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Simon Côté-Lapointe, PhD candidate
École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information de l’Université de Montréal, EBSI
Avec l'appui financier du Fonds de recherche du Québec – Société et culture (FRQSC) et de la la Fondation
de BAnQ grâce à son Programme de soutien à la recherche
ACA 2017 : Archives, disrupted, June 8th, 2017, Ottawa.
New uses and users: thoughts on
exploitation, organization and
dissemination of digital audiovisual
archival records (DAAR)
Presentation outline
2
1. Definitions
2. New uses, new users
• Traditional uses and users
• New uses and digital users
3. Exploitation, organization and dissemination
• Exploitability and access
• Organization and dissemination
Introduction
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Definitions
4
Digital audiovisual archival
records (DAAR)
Audiovisual (broad sense)
• Audiovisual « concerns simultaneously hearing and
sight » (our translation, CNRTL, 2012, http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/audio-
visuel)
Characteristics of audiovisual records
• Temporality: moving images and/or recorded sounds
• They are technological mediums
Digital archival records
• Digital copy of a material record
• Digital-born record
Definitions
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
5
Some definitions
• Use of archives: Use of archives by a user in a specific context.
• Usage: the concrete action of a user on an archival record.
• Re-usage : « new use (of something) », the action of « using
again (what was already used) » (our translation, CNRTL, 2012,
http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/r%C3%A9utilisation).
• Exploitation : the moment when archives are used and, by
extension, all their potential uses.
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Definitions
New uses
New users
7
Traditional uses
New uses, new users
Traditional uses of archives (general)
• Historical use
• Implicit use more than explicit re-use
• Value of archives: evidential, informational (mostly)
Traditional uses of audiovisual archives
• Uses for audiovisual professional productions
• Value of archives: informational, patrimonial, artifactual
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
• Global dissemination
• Facilitate handling &
reuse
• Expansion of uses
8
Digital chain of use
The chain of use have changed in the digital environment
• More access
• More visibility
• More dissemination means
• More digitized documents
• More types of documents (audio,
video, etc.)
• Less mediation with institutions and
archivists
• Web 2.0 & 3.0
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
New uses, new users
9
New uses
The digital context allows :
• More access to audiovisual archival records, in particular
audiovisual records
• Facilitate the exploitation of audiovisual archival records
(manipulation, duplication, transformation, editorial treatment,
etc.)
New uses of DAAR
• More indirect and secondary uses
• Playful, creative (artists), educational, academic uses
• Emerging uses: aesthetical, materiality, emotion, affect, etc.
• More transformations of the original record
• Ex : archival remixes, interactive and educational websites,
multimedia installations , etc.
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
New uses, new users
10
Traditional users
Traditional archives users (general)
• Read records on the spot
• Are experts
• Ex : historians, genealogists, academic researchers.
Traditional audiovisual archives users
• Read records on the spot
• Are experts
• Ex : Filmmakers, media professionals (journalists,
graphic designers, etc.)
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
New uses, new users
11
The digital user
The digital environment modify the mediation between archives,
users and institutions
« Archives are becoming more aware that the demographics of users, especially in
online environment, is changing, no longer consisting primarily or exclusively of
researchers, but increasingly containing non-researchers [...] who search, browse,
or simply look around according to their personal or everyday-life information
needs (Adams, 2007; Huvila, 2008; Pugh, 2005). […] researchers also are beginning to have
non-traditional expectations of the archives, probably due to their overall
experiences with online databases, digital libraries, etc. » (Vilar et Šauperl, 2015, p.553)
Impact on theorical and empirical perspectives on users.
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
New uses, new users
12
New users
Archives users (general)
• New expectations and needs
• Read the records online
• Are inexperienced archives users
• Participative users
• New kind of users : internet user, the surfer-user, « stroller » (Dörk et al.,
2011), « refiner » et « harvester » (Tarsot-Gillery, 2016, p. 10)
• Ex : amateur genealogists, etc.
Audiovisual archives users
• Playful aspect (Ongena et al., 2013)
• Creative users (Lemay, 2013-2014)
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
New uses, new users
Exploitation, organization and
dissemination
14
Access
We cannot only give access to the information within the archives
anymore, but we need to make their re-use possible.
In the digital context, « Preservation is not based on the passive
preservation of contents which should be kept intact, but [...] on the
contrary rests on the active practice of [their] interpretation and
exploitation. » (our translation, Bachimont, 2009, p. 212)
« Archives fully achieve themselves only in their exploitation [... which then
becomes a] critical moment in the existence of records» (our translation, Lemay et
Klein, 2014, p. 93)
From dissemination for consultation purposes to dissemination for
exploitation purposes
Exploitation, organization & dissemination
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
15
DAAR’s exploitability
The need to improve access and exploitability of records for re-
use is particularly relevant to DAAR as access to these records
remains limited despite the development of new uses and users
of these types of records. (our translation, Stockinger, 2011; Dupeyrat et Malherbe, 2014).
« […] audio-visual content has become a vital component of historical and
cultural heritage (Oomen et al. 2009), in addition to a nation’s printed documents
and other historical artefacts (Auffret and Bachimont, 1999). […] The under-
utilisation of the unlocking initiatives of these digital audio-visual archives
remains however high […]. » (Ongena et al., 2013, p. 1216)
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Exploitation, organization & dissemination
16
Taking the creative exploitation in
account
« The audiovisual record is a complex object and its usage value is
multiple and stratified. A work of appraisal will have to take into
account a multiplicity of possible entries to read the document :
historical, entertainment, legal research, etc. » (our translation, Treleani,
2014, p. 22)
« The fact that archives are re-used […] enables to reach a new
public. The archivist should therefore consider in a better way re-
creation and artists because they potentially are excellent
ambassadors. […] [Some] type of archives are suited for creation
and re-use : these are audiovisual archives. » (our tarnslation, Bertrand, 2014,
p. 144-145)
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Exploitation, organization & dissemination
17
Organization and dissemination
Some thoughts
1. Describe and index audiovisual records according to their
potential re-uses, and not anymore according to their
preservation
2. Metadata at the level of the records to improve their
potential discovery on the web: The metadata is the
interface (Schaffner, 2009)
3. Copyrights: more information for users, during
acquisition, favor Creative commons, etc.
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Exploitation, organization &
dissemination
18
Organization and dissemination
Some thoughts
4. Take into account the different types of records and
content in the way we organize and disseminate them
« The needs and requirements of different types of users vary
and may even be dependent upon types of digital objects
they encounter and how they encounter them. » (Ross, 2002, p. 7)
5. Need of more studies on the actual uses of archives,
and on the uses of DAAR in particuliar
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Exploitation, organization &
dissemination
19
Organization and dissemination
Some thoughts
6. Take into account all the uses and potential users, now
and in the future, for the dissemination
7. Give access to more DAAR in direct free access
8. Keep traces of DAAR re-uses and highlight them
9. Encourage a collaborative approach between users,
archivists an institutions
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Exploitation, organization &
dissemination
20
Conclusion
Next steps:
• Consider the exploitation of archives in the archival life cycle
• Better characterize typologies of uses and users
• Define DAAR’s potential uses to improve their organization and
dissemination
• Keep the reflection going on users
• Take into account the creative uses in the DAAR’s organization
and diffusion
Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
Bibliography
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libraries, Paris, France. Repéré à https://who.rocq.inria.fr/Anne-
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23

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New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of digital audiovisual archival records (DAAR).

  • 1. Simon Côté-Lapointe, PhD candidate École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information de l’Université de Montréal, EBSI Avec l'appui financier du Fonds de recherche du Québec – Société et culture (FRQSC) et de la la Fondation de BAnQ grâce à son Programme de soutien à la recherche ACA 2017 : Archives, disrupted, June 8th, 2017, Ottawa. New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of digital audiovisual archival records (DAAR)
  • 2. Presentation outline 2 1. Definitions 2. New uses, new users • Traditional uses and users • New uses and digital users 3. Exploitation, organization and dissemination • Exploitability and access • Organization and dissemination Introduction Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
  • 4. 4 Digital audiovisual archival records (DAAR) Audiovisual (broad sense) • Audiovisual « concerns simultaneously hearing and sight » (our translation, CNRTL, 2012, http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/audio- visuel) Characteristics of audiovisual records • Temporality: moving images and/or recorded sounds • They are technological mediums Digital archival records • Digital copy of a material record • Digital-born record Definitions Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
  • 5. 5 Some definitions • Use of archives: Use of archives by a user in a specific context. • Usage: the concrete action of a user on an archival record. • Re-usage : « new use (of something) », the action of « using again (what was already used) » (our translation, CNRTL, 2012, http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/r%C3%A9utilisation). • Exploitation : the moment when archives are used and, by extension, all their potential uses. Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 Definitions
  • 7. 7 Traditional uses New uses, new users Traditional uses of archives (general) • Historical use • Implicit use more than explicit re-use • Value of archives: evidential, informational (mostly) Traditional uses of audiovisual archives • Uses for audiovisual professional productions • Value of archives: informational, patrimonial, artifactual Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
  • 8. • Global dissemination • Facilitate handling & reuse • Expansion of uses 8 Digital chain of use The chain of use have changed in the digital environment • More access • More visibility • More dissemination means • More digitized documents • More types of documents (audio, video, etc.) • Less mediation with institutions and archivists • Web 2.0 & 3.0 Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 New uses, new users
  • 9. 9 New uses The digital context allows : • More access to audiovisual archival records, in particular audiovisual records • Facilitate the exploitation of audiovisual archival records (manipulation, duplication, transformation, editorial treatment, etc.) New uses of DAAR • More indirect and secondary uses • Playful, creative (artists), educational, academic uses • Emerging uses: aesthetical, materiality, emotion, affect, etc. • More transformations of the original record • Ex : archival remixes, interactive and educational websites, multimedia installations , etc. Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 New uses, new users
  • 10. 10 Traditional users Traditional archives users (general) • Read records on the spot • Are experts • Ex : historians, genealogists, academic researchers. Traditional audiovisual archives users • Read records on the spot • Are experts • Ex : Filmmakers, media professionals (journalists, graphic designers, etc.) Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 New uses, new users
  • 11. 11 The digital user The digital environment modify the mediation between archives, users and institutions « Archives are becoming more aware that the demographics of users, especially in online environment, is changing, no longer consisting primarily or exclusively of researchers, but increasingly containing non-researchers [...] who search, browse, or simply look around according to their personal or everyday-life information needs (Adams, 2007; Huvila, 2008; Pugh, 2005). […] researchers also are beginning to have non-traditional expectations of the archives, probably due to their overall experiences with online databases, digital libraries, etc. » (Vilar et Šauperl, 2015, p.553) Impact on theorical and empirical perspectives on users. Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 New uses, new users
  • 12. 12 New users Archives users (general) • New expectations and needs • Read the records online • Are inexperienced archives users • Participative users • New kind of users : internet user, the surfer-user, « stroller » (Dörk et al., 2011), « refiner » et « harvester » (Tarsot-Gillery, 2016, p. 10) • Ex : amateur genealogists, etc. Audiovisual archives users • Playful aspect (Ongena et al., 2013) • Creative users (Lemay, 2013-2014) Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 New uses, new users
  • 14. 14 Access We cannot only give access to the information within the archives anymore, but we need to make their re-use possible. In the digital context, « Preservation is not based on the passive preservation of contents which should be kept intact, but [...] on the contrary rests on the active practice of [their] interpretation and exploitation. » (our translation, Bachimont, 2009, p. 212) « Archives fully achieve themselves only in their exploitation [... which then becomes a] critical moment in the existence of records» (our translation, Lemay et Klein, 2014, p. 93) From dissemination for consultation purposes to dissemination for exploitation purposes Exploitation, organization & dissemination Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
  • 15. 15 DAAR’s exploitability The need to improve access and exploitability of records for re- use is particularly relevant to DAAR as access to these records remains limited despite the development of new uses and users of these types of records. (our translation, Stockinger, 2011; Dupeyrat et Malherbe, 2014). « […] audio-visual content has become a vital component of historical and cultural heritage (Oomen et al. 2009), in addition to a nation’s printed documents and other historical artefacts (Auffret and Bachimont, 1999). […] The under- utilisation of the unlocking initiatives of these digital audio-visual archives remains however high […]. » (Ongena et al., 2013, p. 1216) Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 Exploitation, organization & dissemination
  • 16. 16 Taking the creative exploitation in account « The audiovisual record is a complex object and its usage value is multiple and stratified. A work of appraisal will have to take into account a multiplicity of possible entries to read the document : historical, entertainment, legal research, etc. » (our translation, Treleani, 2014, p. 22) « The fact that archives are re-used […] enables to reach a new public. The archivist should therefore consider in a better way re- creation and artists because they potentially are excellent ambassadors. […] [Some] type of archives are suited for creation and re-use : these are audiovisual archives. » (our tarnslation, Bertrand, 2014, p. 144-145) Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 Exploitation, organization & dissemination
  • 17. 17 Organization and dissemination Some thoughts 1. Describe and index audiovisual records according to their potential re-uses, and not anymore according to their preservation 2. Metadata at the level of the records to improve their potential discovery on the web: The metadata is the interface (Schaffner, 2009) 3. Copyrights: more information for users, during acquisition, favor Creative commons, etc. Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 Exploitation, organization & dissemination
  • 18. 18 Organization and dissemination Some thoughts 4. Take into account the different types of records and content in the way we organize and disseminate them « The needs and requirements of different types of users vary and may even be dependent upon types of digital objects they encounter and how they encounter them. » (Ross, 2002, p. 7) 5. Need of more studies on the actual uses of archives, and on the uses of DAAR in particuliar Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 Exploitation, organization & dissemination
  • 19. 19 Organization and dissemination Some thoughts 6. Take into account all the uses and potential users, now and in the future, for the dissemination 7. Give access to more DAAR in direct free access 8. Keep traces of DAAR re-uses and highlight them 9. Encourage a collaborative approach between users, archivists an institutions Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017 Exploitation, organization & dissemination
  • 20. 20 Conclusion Next steps: • Consider the exploitation of archives in the archival life cycle • Better characterize typologies of uses and users • Define DAAR’s potential uses to improve their organization and dissemination • Keep the reflection going on users • Take into account the creative uses in the DAAR’s organization and diffusion Côté-Lapointe – New uses and users: thoughts on exploitation, organization and dissemination of DAAR – ACA-2017
  • 21. Bibliography • Adams, M. (2007). Analyzing archives and finding facts: use and users of digital data records. Archival Science, 7(1), 21- 36. doi:10.1007/s10502-007-9056-4 • Auffret, G. et Bachimont, B. (1999, septembre). Audiovisual cultural heritage: From TV and radio archiving to hypermedia publishing. Communication présentée à la 3e European conference and research and advanced technology for digital libraries, Paris, France. Repéré à https://who.rocq.inria.fr/Anne- Marie.Vercoustre/EuroDL99/Proceedings/Auffret/EuroDL.pdf • Bachimont, B. (2009). Archivage audiovisuel et numérique : les enjeux de la longue durée. Dans C. Leblond (dir.), Archivage et stockage pérennes (p. 195-222). Paris, France : Hermès/Lavoisier. Repéré à http://cours.ebsi.umontreal.ca/sci6116/Ressources_files/Bachimont-Archivage.pdf • Bertrand, A. (2014). Valeurs, usages et usagers des archives. Dans Y. Lemay et A. Klein (dir.), Archives et création : nouvelles perspectives sur l'archivistique. Cahier 1 (p. 121-150). Montréal, QC : Université de Montréal, École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information (EBSI). Repéré à https://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1866/11324/lemay-y-klein-a-collaborateurs-archives- creation-cahier1.pdf • Coeuré, S. et Duclert, V. (2011). V / Publics des Archives, usages des archives. Dans Les archives (p.79-91). Paris, France : La Découverte. • Côté-Lapointe, S. (2015). Projet Archivoscope, archives et création [page web du projet]. Repéré à http://simoncotelapointe.com/?page_id=22 • CNRTL (Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales). (2012). Lexicographie. Repéré à http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/ 21
  • 22. • Dörk, M., Carpendale, S. et Williamson, C. (2011, mai). The information flaneur: A fresh look at information seeking. Communication présentée au SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, Vancouver, Canada. Repéré à http://mariandoerk.de/informationflaneur/chi2011.pdf • Dupeyrat, M. et Malherbe, C. (2014). Panorama des nouveaux usages des archives audiovisuelles. Dans E-Dossier de l’audiovisuel : L’Extension des usages de l’archive audiovisuelle (p.183-206). Repéré à http://www.ina-expert.com/e- dossiers-de-l-audiovisuel/panorama-des-nouveaux-usages-des-archives-audiovisuelles.html • Feliciati, P. et Alfier, A. (2013). Archives on the web and users expectations: Towards a convergence with digital libraries. Review of the National Center for Digitization, (22), 81-92. Repéré à http://eudml.org/doc/26131 • Freund, L. et Toms, E. G. (2016). Interacting with archival finding aids. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(4), 994-1008. doi:10.1002/asi.23436 • Heo, M. (2013). Assessing user needs of Web portals: A measurement model. Information Research, 18(2). Repéré à http://InformationR.net/ir/18-2/paper578.html • Huvila, I. (2008). Participatory archive: Towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management. Archival Science, 8(1), 15-36. doi:10.1007/s10502-008-9071-0. • Johnson, A. (2008). Users, use and context: Supporting interaction between users and digital archives. Dans L. Craven (dir.), What are archives (p.145-166). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. • Katuu, S. (2015). User studies and user education programmes in archival institutions. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 67(4), 442-457. doi:10.1108/AJIM-01-2015-0005 • Lemay, Y. (2013-2014). Archives et création : nouvelles perspectives sur l’archivistique. Archives, 45(1), 147-158. • Lemay, Y. et Klein, A. (2014). Les archives définitives : un début de parcours. Revisiter le cycle de vie et le Records continuum. Archivaria, (77), 73-102. • McCausland, S. (2011). A future without mediation? Online access, archivists, and the future of archival research. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 42(4), 309-319. doi:10.1080/00048623.2011.10722243 22
  • 23. • Oomen, J., Verwayen, H., Timmermans, N. et Heijmans, L. (2009). Images for the future: Unlocking the value of audiovisual heritage [en ligne]. Repéré à http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2009/papers/oomen/oomen.html • Ongena, G., Van De Wijngaert, L. et Huizer, E. (2013). Acceptance of online audio-visual cultural heritage archive services: a study of the general public. Information Research, 18(2) [en ligne]. Repéré à http://InformationR.net/ir/18- 2/paper575.html • Pugh, M. J. (2005). Providing reference services for archives and manuscripts (Archival Fundamentals Series II). Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists. • Ranjard, S. (2012). Usages et usagers de l’information : quelles pratiques hier et aujourd’hui? Paris, France : ADBS. • Ross, S. (2002). Position paper on integrity and authenticity of digital cultural heritage objects. Dans Digicult, integrity and authenticity of digital cultural heritage objects. Thematic issue 1 (p. 7-8). Repéré à http://www.digicult.info/downloads/thematic_issue_1_final.pdf • Roy, J. (2006-2007). Les usagers indirects des archives : d’un concept théorique à son application dans les études d’usagers. Archives, 38(2), 119-142. • Schaffner, J. (2009). The metadata is the interface: Better description for better discovery of archives and special collections, synthesized from user studies. Dublin, OH : OCLC Research. Repéré à http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2009/2009-06.pdf • Stockinger, P. (dir.). (2011a). Nouveaux usages des archives audiovisuelles numériques. Paris, France : Hermès science/Lavoisier. • Sundqvist, A. (2007). The use of records – a literature review. Archives & Social Studies, 1(1), 623-653. Repéré à http://archivo.cartagena.es/files/36-184-DOC_FICHERO1/sundqvist_use.pdf • Treleani, M. (2014). Mémoires audiovisuelles : les archives en ligne ont-elles un sens? Montréal, QC : Presses de l'Université de Montréal. 23