EEX 500 Survey of Education of Exceptional Students


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EEX 500 Survey of Education of Exceptional Students

  1. 1. Marie Michelle GLemaud EEX 500 Survey of Education of Exceptional Students Chapter 11 Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments Professor: Dr. Walter J. Cegleka November 21. 2005
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Children with physical disability and health impairment received special education under two IDEA disability categories: orthopedic impairment and other health impairments. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical disability can be </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopedic impairment which involves the skeletal system, bones, joints, limbs and associated muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromotor impairment involves the central nervous system and affects the ability to move and feel and certain parts of the body. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition (cont.) <ul><li>Other health impairments include diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cystic fibrosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical disability and health conditions can be congenital (child is born with it) and permanently chronic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prevalent <ul><li>2003-2004- it has been found that 67,772 children ages 6 and 21 received special education under the disability of orthopedic impairment and 449,093 children with other health impairments. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types and Causes of Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments <ul><li>Cerebral Palsy (CP ) </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disorder characterizes by nerve and muscle dysfunctions that affect body movement and muscle control. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be detected around the age of 2 to 3 but the more severe form can be diagnosed in the first few month of life. </li></ul><ul><li>It is treatable but not curable. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a disease, not fatal, not contagious, and not inherited. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cerebral Palsy (CP ) <ul><li>1/3 of children with CP have intelligent within or above the range, mild cognitive impairment, and/or moderate to severe mental retardation. </li></ul><ul><li>5% to 15% have hearing loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with CP can have hypotonia- a condition that involves floppy muscles in neck and trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be cause by accidents, injury, or illnesses that are prenatal (before birth) perinatal (at or near birth) or postnatal (soon after birth). </li></ul><ul><li>It has been found that 1,200 to 1,500 cases of CP are caused through post birth-trauma or accident. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Cerebral Palsy <ul><li>Spastic </li></ul><ul><li>is the most common form where the muscles contract and become tense (hypertonia). </li></ul><ul><li>They may be unable to grasp objects with fingers. </li></ul><ul><li>50% to 60% of individuals with CP have spastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Athetoid CP </li></ul><ul><li>is characterized by involuntary movements of the parts of the body that are affected, such as facial grimaces or hand twisting, or extending tongue out. </li></ul><ul><li>Ataxia CP: involves a lack of balance and hand use. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spinal Bifida <ul><li>Spinal Bifida is a congenial disorder in which the vertebrae do not enclosed the spinal cord as a result leaving the part of the spinal cord exposed. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Spinal Bifida </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal bifida occulta: is the malformation of the lower spine. The defect is not externally visible and because of that can stay without being detected. </li></ul><ul><li>Meningocele: is the less severe form in which the meninges or protective covering around the spinal cord bulge through an opening in the back during birth. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Spinal Bifida <ul><li>Myelomeningocele </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most common form and most severe type of spinal bifida-The spinal lining , spinal cord, and nerve roots all protruded. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are affected more than boys. </li></ul><ul><li>80% to 90% of children with this type have hydrocephalus which is the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in tissues surrounding the brain - can be treated by surgical procedure called shunting. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Muscular Dystrophy <ul><li>Is an inherited disease marked by progressive atrophy (wasting away) of the body’s muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>It is fatal in adolescent and young adults. </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 10 to 14 ability to walk can be totally lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe of the 40 types of Muscular dystrophy. </li></ul><ul><li>DMD affects only boys. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Spinal cord Injuries <ul><li>Can be caused by trauma, fracture of the vertebrae through gunshot, car accident (Whiplash), sport injuries or violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord injuries can result in paralysis base on the location of the injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Actor Christopher Reeve (superman) died as a result of a spinal cord injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Males age 13 to 30 are most likely to be affected. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Epilepsy and type of Seizures <ul><li>Seizure is a disturbance of movement, sensation, behavior and/or consciousness caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy is a chronically and repeatedly seizure. It is not a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Absence seizure (Petit mal) can occur approximately 100 times a day. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be viewed as daydreaming in which the individual can lose consciousness, blink eye or grow pale. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Epilepsy (cont.) <ul><li>Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (grand mal) </li></ul><ul><li>is the most severe type of seizure. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs several times during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>It not a medical emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with this type of seizure can lose consciousness and fall to the floor. The body shakes violently as the muscles contract and relax. Saliva may be forced from the month. </li></ul><ul><li>It can last 2 to 3 minutes. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Procedures for handling Tonic-clonic seizures <ul><li>Keep calm. Reassure the other students that the child will be fine in a minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Ease the child to the floor and clear the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Put something flat and soft under the child’s head and do not interfere with the movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the child gently onto his side to keep the air way clear so that salivary can drain away. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to force his mouth open. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to hold on his tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t put anything in his mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>When jerking movements stop, let the child rest until he regains consciousness. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Epilepsy (cont.) <ul><li>Complex partial seizure </li></ul><ul><li>Children can walk aimlessly or shout </li></ul><ul><li>It can last 2 to 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Simple partial seizure </li></ul><ul><li>It involves a sudden jerking motion with no loss of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>It can occur weekly or twice a year. </li></ul><ul><li>60% to 70% of children with epilepsy can be controlled with anti-epileptic drug </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diabetes <ul><li>It is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the body does not produce adequate insulin to process food efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>It is regulated by medication (injection of insulin) or diet and exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include: headache, weight lose, frequent urination and thirst, and cuts that take time to heal. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Diabetes <ul><li>Types I diabetes (Previously called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes) can be controlled by injection of insulin under the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Two conditions can occur: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia: (low blood sugar) also refer to as insulin reaction or diabetic shock which is a result of too much insulin in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperglycemia: (high blood sugar) is a gradual process in which too little of insulin in the blood. This can result in diabetic coma </li></ul><ul><li>*In case of unconsciousness an emergency medical treatment should be obtained immediately. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Asthma <ul><li>It is a chronic lung disease that usually starts in early childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include: wheezing, dry cough, shortness of breath and tight feeling in the chest. </li></ul><ul><li>Asthmatic attacks can brought by air pollutants, allergens such dust, pollen ect. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be controlled by medication </li></ul><ul><li>It is the leading cause of absenteeism in school </li></ul><ul><li>an estimation of 10 million of schools days are be lost yearly because of asthmas. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cystic Fibrosis <ul><li>It is a genetic disorder on children and adolescents in which the exocrine gland excretes thick mucus that can block the lungs and parts of the digestive system. </li></ul><ul><li>It can cause pulmonary disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Medication involves enzymes to facilitate digestion and solution to thin and loosen the mucus in the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>30 years ago the life expectancy of children was 8 years but with medication this has extended to 30 years. </li></ul>
  20. 20. AIDS <ul><li>It is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that weakens the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is found in the body fluid of infected person. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be transmitted through sexual interaction, blood to blood contact; affected pregnant woman can pass it to the unborn child. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no cure for AIDS, but there are drugs available to treat it </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 30 million people worldwide are affected with HIV </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S.A. it has been found that 9,000 children under the age of 13 are affected with HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with HIV/AIDS have neurological complication and developmental delay. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are not obligated to inform schools about their child having HIA/AIDS or any other health conditions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Attention Defect/Hyperactivity Disorder <ul><li>ADHD is diagnosed if six or more symptoms of either inattention or hyperactivity impulsivity are consistently presented in a child for a period of at least 6 months (See Fig. 11.2 Pg 438) </li></ul><ul><li>Most children with ADHD experienced emotional and behavioral problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are more likely than girls to be affected </li></ul>
  22. 22. Attention Defect/Hyperactivity Disorder <ul><li>ADHD is not recognized by IDEA; children with ADHD are served under the learning and emotional and behavioral disorder category and under section 504 in the rehabilitative Act which is a civil right law that provided protection to people with disabilities. They are also served under the other health impairment if the condition is strongly affected their academic performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Academically, ADHD students scored lower in achievement tests than their peers </li></ul><ul><li>30% repeat one to two grade levels </li></ul><ul><li>25% to 75% of ADHD children are diagnosed of having learning disability. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective treatments include: medication and behavior management. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Types of ADHD <ul><li>Combine type -50% of children are diagnosed with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant inattentive type-30% children are affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant Hyperactive impulsive- consist of 20% of children being affected. </li></ul>