Public speaking <ul><li>‘ All great speakers were bad speakers once.’ </li></ul><ul><li>-Emerson  </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The skills and confidence of public speaking come from two things: hard work and practice. </li></...
<ul><li>It is true that no amount of reading and learning techniques from a book will turn you into a competent, confident...
‘ but how can I get practice’ <ul><li>Speak whenever you get the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>This will help you find you...
Preparation  <ul><li>There are techniques we can learn from experienced speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Many a speaker has used...
First questions <ul><li>As with any other communication, it is back to Why? Who? What? When? Where? And How? </li></ul>
When will it take place? <ul><li>Be sure that you have adequate preparation time- for both written material and visual aid...
How long? <ul><li>Are you to speak for? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the time adequate for your subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Remembe...
As one speaker said: <ul><li>‘  If you want me to speak for five minutes- I need two weeks to prepare. If you want me to s...
Where is it to take place? <ul><li>In surroundings familiar to your audience? Familiar to you? If not, try to visit the ve...
Who are to be present? <ul><li>Number, age and type of people, male or female, intellectual level, their current knowledge...
Why me? <ul><li>What special knowledge or position have you?  </li></ul><ul><li>What will the audience expect from you? </...
How? <ul><li>Are you expected to give a formal speech or lecture, or an introductory talk to provoke discussion? Will ther...
Adjust to circumstances <ul><li>In many a case there is likely to be a conflict between the desired circumstances and the ...
Developing the material <ul><li>Stage one –Think </li></ul><ul><li>you have selected your subject, now give the time to gr...
<ul><li>Think about the talk at  any convenient moment; a good time often presents itself when you are doing some other, u...
Stage Two- Read <ul><li>Read as much as time permits </li></ul><ul><li>Gather more material than you can possibly use, not...
Stage Three- construct your outline <ul><li>As with any carefully presented message, it will require an introduction and a...
<ul><li>‘ look after the beginning and the end…and the middle will take care itself.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Of course the midd...
Opening the talk <ul><li>The first few minutes are very crucial because: </li></ul><ul><li>-you may have to follow a speak...
Check points: creating a good opening impression <ul><li>Arrange the ‘stage’ on which you are to perform. Take a little ti...
<ul><li>Don’t hesitate; start as soon as the audience is settled, but take a few seconds to survey the audience and let th...
<ul><li>Don’t apologize. You may not that your knowledge, subject, ability or even presence is Upto the occasion  but the ...
<ul><li>Avoid too early a climax- interest will fall if the high standard of the opening cannot be sustained. </li></ul><u...
Check-points: A Dozen Ways to Start. <ul><li>Statement of subject or title- not very inspiring: they probably know your su...
<ul><li>Informal – for informal occasions. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ only the other day when I was with Yuookta M…’ </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Question- anticipate the type of questions your audience might want answered in connection with your subject: ‘ ar...
<ul><li>Mind reading- similar to the use of question. Anticipate the audiences preconceived ideas; bring these in to the o...
<ul><li>Anecdote – must be well told, relevant to the subject, brief and, if possible, personal ( the willingness to laugh...
<ul><li>Joke- if your experience tells you that you can do this well, then it may be worth risking it. But peoples sense o...
<ul><li>Facts and statistics – used sparingly they can get the audience to rise to the occasion. Most business or technica...
<ul><li>Quotation – perhaps the easiest method to use and often most effective. </li></ul><ul><li>the quotation should be ...
<ul><li>Shock – not just the gimmicky opening, firing revolvers or letting off explosions, which can often go wrong and ar...
<ul><li>Topical story – as opposed to the humorous story. Everyone likes a story- but only if it is skillfully chosen and ...
Closing the Talk <ul><li>Just as you need to attract the interest ;of the audience at the beginning of the talk, so you mu...
Check- points: Pitfalls to Avoid <ul><li>Avoid wandering towards the end. End on a high note which is relevant to all that...
<ul><li>Avoid repetition. In summing up the main points you have made, don’t repeat details or labor over points again. </...
<ul><li>Don’t give too many closing signals, e.g. ‘and finally’, ‘in conclusion’, ‘one other thing before I finish’, ‘then...
<ul><li>To avoid these pit falls, you need to have a closing plan which is an integral part of the development of your who...
Check-points: 10 Ways to Stop <ul><li>Summary- a fairly standard way to finish but nevertheless effective. A brief review ...
<ul><li>Questions- send the audience away to think of an answer. ‘This then is what we have to do. The question now is , h...
<ul><li>Story or anecdote- should be brief and to the point. A story can illustrate how your ideas have worked out in prac...
<ul><li>Alternative-  offer a choice of alternatives, or different solutions. The one you want accepted should be obvious ...
<ul><li>Dramatic-  if you carry it off by the dramatic use of your voice, or dramatic content, can certainly end things on...
<ul><li>Incentive- if you can suggest ways in which the audience can benefit ,some sort of a reward or an incentive, they ...
<ul><li>Fear- use of fear to gain action is risky because it can alienate the audience. But since it is often difficult to...
Visual Aids <ul><li>You do not have to be a graphic artist, but it helps! </li></ul><ul><li>please bear in mind the follow...
How can visuals aid my talk? <ul><li>Hand-outs and or visuals aid during the talk </li></ul><ul><li>Use pre- prepared visu...
<ul><li>Words alone are not visual aids- where you do use them provide visual impact by means of graphic devices:  </li></...
<ul><li>Don’t use overcomplicated visual aids – everybody in the audience must understand every aid and use by the time yo...
<ul><li>You must have a visual for everything you want your audience to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have a visual aid...
Use of Notes <ul><li>Why use notes? </li></ul><ul><li>-memories are faulty </li></ul><ul><li>-they guard against omissions...
Practicing the Talk <ul><li>Thorough preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Practice the whole...
Room and platform <ul><li>Room  –seating plan, windows, lighting, OHP, blackboard/whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>Platform  –...
Delivery of the Talk <ul><li>Be yourself! And look at the audience! </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the preparation and o...
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Public speaking.1

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Public speaking.1

  1. 1. Public speaking <ul><li>‘ All great speakers were bad speakers once.’ </li></ul><ul><li>-Emerson </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The skills and confidence of public speaking come from two things: hard work and practice. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>So how do you go about the hard work and practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s deal with the practice first. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It is true that no amount of reading and learning techniques from a book will turn you into a competent, confident speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Sachin Tendulkar then and Sachin now is a living example of what hard work and practice can do. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ‘ but how can I get practice’ <ul><li>Speak whenever you get the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>This will help you find your own particular strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Then learn to exploit your strengths and avoid your weaknesses </li></ul>
  5. 5. Preparation <ul><li>There are techniques we can learn from experienced speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Many a speaker has used Thesaurus for word selection </li></ul><ul><li>Many a speaker who speak impromptu, do not. </li></ul><ul><li>work has been done long before they reach the platform. </li></ul>
  6. 6. First questions <ul><li>As with any other communication, it is back to Why? Who? What? When? Where? And How? </li></ul>
  7. 7. When will it take place? <ul><li>Be sure that you have adequate preparation time- for both written material and visual aids. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How long? <ul><li>Are you to speak for? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the time adequate for your subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that, contrary to what may seem the case, the less time you have to speak, the more carefully planned your talk must be. </li></ul>
  9. 9. As one speaker said: <ul><li>‘ If you want me to speak for five minutes- I need two weeks to prepare. If you want me to speak for an hour- I need a week to prepare. If you don’t mind how long I speak, I’ll get up now and do it now,’ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Where is it to take place? <ul><li>In surroundings familiar to your audience? Familiar to you? If not, try to visit the venue before you speak and in any case check before-hand the type and size of the room, tiered seating or flat floor, acoustics, lighting, equipment available, etc. don’t hesitate to ask if particular arrangements are possible </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who are to be present? <ul><li>Number, age and type of people, male or female, intellectual level, their current knowledge of the subject, their reasons for attending and their attitudes. These will, of course, influence the ideas and the language you use. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why me? <ul><li>What special knowledge or position have you? </li></ul><ul><li>What will the audience expect from you? </li></ul>
  13. 13. How? <ul><li>Are you expected to give a formal speech or lecture, or an introductory talk to provoke discussion? Will there be a question session? </li></ul><ul><li>If there is to be a discussion or a question session then you might like to leave some things unsaid so that you leave your audience with some questions to ask and yourself with something fresh to say in answer to them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adjust to circumstances <ul><li>In many a case there is likely to be a conflict between the desired circumstances and the given circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Hence usually some modifications or compromises will be necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be time, audience size, equipment… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Developing the material <ul><li>Stage one –Think </li></ul><ul><li>you have selected your subject, now give the time to grow. </li></ul><ul><li># take time to gather and arrange your thoughts.. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Think about the talk at any convenient moment; a good time often presents itself when you are doing some other, usually manual job, like digging the garden, decorating your flat, or perhaps traveling to work or college. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the theme with friends and colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry a notebook or a card, on which to note ideas as they occur to you. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Stage Two- Read <ul><li>Read as much as time permits </li></ul><ul><li>Gather more material than you can possibly use, not only on the subject but also, for example possible quotations </li></ul><ul><li>Collect anecdotes and stories from newspapers and magazines. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stage Three- construct your outline <ul><li>As with any carefully presented message, it will require an introduction and a conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>However you do it, it should be logical and systematic. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>‘ look after the beginning and the end…and the middle will take care itself.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Of course the middle needs to be well structured if you are to achieve your goal </li></ul><ul><li>‘ men perish because they cannot join the beginning with the end.’ </li></ul>
  20. 20. Opening the talk <ul><li>The first few minutes are very crucial because: </li></ul><ul><li>-you may have to follow a speaker who for whatever reasons has had a great acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>-you may be the first or only speaker on that occasion and you have to cut the ice, so to speak, make the audience feel immediately that their attendance is worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>-you may, like most other people, feel far more nervous during the first few minutes </li></ul>
  21. 21. Check points: creating a good opening impression <ul><li>Arrange the ‘stage’ on which you are to perform. Take a little time before you start speaking to position your notes and visual aids so that you can use them comfortably. Make sure you have room to move between the table or lectern and the blackboard or OHP, that your notes are high enough to you to see without continually dropping your head </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Don’t hesitate; start as soon as the audience is settled, but take a few seconds to survey the audience and let them stock of you. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t open with clichés or hackneyed expressions, e.g. ‘it gives me great pleasure…’I want to thank you…(do this a little later or even towards the end of your talk) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Don’t apologize. You may not that your knowledge, subject, ability or even presence is Upto the occasion but the audience will be confident, if you start with the confidence that stems from being well prepared. </li></ul><ul><li>The opening must be something original and interesting enough to make them want to hear what you have to say </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Avoid too early a climax- interest will fall if the high standard of the opening cannot be sustained. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember it is only an opening- an introduction. Don’t make it too long. Keep it in proportion to the total length of the talk. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Check-points: A Dozen Ways to Start. <ul><li>Statement of subject or title- not very inspiring: they probably know your subject anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of your objective and the plan of your talk- a good safe way to start if you have adopted a deductive sequence, but if you are trying to persuade , you don’t want to give the game away too early. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Informal – for informal occasions. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ only the other day when I was with Yuookta M…’ </li></ul><ul><li>This has avoided giving the impression of ‘making a speech’ </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Question- anticipate the type of questions your audience might want answered in connection with your subject: ‘ are the days of kapoors’ over’? </li></ul><ul><li>The audience instinctively tries to arrive at an answer- and gives you an opening </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Mind reading- similar to the use of question. Anticipate the audiences preconceived ideas; bring these in to the open and correct them if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>“ if I were a member of the audience today I would be expecting to sit through another boring lecture on communication. But I have something more interesting …” </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Anecdote – must be well told, relevant to the subject, brief and, if possible, personal ( the willingness to laugh at yourself will usually win an audience) </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Joke- if your experience tells you that you can do this well, then it may be worth risking it. But peoples sense of humor differs radically, and if the joke falls flat you are worse off than before. Again, it must be well told, relevant and brief </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Facts and statistics – used sparingly they can get the audience to rise to the occasion. Most business or technical subjects offer many facts which will interest and inform your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>choose them carefully, make sure they are accurate and keep them simple. Contrasting facts can be particularly interesting: ”In 2003,an average of15000 people died of heart attacks while 25000 died in road accidents” </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Quotation – perhaps the easiest method to use and often most effective. </li></ul><ul><li>the quotation should be from a well known person or author known to the audience, and strictly relevant to your subject </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Shock – not just the gimmicky opening, firing revolvers or letting off explosions, which can often go wrong and are always to sustain. </li></ul><ul><li>shock can be created through effective use of words: ‘MBA is a waste of time and money…only fools do it…’ </li></ul><ul><li>pause to allow the shock to take effect, then: ‘ unless, of course, it is aimed at…’ </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Topical story – as opposed to the humorous story. Everyone likes a story- but only if it is skillfully chosen and told. Ideally it should have an intriguing twist and must lead into the subject </li></ul>
  35. 35. Closing the Talk <ul><li>Just as you need to attract the interest ;of the audience at the beginning of the talk, so you must finish on a high note. The effect of the speech which is other wise good can be damaged by its close </li></ul>
  36. 36. Check- points: Pitfalls to Avoid <ul><li>Avoid wandering towards the end. End on a high note which is relevant to all that has gone before </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t make a second speech. Even if you suddenly think of something else which is relevant don't be tempted. It is very easy, as the tension relaxes, to start developing a new line of thought which was not there in the body of thought earlier </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Avoid repetition. In summing up the main points you have made, don’t repeat details or labor over points again. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have finished before your allotted time- sit down. Don’t pad it out. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid having to rely on notes for your final remarks. Learn your closing words so that you can look at your audience as you reach your climax </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Don’t give too many closing signals, e.g. ‘and finally’, ‘in conclusion’, ‘one other thing before I finish’, ‘then, before you fall asleep’,… </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it is probably best to avoid a closing signal altogether </li></ul><ul><li>Your closing remarks should round off your talk, and therefore by implication your audience will know that your talk is complete. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>To avoid these pit falls, you need to have a closing plan which is an integral part of the development of your whole speech. In this way you won’t get lost at the end of your presentation. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Check-points: 10 Ways to Stop <ul><li>Summary- a fairly standard way to finish but nevertheless effective. A brief review of the important points leaves no doubt in the minds of your audience </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Questions- send the audience away to think of an answer. ‘This then is what we have to do. The question now is , how can we best achieve it’. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Story or anecdote- should be brief and to the point. A story can illustrate how your ideas have worked out in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Quotations- can indicate wide knowledge and therefore lend credibility to your performance. Must be relevant and must not be just tucked in for its own sake </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Alternative- offer a choice of alternatives, or different solutions. The one you want accepted should be obvious from the way you have constructed your presentation and you can give this one more weight than the others in the summary. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Dramatic- if you carry it off by the dramatic use of your voice, or dramatic content, can certainly end things on a high note </li></ul><ul><li>Action- you want action now, not later. So ask for it. Many of your audience will respond </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Incentive- if you can suggest ways in which the audience can benefit ,some sort of a reward or an incentive, they are even more likely to respond. An audience is less likely to forget your message if you offer a reason for taking action </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Fear- use of fear to gain action is risky because it can alienate the audience. But since it is often difficult to provoke the audience to action, you may be justified in using some element of fear if the end result is worthwhile. ‘you must act – now ! Before it is too late!’. </li></ul><ul><li>Conscience- pricking- same effect as above but less risky </li></ul>
  47. 47. Visual Aids <ul><li>You do not have to be a graphic artist, but it helps! </li></ul><ul><li>please bear in mind the following points </li></ul>
  48. 48. How can visuals aid my talk? <ul><li>Hand-outs and or visuals aid during the talk </li></ul><ul><li>Use pre- prepared visuals for complex inter-related ideas/ persuasive communication </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Words alone are not visual aids- where you do use them provide visual impact by means of graphic devices: </li></ul><ul><li>-underlining and boxes or circles </li></ul><ul><li>-bullets and dashes </li></ul><ul><li>-careful lay-out </li></ul><ul><li>-use of space </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Don’t use overcomplicated visual aids – everybody in the audience must understand every aid and use by the time you have finished with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals must complement what you say. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure there are no spelling mistakes </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>You must have a visual for everything you want your audience to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have a visual aid which you don’t need </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t have to be a professional to produce good visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Computers today have made things easy </li></ul>
  52. 52. Use of Notes <ul><li>Why use notes? </li></ul><ul><li>-memories are faulty </li></ul><ul><li>-they guard against omissions </li></ul><ul><li>-they help to develop a complicated close-knit argument </li></ul><ul><li>-they prevent loss of sequence </li></ul>
  53. 53. Practicing the Talk <ul><li>Thorough preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Practice the whole talk </li></ul><ul><li>-out loud </li></ul><ul><li>-in a similar-sized room </li></ul><ul><li>-using a tape recorder </li></ul><ul><li>-checking the timing </li></ul><ul><li>-do a dry run in front of friends/colleagues </li></ul>
  54. 54. Room and platform <ul><li>Room –seating plan, windows, lighting, OHP, blackboard/whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>Platform – room to move, supply of clean, covered water and glass, microphone, sit/stand </li></ul>
  55. 55. Delivery of the Talk <ul><li>Be yourself! And look at the audience! </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the preparation and on the four qualities below </li></ul><ul><li>-conviction/sincerity </li></ul><ul><li>-enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>-power of speech </li></ul><ul><li>-simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>These are the basic ingredients of all effective communication </li></ul>

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