berlin before 1900? SELECT ?name ?birth ?death ?person WHERE { ?person dbpedia2:birthPlace <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Berlin> . ?person dbpedia2:birth ?birth . ?person foaf:name ?name . ?person dbpedia2:death ?death FILTER (?birth < "1900-01-01"^^xsd:date) . } ORDER BY ?name Immanuel Becker Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy Achim von Arnim Adalbert von Preußen … DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 17
  • 18. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture SPARQLizer: Flickr text image question User gets presented randomized terms and images out of Flickr (Web 2.0 image sharing platform) and then has to assign the right term to the right image (multiple choice or drag & drop assignment) assignment). tags qKAI images + terms solve points new game DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 18
  • 19. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture qMAP: Map-based geocode GUI Presents a gaming board for available knowledge units (questions and answers) Geocoded placement of locations, events, buildings, photos, persons, … ?! ? currently e.g. a photo often knows where it is taken taken. ! qMAP provides a frontend for ? ! ?! interaction with filtering, searching, editing and adding of information or g g knowledge units. ?! ? ? OpenStreetMap or Yahoo Maps are good alternatives to Google Maps ?! ! especially using Flash/Flex API. Map symbols are connected with different gaming interactions and ?! ?! ! information units. nits DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 19
  • 20. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture qRANK Allows game-based rating and ranking of resources, information and knowledge units by joker options options, Know-it-all-joker bounds player to add missing information, Nonsense-joker marks information as semantically wrong and defers it to review mode by other users, Explorer-joker with predefined time, history-joker enables lookups in played transaction protocol, … qLINK Offers game-based interlinking with new resources, Linked Open Data basis will be enhanced, p new interlinking brings qPOINTS in qFOAF. qPOINT Is a global point and level system documenting learning progress and personal knowledge, every interaction is rewarded with qPOINTS qPOINTS, based on an interaction catalog with assigned points, DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 20
  • 21. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Conclusion Requirements are derived to reuse Open Data for knowledge transfer and learning. Shown on the example of knowledge games: Implemented atomic services allow rearrangement and are suitable for any other purpose in information and k i f ti d knowledge t l d transfer – not only f game-based use cases. f t l for b d Services are adaptable to several domains like computer science, city guiding, history or architecture studies, philosophy, music theory, … Summarizing the main aspects in qKAI: We are designing and implementing a framework specification following REST, Linked Data und RIA paradigms, building a hybrid data store for distributed web resources with semantic interlinking, g y g, creating incentive game-based interoperation using scalable web services and rich interoperation, determining and enhancing contents’ quality by analyzing meta data and enriching content with user’s in game annotations. Reusing and composing is a precept at all levels the challenge is to merge and to levels, expand: Resources, concepts (ontologies), frameworks, APIs, tools, libraries, … We are aiming at standardized, machine- and human readable staging of Open Data with lightweight interoperation interoperation. DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 22
  • 22. Institute of Systems Engineering – System- and Computer Architecture Thank you very much for your attention! DigitalWorld 2009 – eL&mL - M. Steinberg - Utilizing Open Data for interactive knowledge transfer - 05.02.2009 23