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How to
Teach It
So They
Learn It
      by
Sharon Bowman
For anyone who wants
   to teach content
   in ways listeners
       can learn,
 remember, and use
    the information
       they hear.
You have this much
 content to teach
in this much
    time.
Important                                        I need to teach




                          I need to give it.
                                                  it all. They need
Information



                          They need to
                                                  to learn it all.
           It’s ALL




                          get it.
           important                           Can’t leave     Words
           information.                        anything out.
                                                               Words
CONCEPTS


           CONTENT
                                                               Words
                                                               Words
                                                               Words
                          Major Ideas and Minor Ideas
           DETAILS
           DETAILS
           DETAILS



                               Lecture                  Need-to-Know and
                                                          Nice-to-Know
                               Material
Important                                        I need to teach




                          I need to give it.
                                                  it all. They need
Information



                          They need to
                                                  to learn it all.
           It’s ALL




                          get it.
           important                           Can’t leave     Words
           information.                        anything out.
                                                               Words
CONCEPTS


           CONTENT
                                                               Words
                                                               Words
                                                               Words
                          Major Ideas and Minor Ideas
           DETAILS
           DETAILS
           DETAILS



                               Lecture                  Need-to-Know and
                                                          Nice-to-Know
                               Material
ve to
           T ha g.
         NO ythin
     d o er
Y ou h ev
   te ac
Now, before you
         read further,



 get some paper
    and a pencil …
and
write this
 down:
Teac
     h o
need     nly
      -to-     the
           kno
               ws.
W hat a re the
        to-kno ws?”
“ need-
“Need-to-knows”
are pieces of content
that are CRUCIAL to the
learning or to the
learner’s job.
“Need-to-knows” are
ALWAYS tied to the
learning objectives of
the class or training.
ma
     critical
                       jor
                           co                im   portant
                                nce                   res for
informat
          ion for                   pts    procedu ency
                                                         i
  job succ
           ess                             sk ill profic



                Need-to-Knows

            s
        idea
   main                 crucial content that is tied to
                           the learning objectives
“Nice-to-knows”
are pieces of content
that are NOT crucial
to the learning
or to the
learner’s job.
“Nice-to-knows” are
NOT necessary in order
to meet the learning
objectives of the
class or training.
ce pts                 ures
      ra n for
    xt io                  on                    proced y
   e t              or
                         c                   ning ficienc
       a cess     in                fine-tu ll pro
     m                                         i
   or suc        m                     f or sk
inf job
                                                supporting
                                                  details
              Nice-to-Knows

     rucial       topic-related information that
non-c t
  conten               might not be tied to
                     the learning objectives
How do you
figure out
what content is
“need-to-know?”
First,
write down
   the title
of your topic
  (subject).
Next,
 write down
your learning
 objectives.
“Learning objectives”
are sentences that
describe what the
LEARNER will be
able TO DO when
the class or
training is over.
They are guidelines for
content, instruction, and
evaluation.



      They help you determine
      what the need-to-know
      content will be.
If you need help in writing learning objectives,
click on Sharon Bowman’s Slide Share micro-course
        titled: “How to Design Great Training:
              Begin with the End in Mind.”
EXAMPLE
Topic: Accelerated
Learning

Learning Objectives:

The learner will be able
to define and describe
5 Accelerated Learning
principles.

The learner will be able to
demonstrate an example
of each of the 5 principles.
EXAMPLE                  Ask yourself:
Topic: Accelerated             What content will
Learning
                               learners need to
Learning Objectives:
                               know in order to
The learner will be able
to define and describe            meet these
5 Accelerated Learning
principles.                       objectives?
The learner will be able to
demonstrate an example
of each of the 5 principles.
Write a list
     of the
need-to-know
content that
 is tied to the
    learning
  objectives.
EXAMPLE
Topic: Accelerated             Need-to-Know Content:
Learning
                               Definition of 5 AL
Learning Objectives:           principles.

The learner will be able       Descriptions of the
to define and describe         principles.
5 Accelerated Learning
principles.                    Examples of each of the 5
                               principles.
The learner will be able to
demonstrate an example         Demonstrations of the 5
of each of the 5 principles.   principles in action.
Teach the
   content on               Need-to-Know Content:



     this list.
                            Definition of 5 AL
                            principles.

                            Descriptions of the
                            principles.

                            Examples of each of the 5
                            principles.

                            Demonstrations of the 5
Use lecture segments,       principles in action.
learner activities,
slides, handouts, videos,
props, and wall charts.
Now for the
million dollar question…
Que  s t i on :
                    eed to   know
D o l ea r ners n
                g YOU      k n ow
   eve  rythin
              t the    topic?
       abou
Que  s t i on :
                    eed to   know
D o l ea r ners n
                g YOU      k n ow
   eve  rythin
              t the    topic?
       abou
               Answer:
             They DO
                     N’T.
They only need to know
   what is important
 to be able to complete
the learning objectives.
After determining
what your need-to-
know content is,
what’s next?
Write this
 down:
ten-  Teac
     min   h in
         ute
             chu
                 n   ks.
Divide your content into
lecture segments (chunks) of
about 10-20 minutes in length.
Divide your content into
lecture segments (chunks) of
about 10-20 minutes in length.


                  H Y ?
                 W
Divide your content into
lecture segments (chunks) of
about 10-20 minutes in length.


                     H Y ?
                    W
          Because that’s about how
          long a learner’s brain can stay
          focused without drifting off.
In between each
lecture segment,
learners do a
1-minute active
review of content.
Examples of 1-Minute
             Active Reviews
* Pair-Share – With a partner, learners discuss the
       major concepts from the lecture.
* Think and Write – Learners write summary statements
      about what they have learned.
* Shout Out – Learners take turns verbally stating
      important facts until a pre-determined number
      of statements is reached.
*   Stand, Stretch, and Speak – While standing up
       learners take turns leading a physical stretch
       and verbally summarizing the major concepts.
       The other learners copy each stretch.
Write this
reminder:
Use
acti       1-m
     ve r       inut
  lectu   evie       e
               ws b
         re se      etwe
               gme       en
                    nts.
What about
DURING a lecture
segment?




What should learners DO
besides listening?
Learners
should take
notes on a
graphic
organizer.
A graphic organizer is a
visual-spatial note-taking
page that you give to learners,
or learners make for themselves,
before the instruction begins.
CORNELL NO
              TES                 Some Examples of
Main
            Supportin
                        g         Graphic Organizers
               Facts
Ideas

                                                     MIND MAP




                                       Major
                                      Concept          Topic

  Summary
                                                                 Ma
                                                               Ide jor
                                       Suppo                      as
                                             rting
                                        Detail
                                              s

                            CONCEP
                                  T   MAP
More Examples of
               Graphic Organizers
 * Windowpane – Learners fold blank paper into 4, 8, or 16
boxes (“windowpanes”). They summarize or draw an image of
an important fact in each box.
 * Fill-in-the-Blanks – Learners fill in a pre-made worksheet that
is missing important words or phrases.
 * Blackout Bingo – Using a windowpane worksheet (see above),
learners print a topic-related word or phrase in each box from a
list you give them. When they hear you explain a concept from
their “Bingo” sheet, they circle it or cross it out. When they have
all boxes marked, they call out “Bingo!” and receive a round of
applause.
Do a Google search for more
 “graphic organizers” and for
free examples and templates.
Write
 another
reminder:
Give
grap   lear
     hic     ners
         orga     a
      to u     nize
           se.      r
Think
         and Click
The next slide lists some concepts
from this micro-course. Read the
list and decide which items are
“need-to-know” and which are
“nice-to-know.”

Write your answers down and
then check them by clicking to
the slide that follows the list.
List of Concepts
1   Teach only the need-to-knows.

2   Include the nice-to-know content only if you have time.

3   Teach in 10-minute chunks.

4   10 minutes is a guideline, not a hard and fast rule.

5   Use 1-minute active reviews between lecture segments.

6   Sometimes review activities can last longer than 1 minute.

7   Give learners a graphic organizer to use.

8   Learners can also make their own note-taking page.
List of Concepts
1   Teach only the need-to-knows. Need-to-Know

2   Include the nice-to-know content only if you have time.
             Nice-to-Know

3   Teach in 10-minute chunks. Need-to-Know

4   10 minutes is a guideline, not a hard and fast rule. Nice-to-Know

5   Use 1-minute active reviews between lecture segments.
            Need-to-know

6   Sometimes review activities can last longer than 1 minute.
                   Nice-to-Know

7   Give learners a graphic organizer to use. Need-to-Know

8   Learners can also make their own note-taking page. Nice-to-Know
My N
   Teac
                          otes
          h on
               ly th
   Teac              e ne
                          ed-t
         h in                  o-kn
               10-m                 ows.
  Use                inut
       1-m                e ch
 lectu      inut               unk
                 e ac              s.
        re se         tive
              gme          revi
Give              nts.          ews
      lear                          betw
            ners                          een
                 a gr
                       aph
                           ic o
                                rgan
                                      izer
                                           to   use.
My A
               ctio
                    n PL
    How
  hav   do y
                         an
       e lea o    u
             rned plan to
                   from       use
    Writ                  this      wha
         e yo                   mic       t yo
 post         ur a                   ro-c      u
      i
 rem t where       ctio                     ours
                                                 e?
     ind
          you    you n plan
the
    next       to u can see down a
           time     se th        it. I       nd
                          is in        t
                 you
                      teac      form will
                            h or       atio
                                  trai       n
                                         n.
C1 – Connections




                                                  C2
                                               Concepts
This slide presentation was an
                                           C3 – Concrete Practic
introduction to Step 2 of an                                    e
instructional design and delivery
model known as: “The 4Cs Map.”

To learn how to use all four steps         C4 – Conclusions
of the 4Cs Map, see Sharon Bowman’s
Slide Share micro-course titled “How to
Map Your Instruction in 4 Simple Steps.”
Content from books by
   Sharon Bowman




       www.amazon.com for book purchases
     www.Bowperson.com for free book excerpts
Sharon
Bowman


www.Bowperson.com
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How to Teach It So They Learn It!

  • 1. How to Teach It So They Learn It by Sharon Bowman
  • 2. For anyone who wants to teach content in ways listeners can learn, remember, and use the information they hear.
  • 3. You have this much content to teach
  • 4. in this much time.
  • 5. Important I need to teach I need to give it. it all. They need Information They need to to learn it all. It’s ALL get it. important Can’t leave Words information. anything out. Words CONCEPTS CONTENT Words Words Words Major Ideas and Minor Ideas DETAILS DETAILS DETAILS Lecture Need-to-Know and Nice-to-Know Material
  • 6. Important I need to teach I need to give it. it all. They need Information They need to to learn it all. It’s ALL get it. important Can’t leave Words information. anything out. Words CONCEPTS CONTENT Words Words Words Major Ideas and Minor Ideas DETAILS DETAILS DETAILS Lecture Need-to-Know and Nice-to-Know Material
  • 7.
  • 8. ve to T ha g. NO ythin d o er Y ou h ev te ac
  • 9. Now, before you read further, get some paper and a pencil …
  • 11. Teac h o need nly -to- the kno ws.
  • 12. W hat a re the to-kno ws?” “ need-
  • 13. “Need-to-knows” are pieces of content that are CRUCIAL to the learning or to the learner’s job.
  • 14. “Need-to-knows” are ALWAYS tied to the learning objectives of the class or training.
  • 15. ma critical jor co im portant nce res for informat ion for pts procedu ency i job succ ess sk ill profic Need-to-Knows s idea main crucial content that is tied to the learning objectives
  • 16. “Nice-to-knows” are pieces of content that are NOT crucial to the learning or to the learner’s job.
  • 17. “Nice-to-knows” are NOT necessary in order to meet the learning objectives of the class or training.
  • 18. ce pts ures ra n for xt io on proced y e t or c ning ficienc a cess in fine-tu ll pro m i or suc m f or sk inf job supporting details Nice-to-Knows rucial topic-related information that non-c t conten might not be tied to the learning objectives
  • 19. How do you figure out what content is “need-to-know?”
  • 20. First, write down the title of your topic (subject).
  • 21. Next, write down your learning objectives.
  • 22. “Learning objectives” are sentences that describe what the LEARNER will be able TO DO when the class or training is over.
  • 23. They are guidelines for content, instruction, and evaluation. They help you determine what the need-to-know content will be.
  • 24. If you need help in writing learning objectives, click on Sharon Bowman’s Slide Share micro-course titled: “How to Design Great Training: Begin with the End in Mind.”
  • 25. EXAMPLE Topic: Accelerated Learning Learning Objectives: The learner will be able to define and describe 5 Accelerated Learning principles. The learner will be able to demonstrate an example of each of the 5 principles.
  • 26. EXAMPLE Ask yourself: Topic: Accelerated What content will Learning learners need to Learning Objectives: know in order to The learner will be able to define and describe meet these 5 Accelerated Learning principles. objectives? The learner will be able to demonstrate an example of each of the 5 principles.
  • 27. Write a list of the need-to-know content that is tied to the learning objectives.
  • 28. EXAMPLE Topic: Accelerated Need-to-Know Content: Learning Definition of 5 AL Learning Objectives: principles. The learner will be able Descriptions of the to define and describe principles. 5 Accelerated Learning principles. Examples of each of the 5 principles. The learner will be able to demonstrate an example Demonstrations of the 5 of each of the 5 principles. principles in action.
  • 29. Teach the content on Need-to-Know Content: this list. Definition of 5 AL principles. Descriptions of the principles. Examples of each of the 5 principles. Demonstrations of the 5 Use lecture segments, principles in action. learner activities, slides, handouts, videos, props, and wall charts.
  • 30. Now for the million dollar question…
  • 31. Que s t i on : eed to know D o l ea r ners n g YOU k n ow eve rythin t the topic? abou
  • 32. Que s t i on : eed to know D o l ea r ners n g YOU k n ow eve rythin t the topic? abou Answer: They DO N’T.
  • 33. They only need to know what is important to be able to complete the learning objectives.
  • 34. After determining what your need-to- know content is, what’s next?
  • 36. ten- Teac min h in ute chu n ks.
  • 37. Divide your content into lecture segments (chunks) of about 10-20 minutes in length.
  • 38. Divide your content into lecture segments (chunks) of about 10-20 minutes in length. H Y ? W
  • 39. Divide your content into lecture segments (chunks) of about 10-20 minutes in length. H Y ? W Because that’s about how long a learner’s brain can stay focused without drifting off.
  • 40. In between each lecture segment, learners do a 1-minute active review of content.
  • 41. Examples of 1-Minute Active Reviews * Pair-Share – With a partner, learners discuss the major concepts from the lecture. * Think and Write – Learners write summary statements about what they have learned. * Shout Out – Learners take turns verbally stating important facts until a pre-determined number of statements is reached. * Stand, Stretch, and Speak – While standing up learners take turns leading a physical stretch and verbally summarizing the major concepts. The other learners copy each stretch.
  • 43. Use acti 1-m ve r inut lectu evie e ws b re se etwe gme en nts.
  • 44. What about DURING a lecture segment? What should learners DO besides listening?
  • 45. Learners should take notes on a graphic organizer.
  • 46. A graphic organizer is a visual-spatial note-taking page that you give to learners, or learners make for themselves, before the instruction begins.
  • 47. CORNELL NO TES Some Examples of Main Supportin g Graphic Organizers Facts Ideas MIND MAP Major Concept Topic Summary Ma Ide jor Suppo as rting Detail s CONCEP T MAP
  • 48. More Examples of Graphic Organizers * Windowpane – Learners fold blank paper into 4, 8, or 16 boxes (“windowpanes”). They summarize or draw an image of an important fact in each box. * Fill-in-the-Blanks – Learners fill in a pre-made worksheet that is missing important words or phrases. * Blackout Bingo – Using a windowpane worksheet (see above), learners print a topic-related word or phrase in each box from a list you give them. When they hear you explain a concept from their “Bingo” sheet, they circle it or cross it out. When they have all boxes marked, they call out “Bingo!” and receive a round of applause.
  • 49. Do a Google search for more “graphic organizers” and for free examples and templates.
  • 51. Give grap lear hic ners orga a to u nize se. r
  • 52. Think and Click The next slide lists some concepts from this micro-course. Read the list and decide which items are “need-to-know” and which are “nice-to-know.” Write your answers down and then check them by clicking to the slide that follows the list.
  • 53. List of Concepts 1 Teach only the need-to-knows. 2 Include the nice-to-know content only if you have time. 3 Teach in 10-minute chunks. 4 10 minutes is a guideline, not a hard and fast rule. 5 Use 1-minute active reviews between lecture segments. 6 Sometimes review activities can last longer than 1 minute. 7 Give learners a graphic organizer to use. 8 Learners can also make their own note-taking page.
  • 54. List of Concepts 1 Teach only the need-to-knows. Need-to-Know 2 Include the nice-to-know content only if you have time. Nice-to-Know 3 Teach in 10-minute chunks. Need-to-Know 4 10 minutes is a guideline, not a hard and fast rule. Nice-to-Know 5 Use 1-minute active reviews between lecture segments. Need-to-know 6 Sometimes review activities can last longer than 1 minute. Nice-to-Know 7 Give learners a graphic organizer to use. Need-to-Know 8 Learners can also make their own note-taking page. Nice-to-Know
  • 55. My N Teac otes h on ly th Teac e ne ed-t h in o-kn 10-m ows. Use inut 1-m e ch lectu inut unk e ac s. re se tive gme revi Give nts. ews lear betw ners een a gr aph ic o rgan izer to use.
  • 56. My A ctio n PL How hav do y an e lea o u rned plan to from use Writ this wha e yo mic t yo post ur a ro-c u i rem t where ctio ours e? ind you you n plan the next to u can see down a time se th it. I nd is in t you teac form will h or atio trai n n.
  • 57. C1 – Connections C2 Concepts This slide presentation was an C3 – Concrete Practic introduction to Step 2 of an e instructional design and delivery model known as: “The 4Cs Map.” To learn how to use all four steps C4 – Conclusions of the 4Cs Map, see Sharon Bowman’s Slide Share micro-course titled “How to Map Your Instruction in 4 Simple Steps.”
  • 58. Content from books by Sharon Bowman www.amazon.com for book purchases www.Bowperson.com for free book excerpts
  • 60. Ph o to Cre Copy ww dit righ w .c s t lipa rt.c om ;c om me rc Lic **** ial lice en *** nse sin *** gP erm **** i s s **** i o n *** * *** *** ** Att You ributi pre may on, N C Bo senta copy on-Co REAT w , I nor man tion p distr mme VE CO alte , an rov ibut rcia M r th d th ided e, di l, No MON e c at y s ont ou that y play, Deriv S ent do ou an a in a not cred d use tive W ny d i wa istrib t the this s orks y. ute aut lide it c hor, om me Sharo rcia n lly