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The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age!                                   1


             The Secret of Adult Learning Theory:
                     It’s NOT About Age!
                        By: Sharon L. Bowman, M.A., President
                        Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc.
                            Website: www.Bowperson.com
                           Email: SBowperson@gmail.com
                       Phone: 775-749-5247 Fax: 775-749-1891



Note: This article is formatted using the
4 Cs Accelerated Learning instructional              * They want to or need to learn.
design process. To get the most from this
article, you are encouraged to participate           * They learn in different ways.
in the activities along the way. You will
learn more, and be able to apply what                * They learn best in an informal
you learn, because of your participation.              environment.
For more information about the 4 Cs, log
onto www.Bowperson.com and down-                     * They see themselves and self-directed
load the free article titled: “Bag It! A               and responsible.
Quick and Remarkably Easy Instruc-
tional Design Process.”                              * They learn best when they have
                                                       hands-on practice.

                                                     * They bring their own past experiences
                                                       to the learning.

                                                     * They learn best when they can relate
                                                       new information to what they already
                                                       know.

CONNECTIONS                                          * They have their own ideas to
                                                       contribute.
One-Minute Fast Pass: You already
                                                     Now think about the children you know,
know a lot about how adults learn. As a
                                                     the children you’ve raised, or the child
teacher or trainer, you’ve observed adult
                                                     you once were. Think about what you
learning in action. And, as an adult
                                                     know about how children learn and how
learner yourself, you’ve experienced
                                                     you learned as a child. With those
adult learning “up close and personal”.
                                                     thoughts in mind, check off any of the
So take a few moments to check off any
                                                     following statements that you think ap-
of the following statements that you
                                                     ply to children’s learning:
think apply to adult learning:


           Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                      SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age!                                      2


                                                     remembering and using the information
* They want to or need to learn.                     they were being taught, adults were
                                                     learning very little from lectures, as-
* They learn in different ways.                      signed readings, drills, quizzes, rote
                                                     memorization, and examinations.
* They learn best in an informal
  environment.                                       The author’s name was Malcolm
                                                     Knowles, a Boston university associate
* They see themselves and self-directed              professor of adult education. His writ-
  and responsible.                                   ings spanned 4 decades, from the 1950s
                                                     to the 1980s, and he was almost solely
* They learn best when they have                     responsible for making two words
  hands-on practice.                                 household items in the worlds of teach-
                                                     ing, training, and adult learning theory:
* They bring their own past experiences              pedagogy and andragogy.
  to the learning.

* They learn best when they can relate
  new information to what they already
  know.

* They have their own ideas to
  contribute.

You’re probably thinking by now,
“What’s going on? It’s the same list.”
And you probably checked off all the
statements in both the adult learning list
as well as the children’s learning list. So
read on to discover the most profound
secret about adult learning theory and                     Pedagogy Versus Andragogy
one that will change your whole percep-
tion about teaching and training adults:             For better or worse, Malcolm Knowles
it’s NOT about age!                                  changed the beliefs about adult learning
                                                     in the United States. I use the phrase “for
CONCEPTS                                             better or worse” because the effects of
                                                     Knowles’ lifelong work had both posi-
Let me tell you a story: Once upon a                 tive and negative consequences.
time, in the early 1960s and 1970s to be
exact, a college professor wrote a num-              First, he said that children learn best
ber of definitive books pointing out that            through what he termed “pedagogy,”
the ways most adults were being taught               which he defined as “teacher-centered”
– through lecture-based classes – didn’t             instruction, where the focus is on lec-
work very well. In fact, in terms of                 ture-based learning. Second, he said that
                                                      adults learn best through “andragogy,”

           Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                      SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age!                                      3


that is, “learner-centered” instruction,             Unwittingly, Knowles did a drastic dis-
where the focus is on experiential-based             service to children. He permanently ce-
learning.                                            mented the old paradigm of teacher-
                                                     centered instruction for non-adult learn-
Thus, the word pedagogy became syn-                  ers. He made the assumption that, be-
onymous with learning environments in                cause children had been taught with
which children sit passively while in-               lecture-based methods since the early
formation is poured into their heads via             1800s, it must be the way children learn
lectures, books, and tests. Knowles used             best. Because that was the way it had
this word to describe how children learn.            been done for decades, it must be effec-
                                                     tive. Circular, “chicken and egg” think-
The word andragogy became synony-                    ing, to be sure.
mous with hands-on, informal instruc-
tion that is based on the relevant learning
needs of adults. Knowles used this word
to describe how adults learn. In one of
his most famous books, written in the
early 1970’s, titled “The Adult Learner:
A Neglected Species,” Knowles empha-
sized the need for experiential learning
in adult classes and training – a radical
departure from traditional methods of
adult instruction at the time.                       Knowles’ mistake regarding how chil-
                                                     dren learn was understandable. At the
                                                     time, there wasn’t much research about
                                                     how the human brain learns, meaning
                                                     how the brain is hardwired to take in in-
                                                     formation, store it, and retrieve it when
                                                     the learner needs the information to per-
                                                     form some task. The brain research has
                                                     been growing since the late 1970s, with
                                                     the majority of the published research
                                                     appearing from the late 1990s to the pre-
                                                     sent.

      Adults Versus Children                         When Knowles realized that traditional
                                                     methods of instruction weren’t working
Knowles did adults a huge favor in the               for adults, he assumed that it was a mat-
United States: he significantly changed              ter of age-difference, not a matter of in-
the perceptions of educators and trainers            effective instructional methods to begin
as to what adults need in order learn ef-            with. He didn’t have the research indi-
fectively. To that end, he demonstrated              cating what we now know: that most
and preached the need for more infor-                people, regardless of age, do NOT learn
mal, experiential learning environments              best when just sitting, passively listening
for adults.                                          to a lecture.

           Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                      SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age!                                         4


       From Adult Learning
                                                                 One-Minute Myth or Fact
        to Human Learning

The brain research from the past two                          Sort the cards below
decades proves that human beings learn                        into two groups by
                                                              labeling each card M
best when they are actively involved in
                                                              for Myth or F for Fact
the learning process – experiencing a                         (careful: this isn’t
variety of meaningful, motivating, self-                      True or False!). Then
directed learning methods in an infor-                        check your answers.
mal, hands-on learning environment.
This kind of “brain-based” learning de-
scribes human learning. It is NOT based
on age, gender, culture, generation, or                                       2. Humans like to be
any other arbitrary assumptions.                                              self-directed and actively
                                                     1. Humans
                                                     learn best by            involved in learning.
 The truly ironic piece in the whole                 listening and
paradigm of adult learning theory is that,           taking tests.                     3. Both children and
forty years after Knowles’ research,                                                   adults have their own
much of adult instruction is STILL                                                     preferred ways of
pedagogical in nature – lecture-based,                                                 learning.
teacher-centered. Although a lot of lip            4. Humans learn better
service is given to Knowles’ adult learn-          when they feel good
ing theories, and most train-the-trainer           about learning.
programs cite Knowles’ work, lecture-                                    5. Humans learn dif-
based instruction is still the order of the                              ferently depending
                                                                         upon their ages and
day in the majority of adult learning en-                                abilities.
vironments – even in those classes that
teach about adult learning! Old habits             7. Regardless of their                  6. Past experiences are
die hard.                                          ages, humans have                       important to the human
                                                   their own ideas to                      learning process.
CONCRETE PRACTICE                                  contribute.

                                                                  8. Informal learning
First, let’s take a look at what you now                          environments enhance
know about HUMAN learning. Remem-                                 learning.
ber, HUMAN learning refers to how the                                              9. Relating new
brain remembers, stores, retrieves, and                                            information to what
uses information. It is NOT age-related.                                           they already know is
                                                                                   confusing to learners.
Take a minute to do the Myth or Fact
activity on this page. Then continue
reading.                                                                Answer Key
                                                           1. M          2. F             3. F
                                                           4. F          5. M             6. F
                                                           7. F          8. F             9. M
                                                           How did you do? If you got them all, bravo!


           Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                      SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age!                                     5


One-Minute to Choose and Circle.                     Here is a bit more information to add to
Based on the characteristics of how hu-              what you already know:
mans learn, what will be your choices
when designing and delivering your next              Use a variety of active learning strate-
training, class, or presentation? Read the           gies to involve learners. Examples are:
following list and circle what you will              paired and small group discussions,
do.                                                  quick games (more collaborative than
                                                     competitive), “teach backs” where learn-
I will:                                              ers teach each other what they’ve
                                                     learned, quizzes that learners make and
A. Include a variety of instructional                take, learner presentations, large group
strategies that involve learners so that             discussions, projects, simulations, skits
they are talking, writing, moving, and               (often called “role-play”), and the like.
doing topic-related activities, instead of
just listening to me speak.                          Give learners choices. From a list of
                                                     review tasks, let learners decide which
B. Make sure learners are quiet and lis-             they wish to do and let them work in
tening to me as I present the information            pairs, triads, or small groups to accom-
to them.                                             plish the tasks.

C. Give learners choices of discussion
topics and review activities as they learn
the material.

D. Begin by explaining the agenda, syl-
labus, or overall plan for the learning
experience.

E. Begin by facilitating a discussion
about what learners already know about
the topic.                                           Take time to find out what learners
                                                     know. At the beginning of the training,
F. Set up the room with desks, tables, or            give them a few minutes do discuss what
chairs in orderly rows in which learners             they know or have heard about the train-
face the front of the room.                          ing topic. Throughout the training, en-
                                                     courage them to share comments, ideas,
G. Arrange the room informally, with                 insights, and opinions with the whole
round tables scattered throughout, or                group.
chairs in small cluster groups so that
learners can talk to each other.                     Create an inviting, friendly, informal
                                                     learning environment. Cluster learners
Of course you chose A, C, E, and G, be-              into small groups using round tables or
cause you know how humans learn best.                chairs arranged in small circles groups.
                                                     On the tables, put plenty of colorful felt


           Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                      SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age!                                   6


pens, colored paper, post-it notes, index                  **********************
cards, and the like. On the walls, hang              This article is part of Sharon’s newest
colorful charts with topic-related infor-            book, Training from the BACK of the
mation on them. If possible, provide                 Room, published by Pfeiffer Co., a divi-
snacks and beverages, or ask learners to             sion of John Wiley & Sons. Log onto
bring their own.                                     www.amazon.com for Sharon’s five
                                                     popular training books already in print.
CONCLUSIONS
                                                     Log onto Sharon’s website at
Your challenge is to take what you know              www.Bowperson.com for other free,
about human learning and begin to de-                downloadable pdf-formatted articles
sign learning experiences that move                  about effective training.
from traditional, teacher-centered in-
struction    towards      more     brain-                  ***********************
compatible, learner-centered instruction.            Resources for this article:

One-Minute Think and Write. Think                    The Accelerated Learning Handbook.
about the topics you teach, train, and               David Meier
present. Also think about how you tradi-
tionally instruct adults. On the lines be-           How to Give It So They Get It.
low, list a few new instructional                    Sharon Bowman
strategies you might experiment with,
ones that are compatible with how adults             Informal Learning. Jay Cross
really learn, that is, strategies that work
best for human learning. Then include                Preventing Death by Lecture.
one or more of these strategies in your              Sharon Bowman
next training, and watch the learning
grow!                                                The Ten-Minute Trainer.
                                                     Sharon Bowman
________________________________
________________________________                     Training from the BACK of the Room.
                                                     Sharon Bowman
________________________________
________________________________                           **********************
________________________________
                                                     Note: See the next page for information
________________________________                     about the author.
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________



           Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                      SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age!                          7




Author and corporate trainer Sharon
Bowman helps educators and business
people “teach it quick and make it
stick,” - fine-tuning their information-
delivery skills and turning their passive
listeners into active learners.

Sharon is the president of Bowperson
Publishing & Training, Inc., a profes-
sional member of The National Speak-
ers Association (NSA), and the
American Society of Training and De-
velopment (ASTD). Over 70,000 of her
popular training books are already in
print.

For more information about Sharon
Bowman and her books and training,
log onto www.Bowperson.com, or
email her at SBowperson@gmail.com.

For book orders, go to:
www.amazon.com
www.trainerswarehouse.com
Bowperson Publishing at
775-749-5247
***********************




           Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                      SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
Bag It! A Quick and Remarkably Easy Instructional Design Process.




            Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com
                       SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.

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The Secret of Adult Learning: It's NOT About Age!

  • 1. The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! 1 The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! By: Sharon L. Bowman, M.A., President Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. Website: www.Bowperson.com Email: SBowperson@gmail.com Phone: 775-749-5247 Fax: 775-749-1891 Note: This article is formatted using the 4 Cs Accelerated Learning instructional * They want to or need to learn. design process. To get the most from this article, you are encouraged to participate * They learn in different ways. in the activities along the way. You will learn more, and be able to apply what * They learn best in an informal you learn, because of your participation. environment. For more information about the 4 Cs, log onto www.Bowperson.com and down- * They see themselves and self-directed load the free article titled: “Bag It! A and responsible. Quick and Remarkably Easy Instruc- tional Design Process.” * They learn best when they have hands-on practice. * They bring their own past experiences to the learning. * They learn best when they can relate new information to what they already know. CONNECTIONS * They have their own ideas to contribute. One-Minute Fast Pass: You already Now think about the children you know, know a lot about how adults learn. As a the children you’ve raised, or the child teacher or trainer, you’ve observed adult you once were. Think about what you learning in action. And, as an adult know about how children learn and how learner yourself, you’ve experienced you learned as a child. With those adult learning “up close and personal”. thoughts in mind, check off any of the So take a few moments to check off any following statements that you think ap- of the following statements that you ply to children’s learning: think apply to adult learning: Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
  • 2. The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! 2 remembering and using the information * They want to or need to learn. they were being taught, adults were learning very little from lectures, as- * They learn in different ways. signed readings, drills, quizzes, rote memorization, and examinations. * They learn best in an informal environment. The author’s name was Malcolm Knowles, a Boston university associate * They see themselves and self-directed professor of adult education. His writ- and responsible. ings spanned 4 decades, from the 1950s to the 1980s, and he was almost solely * They learn best when they have responsible for making two words hands-on practice. household items in the worlds of teach- ing, training, and adult learning theory: * They bring their own past experiences pedagogy and andragogy. to the learning. * They learn best when they can relate new information to what they already know. * They have their own ideas to contribute. You’re probably thinking by now, “What’s going on? It’s the same list.” And you probably checked off all the statements in both the adult learning list as well as the children’s learning list. So read on to discover the most profound secret about adult learning theory and Pedagogy Versus Andragogy one that will change your whole percep- tion about teaching and training adults: For better or worse, Malcolm Knowles it’s NOT about age! changed the beliefs about adult learning in the United States. I use the phrase “for CONCEPTS better or worse” because the effects of Knowles’ lifelong work had both posi- Let me tell you a story: Once upon a tive and negative consequences. time, in the early 1960s and 1970s to be exact, a college professor wrote a num- First, he said that children learn best ber of definitive books pointing out that through what he termed “pedagogy,” the ways most adults were being taught which he defined as “teacher-centered” – through lecture-based classes – didn’t instruction, where the focus is on lec- work very well. In fact, in terms of ture-based learning. Second, he said that adults learn best through “andragogy,” Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
  • 3. The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! 3 that is, “learner-centered” instruction, Unwittingly, Knowles did a drastic dis- where the focus is on experiential-based service to children. He permanently ce- learning. mented the old paradigm of teacher- centered instruction for non-adult learn- Thus, the word pedagogy became syn- ers. He made the assumption that, be- onymous with learning environments in cause children had been taught with which children sit passively while in- lecture-based methods since the early formation is poured into their heads via 1800s, it must be the way children learn lectures, books, and tests. Knowles used best. Because that was the way it had this word to describe how children learn. been done for decades, it must be effec- tive. Circular, “chicken and egg” think- The word andragogy became synony- ing, to be sure. mous with hands-on, informal instruc- tion that is based on the relevant learning needs of adults. Knowles used this word to describe how adults learn. In one of his most famous books, written in the early 1970’s, titled “The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species,” Knowles empha- sized the need for experiential learning in adult classes and training – a radical departure from traditional methods of adult instruction at the time. Knowles’ mistake regarding how chil- dren learn was understandable. At the time, there wasn’t much research about how the human brain learns, meaning how the brain is hardwired to take in in- formation, store it, and retrieve it when the learner needs the information to per- form some task. The brain research has been growing since the late 1970s, with the majority of the published research appearing from the late 1990s to the pre- sent. Adults Versus Children When Knowles realized that traditional methods of instruction weren’t working Knowles did adults a huge favor in the for adults, he assumed that it was a mat- United States: he significantly changed ter of age-difference, not a matter of in- the perceptions of educators and trainers effective instructional methods to begin as to what adults need in order learn ef- with. He didn’t have the research indi- fectively. To that end, he demonstrated cating what we now know: that most and preached the need for more infor- people, regardless of age, do NOT learn mal, experiential learning environments best when just sitting, passively listening for adults. to a lecture. Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
  • 4. The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! 4 From Adult Learning One-Minute Myth or Fact to Human Learning The brain research from the past two Sort the cards below decades proves that human beings learn into two groups by labeling each card M best when they are actively involved in for Myth or F for Fact the learning process – experiencing a (careful: this isn’t variety of meaningful, motivating, self- True or False!). Then directed learning methods in an infor- check your answers. mal, hands-on learning environment. This kind of “brain-based” learning de- scribes human learning. It is NOT based on age, gender, culture, generation, or 2. Humans like to be any other arbitrary assumptions. self-directed and actively 1. Humans learn best by involved in learning. The truly ironic piece in the whole listening and paradigm of adult learning theory is that, taking tests. 3. Both children and forty years after Knowles’ research, adults have their own much of adult instruction is STILL preferred ways of pedagogical in nature – lecture-based, learning. teacher-centered. Although a lot of lip 4. Humans learn better service is given to Knowles’ adult learn- when they feel good ing theories, and most train-the-trainer about learning. programs cite Knowles’ work, lecture- 5. Humans learn dif- based instruction is still the order of the ferently depending upon their ages and day in the majority of adult learning en- abilities. vironments – even in those classes that teach about adult learning! Old habits 7. Regardless of their 6. Past experiences are die hard. ages, humans have important to the human their own ideas to learning process. CONCRETE PRACTICE contribute. 8. Informal learning First, let’s take a look at what you now environments enhance know about HUMAN learning. Remem- learning. ber, HUMAN learning refers to how the 9. Relating new brain remembers, stores, retrieves, and information to what uses information. It is NOT age-related. they already know is confusing to learners. Take a minute to do the Myth or Fact activity on this page. Then continue reading. Answer Key 1. M 2. F 3. F 4. F 5. M 6. F 7. F 8. F 9. M How did you do? If you got them all, bravo! Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
  • 5. The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! 5 One-Minute to Choose and Circle. Here is a bit more information to add to Based on the characteristics of how hu- what you already know: mans learn, what will be your choices when designing and delivering your next Use a variety of active learning strate- training, class, or presentation? Read the gies to involve learners. Examples are: following list and circle what you will paired and small group discussions, do. quick games (more collaborative than competitive), “teach backs” where learn- I will: ers teach each other what they’ve learned, quizzes that learners make and A. Include a variety of instructional take, learner presentations, large group strategies that involve learners so that discussions, projects, simulations, skits they are talking, writing, moving, and (often called “role-play”), and the like. doing topic-related activities, instead of just listening to me speak. Give learners choices. From a list of review tasks, let learners decide which B. Make sure learners are quiet and lis- they wish to do and let them work in tening to me as I present the information pairs, triads, or small groups to accom- to them. plish the tasks. C. Give learners choices of discussion topics and review activities as they learn the material. D. Begin by explaining the agenda, syl- labus, or overall plan for the learning experience. E. Begin by facilitating a discussion about what learners already know about the topic. Take time to find out what learners know. At the beginning of the training, F. Set up the room with desks, tables, or give them a few minutes do discuss what chairs in orderly rows in which learners they know or have heard about the train- face the front of the room. ing topic. Throughout the training, en- courage them to share comments, ideas, G. Arrange the room informally, with insights, and opinions with the whole round tables scattered throughout, or group. chairs in small cluster groups so that learners can talk to each other. Create an inviting, friendly, informal learning environment. Cluster learners Of course you chose A, C, E, and G, be- into small groups using round tables or cause you know how humans learn best. chairs arranged in small circles groups. On the tables, put plenty of colorful felt Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
  • 6. The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! 6 pens, colored paper, post-it notes, index ********************** cards, and the like. On the walls, hang This article is part of Sharon’s newest colorful charts with topic-related infor- book, Training from the BACK of the mation on them. If possible, provide Room, published by Pfeiffer Co., a divi- snacks and beverages, or ask learners to sion of John Wiley & Sons. Log onto bring their own. www.amazon.com for Sharon’s five popular training books already in print. CONCLUSIONS Log onto Sharon’s website at Your challenge is to take what you know www.Bowperson.com for other free, about human learning and begin to de- downloadable pdf-formatted articles sign learning experiences that move about effective training. from traditional, teacher-centered in- struction towards more brain- *********************** compatible, learner-centered instruction. Resources for this article: One-Minute Think and Write. Think The Accelerated Learning Handbook. about the topics you teach, train, and David Meier present. Also think about how you tradi- tionally instruct adults. On the lines be- How to Give It So They Get It. low, list a few new instructional Sharon Bowman strategies you might experiment with, ones that are compatible with how adults Informal Learning. Jay Cross really learn, that is, strategies that work best for human learning. Then include Preventing Death by Lecture. one or more of these strategies in your Sharon Bowman next training, and watch the learning grow! The Ten-Minute Trainer. Sharon Bowman ________________________________ ________________________________ Training from the BACK of the Room. Sharon Bowman ________________________________ ________________________________ ********************** ________________________________ Note: See the next page for information ________________________________ about the author. ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
  • 7. The Secret of Adult Learning Theory: It’s NOT About Age! 7 Author and corporate trainer Sharon Bowman helps educators and business people “teach it quick and make it stick,” - fine-tuning their information- delivery skills and turning their passive listeners into active learners. Sharon is the president of Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc., a profes- sional member of The National Speak- ers Association (NSA), and the American Society of Training and De- velopment (ASTD). Over 70,000 of her popular training books are already in print. For more information about Sharon Bowman and her books and training, log onto www.Bowperson.com, or email her at SBowperson@gmail.com. For book orders, go to: www.amazon.com www.trainerswarehouse.com Bowperson Publishing at 775-749-5247 *********************** Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.
  • 8. Bag It! A Quick and Remarkably Easy Instructional Design Process. Bowperson Publishing & Training, Inc. 775-749-5247 www.Bowperson.com SBowperson@gmail.com ©2007 All rights reserved.