Chapter 8: Children, Development & Culture

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Early Childhood Education: Learning Together
by Virginia Casper and Rachel Theilheimer
(c)2009 McGraw-Hill Publishing

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Chapter 8: Children, Development & Culture

  1. 1. Part Three: Knowing All Children "From the Inside Out": The Observation, Assessment and Teaching Cycle Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  2. 2. Chapter 8: Children, Development, and Culture Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  3. 3. Inclusive Classroom <ul><li>Both children with and without disabilities are together in the same classroom </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  4. 4. Nature <ul><li>The biological and genetic inheritance that each child receives from their parents </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  5. 5. Nurture <ul><li>The learned experiences of the world outside of the child’s body </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  6. 6. Disequilibrium <ul><li>A period in a child’s life where she appears fragile and not herself, characterized by sudden changes </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  7. 7. Developmental Milestones <ul><li>The sequence of children’s behaviors that correspond to different ages and developmental levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First complete sentence </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  8. 8. Resiliency <ul><li>The ability to recover or overcome earlier hardships </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  9. 9. Areas of Cultural Influence <ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>The role of adult authority </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of peer groups </li></ul><ul><li>The whole range of human functioning </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  10. 10. Temperament <ul><li>Refers to an individual child’s typical patterns of behavior, emotional reactions, general persistence, and ability to manage change </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  11. 11. Special Needs Children <ul><li>Require special adaptations in their everyday life and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Down Syndrome: A chromosomal disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autism: Difficulties with social interactions </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  12. 12. Mutual Influences on Development <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  13. 13. Domains of Development <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Social-emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Language and literacy </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  14. 14. Sensory Systems <ul><li>Vestibular system affects balance </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive system relates to body awareness </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  15. 15. Four Influences on Motor Development <ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Movement repertoire </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s intention </li></ul><ul><li>Current environmental situation </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  16. 16. Motor Skills <ul><li>Gross motor development : Supports actions for moving around the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor development : Supports more precise movements of the hand and fingers </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  17. 17. Cognition <ul><li>The ability to acquire, store, and make use of information </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  18. 18. Memory <ul><li>Ability to store concepts and ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate : extend and enrich their understanding of a concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate : recognize subtleties and differences among concepts </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  19. 19. Executive Function <ul><li>The ability to plan and carry out complex mental and physical actions </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  20. 20. Intentional Control <ul><li>A complex skill that includes the ability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To inhibit or control action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To direct and continue to pay attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To shift attention when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To figure out what aspect of a task is most important </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  21. 21. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) <ul><li>Characterized by difficulties stopping or controlling their actions and words or are easily distracted by sounds and movements </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  22. 22. Types of Language <ul><li>Receptive language : ability to understand what others say </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive language : ability to verbalize their own needs, feelings, and information </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  23. 23. Language <ul><li>A shared system of symbols and rules for expressing concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemes </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  24. 24. Concerns about Bilingualism <ul><li>Does hearing and speaking more than one language confuse a child? </li></ul><ul><li>Could it interfere with her language development? </li></ul><ul><li>Does speaking two languages interfere with reading acquisition? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it give an advantage to the child in these areas? </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  25. 25. Standard American English (SAE) <ul><li>The language that all children are expected to understand, speak, read, and write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialects : variations in a language form </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York
  26. 26. Reading Processes <ul><li>Understand the alphabetic principle </li></ul><ul><li>Develop phonemic awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to decode words </li></ul><ul><li>Mater comprehension </li></ul>Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York, New York

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