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Neurology terms

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Neurology terms

  1. 1. Neurology Disorders
  2. 2. Terms Included Acid Lipase Disease Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Neurological Complications of AIDS Alzheimers Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Cerebral Aneurysms Aphasia Asperger Syndrome Autism Brain and Spinal Tumors Traumatic Brain Injury
  3. 3. Terms Included Carpel Tunnel Cerebral Palsy Coma Dyslexia Epilepsy Huntington’s Disease Meningitis Narcolepsy Parkinson’s Disease Tourette Syndrome
  4. 4. Acid Lipase Disease  What is Acid Lipase Disease ?  Body does not break down fats  Resulting in toxic build up  Lipid ex.- waxes, oil, cholesterol  Treatment?  Certain drugs can be used  Low cholesterol diet  Prognosis?  Varieshttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/acid_lipase/acid_lipase.htm
  5. 5. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  What is Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder?  Neurobehavioral disorder  3-5% of all American children are diagnosed  Inability to focus on a task  Inability to act one’s age  Treatments  Medications such as:  methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)  Prognosis  No curehttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/adhd/adhd.htm
  6. 6. Neurological Complications of AIDS  What are Neurological Complications of AIDS?  Predominately located in the Immune system  Evoked by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),  Possible complications include:  AIDS dementia complex  Encephalitis  Neuropathy  Neurosyphilishttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/aids/aids.htm
  7. 7. Neurological Complications of AIDS  Is there any treatment?  No cure  Several possible therapies/treatments such as:  antiepileptic drugs  Opiates  Corticosteroids  Radiation therapy  Chemotherapyhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/aids/aids.htm
  8. 8. Alzheimers Disease  What is Alzheimers Disease?  Non-reversible brain disorder  Develops over a period of time in the latter years of life.  Memory loss and confusion  Alterations in behavior and/or personality  Degeneration in cognitive abilities  Caused by the death of particular neurons  Also related to Dementiahttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/alzheimersdisease/alzheimersdisease.htm
  9. 9. Alzheimer’s Disease  Connected with AD:  Amyloid plaques  Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs)  Loss of connections between neurons responsible for memory and learning.  Treatment?  No way to reverse damage  Medications:  Donepezil (Aricept)  Rivastigmine (Exelon)  Galantamine (Razadyne)  Memantine (Namenda)http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/alzheimersdisease/alzheimersdisease.htm
  10. 10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)?  AKA- Lou Gehrigs disease  Develops at an alarming rate  Attacks nerve cells that regulate voluntary muscles  Fatal  Treatment?  No cure  One medication- Riluzolehttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/amyotrophiclateralsclerosis/ALS.htm
  11. 11. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)  Prognosis?  Muscle weakness and atrophy will eventually spread throughout the body  Difficulty:  Swallowing  Speaking  Forming words  Future with ALS  Inability to perform daily taskshttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/amyotrophiclateralsclerosis/ALS.htm
  12. 12. Cerebral Aneurysms  What is Cerebral Aneurysms?  Enlargement and possible rupture of an artery in the brain  Any age  Before rupture:  Could or could not have symptoms  Immediately after:  Severe headache  Nausea,  Vision impairment  Vomiting  Loss of consciousness.http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_aneurysm/cerebral_aneurysms.htm
  13. 13. Cerebral Aneurysms  Treatment?  Surgery  Catheter insertion  Prognosis?  Depends  Early diagnosis is crucialhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_aneurysm/cerebral_aneurysms.htm
  14. 14. Aphasia  What is Aphasia?  Affects the brain  Affects language  Not a disease  Result of brain damage  4 categories of Aphasia  (1) Expressive aphasia  (2) Receptive aphasia  (3) Anomic or amnesia aphasia  (4) Global aphasiahttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/aphasia/aphasia.htm
  15. 15. Aphasia  Treatment?  Language/speech therapy  Prognosis?  Depends on age and location of injuryhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/aphasia/aphasia.htm
  16. 16. Asperger Syndrome  What is Asperger Syndrome?  Developmental disorder  Related to Autism  Most common symptom:  Obsessive interest  Treatment?  Therapy  Early diagnosis/intervention  Structured environments  Prognosis?  Possibly able to cope  Need of life-long supporthttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/asperger/asperger.htm
  17. 17. Autism  What is Autism?  Problems with:  Social interaction  Verbal and nonverbal communication  Repetitive and obsessive behaviors  Treatment?  No cure  Therapies  Behavioral assistance  Prognosis?  Epilepsy or seizure- like brain functions  Depressionhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/autism.htm
  18. 18. Brain and Spinal Tumors  What are Brain and Spinal Tumors?  Tissue growths  Can be benign or malignant  Can hinder functions  Treatment?  Surgery  Radiation  Chemotherapy  Steroids  Prognosis?  Depends on size  Depends on if benign or malignanthttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brainandspinaltumors/brainandspinaltumors.htm
  19. 19. Traumatic Brain Injury  What is Traumatic Brain Injury?  Abrupt trauma to the brain, such as:  Strike to the brain  Something pierces skull and goes through brain tissue  Symptoms:  Alert or not alert  Headache  Confusion  Light-headed  Blurred vission  Changes in moodhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/tbi.htm
  20. 20. Traumatic Brain Injury  Treatment?  Seek medical attention ASAP  Could need Oxygen  Adequate blood flow  Managing blood pressure  Prognosis?  Surgery for repair  Could cause an array of disabilitieshttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/tbi.htm
  21. 21. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?  Squeezing of a key nerve (AKA median nerve) in the wrist  Symptoms:  Pain  Weakness  More likely to obtain CTS if:  preform repetitive work tasks  such as:  assembly line work  ASL interpretershttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/carpal_tunnel/carpal_tunnel.htm
  22. 22. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  Treatment?  Rest for a few weeks  Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as:  Aspirin  Ibuprofen  Prednisone  Steroid injections  Prognosis?  Treatment  Surgeryhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/carpal_tunnel/carpal_tunnel.htm
  23. 23. Cerebral Palsy  What is Cerebral Palsy?  Life-long damage to body movement and muscle coordination  Do not worsen  Abnormalities in the brain cause CP  Treatment?  No cure  Therapy  Medications  Orthopedic devices to assist daily activitieshttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy.htm
  24. 24. Coma  What is Coma?  AKA- persistent vegetative state  Extreme state of unconsiousness  Alive but unable to move or be coherent  Treatment?  Physical therapy  Prognosis?  Typcially lasts 2-4 weeks  Depends on severity and longevityhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/coma/coma.htm
  25. 25. Dyslexia  What is Dyslexia?  Learning disability  Trouble reading and phonological processing  Treatment?  Adjustments to teaching methods  Prognosis?  Typically good but mixed and hard to tellhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dyslexia/dyslexia.htm
  26. 26. Epilepsy  What is Epilepsy?  Brain disorder  Neuronal activity is agitated  Can cause several types of seizures  Treatment?  Medicines  Surgery  Prognosis?  No cure  Can cause brain damage  Possibly fatalhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/epilepsy/epilepsy.htm
  27. 27. Huntington’s Disease  What is Huntingtons Disease?  Genetically programmed degeneration ofnerurons  Thus causes:  Uncontrolled movements  Loss of intellectual faculties  Emotional disturbance  Obtain through genetics  Teatment?  Tetrabenazine  Exercise  What is the prognosis?  Can not stop  Can not reversehttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm
  28. 28. Meningitis  What are Meningitis?  Inflammatory diseases of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord  Caused by bacterial or viral infections  Viral meningitis-AKA- aseptic meningitis  Symptoms:  High fever  Severe and persistent headache  Stiff neck  Nausea  Vomitinghttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalitis_meningitis/encephalitis_meningitis.htm
  29. 29. Meningitis  Is there any treatment?  Antiviral medications  Antibiotics  Anticonvulsants  Corticosteroids  What is the prognosis?  Varieshttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalitis_meningitis/encephalitis_meningitis.htm
  30. 30. Narcolepsy  What is Narcolepsy?  Chronic neurological disorder  Brain can not regulate sleep-wake cycles normally  Can fall asleep at random times during the day  Treatment  No cure  Medications:  Modafinil  Tricyclics (including imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, and protriptyline)  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (including fluoxetine and sertraline)http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/narcolepsy/narcolepsy.htm
  31. 31. Narcolepsy  What is the prognosis?  Medications can allow alertness  EDS and cataplexy can be controlledhttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/narcolepsy/narcolepsy.htm
  32. 32. Parkinson’s Disease  What is Parkinsons Disease?  Due to the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells  Symptoms:  Tremor  Rigidity  Bradykinesia  Could be limited in performing daily activitieshttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/parkinsons_disease.htm
  33. 33. Parkinson’s Disease  Treatment?  No cure  Medications:  levodopa combined with carbidopa  Anticholinergics  Bromocriptine  Pramipexole  Ropinirole  Prognosis?  Continues over time  Progresseshttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/parkinsons_disease.htm
  34. 34. Tourette Syndrome  What is Tourette Syndrome?  Repetitive movements  Such as:  Eye movements  Blinking  Shoulder shrugging  AKA – tics  Treatment?  Medication  Prognosis?  Life-long  Symptoms tend to improve over timehttp://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/tourette.htm
  35. 35. References http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/disorder_index.htm

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