India is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world.Who are the losers? Honest consumers, poor people, and those without connections, who bear the burden of high tariffs, system inefficiencies, and inadequate and unreliable power supply.While 80% of Indian villages are electrified, only 44% of rural households have access to power.
The growth of the installed capacity and generation in india from various sources is shown in the next three slides
All india power supply position (2010-2011).These are the power supply positions during the past plans
The losses, experts say, are currently 29 % of the total generation, which equals a shocking Rs 45,000 crore in the fiscal year 2009-10• According to experts, if not for these losses over a decade now, India could have built two mega power plants of around 4,000 MW capacity every year• Power loss in 2001-02 was 32.86% and increased to 34.78% in 2003-04 . In 2008-09 , it stood at 28.44% but currently the figure is again 29%. It is as high as 51% in Jharkhand, 45% in Madhya Pradesh and 40% in Bihar.
Contract is understood here as a valid obligation to deliver power and to pay for it.
, sometimes offering big rewards for information leading to conviction of anyone stealing electricity. Unfortunately, most cases are never identified.This labour-intensive, manual process has little chance of success.
and therefore reduces theft
Electricity theft (1)
ELECTRICITY THEFT A MAJOR ISSUE IN POWER INDUSTRY PRESENTED BY:1 FAEQ AZIM MOHD. HUZAIFA SAYEMA SAMDANI
CONTENTS Introduction India’s generation capacity India’s consumption capacity Deficit Electricity theft Major causes of electricity theft Measures to control theft 2 Conclusion
INTRODUCTIONMany developing countries confront widespread theft ofelectricity from government owned power utilities.In India electricity theft leads to annual losses estimated atUS$4.5 billion, about 1.5 percent of GDP.Who are the losers??Honest consumers, poor people, and those withoutconnections, who bear the burden of high tariffs, systeminefficiencies, and inadequate and unreliable power supply. 3
INDIA’S GENERATION CAPACITYThe Installed Capacity of the country as on 31stDecember, 2011 was 1,86, 655 MW as depicted 4
DEFICITIndia has been facing growing shortages over the past fiveyears.During the year 2007-08peak deficit:8,000 MW (16.5%)average energy shortage:73 Billion kWh (10%).During the year 2008-09peak deficit 13,000 MW (12%)average energy shortage: 86 Billion kWh (11%).During the year 2009-10peak deficit:5,157 MW (12.7%) 6average energy shortage:84 Billion kWh (10.1%).
WHAT IS ELECTRICITY THEFT….??? It is the use of electrical power without a contractwith a supplier with total or partial bypassing meteringsystem OR Interfering this system in the way to adulterate itsmeasurements. 9
MAJOR CAUSES OF ELECTRICITY THEFT Absence of accountability. Inadequate and ineffective enforcement of law. Political protection to employees and influential customers. Customer attitude: “Immoral to steal from neighbor but legitimate to steal from state’’. 10
WHERE DOES ELECTRICITY THEFT OCCUR MOST COMMONLY 11
ELECTRICITY THEFT METHODSMeters: •Tampering with meters and seals •By-passing the meters •Damaging or removing metersWires/ Cables: • Illegal tapping to bare wires or underground cablesTransformers: •Illegal terminal taps of overhead lines on the low side of the transformerBilling irregularities made by meter readers. 12Unpaid bills by individuals, government institutions and“untouchable” VIPs.
FEW OTHER WAYS FOR POWER THEFT‡Use of single phase supply from three phase supply.Disconnected neutral from both the ends.Used earth/separate neutral for return circuit.Connecting phase voltage to neutral of used single phasesupply. Potential difference w.r.t. neutral of used singlephase supply is zero. Hence power product of voltage andcurrent, will be zero.Isolating neutral from both ends. 13
THEFT OCCURS WHEN:An illegal consumer(not a registered customer) stealsdirectly from the distribution lines or from another legalcustomer.A legal customer(registered customer) steals eitherbypassing the meter (connecting around the meter to alive cable on the company side of the meter) ortampering with the meter to make it read less or noconsumption.There is a collusion between the customer and acompany employee to reduce the amount paid to thecompany (with lower side payments to the employee in14return).
LOSSES FROM “DELHI PRIVATISATION PROCESS” BSESEXPERIENCE BY J P CHALASANI,CEO OF R POWER 15
NON TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS Financial rewards:Utility companies encourage consumers to reportelectricity theft‡ Periodic checks:Electricity theft frequently takes place after service hasbeen disconnected. Some utility companies periodicallycheck disconnected meters if the customer hasnot contacted them to reconnect service.Enforcement of law: Fines should be imposed by thegovernment for stealing electricity. 21
•Taps, makes or causes to be made any connection withoverhead, underground or under water lines or cables, orservice wires, or service facilities of a licensee;•Tampers a meter, installs or uses a tampered meter, currentreversing transformer, loop connection or any other device ormethod which interferes with accurate or proper registration,calibration or metering of electric current or otherwise results ina manner whereby electricity is stolen or wasted.• Damages or destroys an electric meter, apparatus,equipment, or wire or causes or allows any of them to be sodamaged or destroyed as to interfere with the proper oraccurate metering of electricity, so as to abstract or consume oruse electricity shall be punishable with imprisonment for aterm which may extend to three years or with fine or with 22both.
Electronic Tamper Detection Meters Automatic detection of : •Meter tamper •Meter Bypass •Meter disconnectionPre-Payments Meters •Credit added to the meter on the keypad. •Credit is purchased on the recharegable token and entered to the meter with disconnection 24 ability
Plastic meter encasements Hard plastic encasements are a type of meter seal. These transparent plastic covers serve as a warning.Anti theft cable Plastic layer 25