Bachelor of Science      Master of Science               Doctor of PhilosophyUniversity of Winnipeg   University of Wester...
Source: Dave Sauchyn
Behold, there comes seven years of great plentythroughout all the land of Egypt: And there shallarise a er them seven year...
ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY
Tree-ring display at elementary schoolSource: Tom Swetnam
DENDROCHRONOLOGY ISMUCH MORE     THAN JUST COUNTING TREE RINGS.
“   RINGS                     ”    IN THE BRANCHES OF    SAWED TREES SHOWTHE NUMBER OF YEARS  AND, ACCORDING TO THEIR     ...
Andrew Douglass University of Arizona
“   Crossdating is the recognition of the same ring pa ern in    different trees, so that the actual growth date of any one...
Pueblo Bonito New Mexico (before it was excavated)
Source: Stones 55
Source: mlhradio
Source: Alan Stark
Tree-ring display at elementary school                                    Photograph:Tom Swetnam
“   Tree-ring analysis is one of the most powerful tools available    for the study of environmental change and the identi...
WHAT ARCHEOLOGISTS NEED TO KNOW ABOUTDENDRO-CHRONOLOGY    IN MINNESOTA
How old is the oldest tree in Minnesota?
The Seward oak 330 yr?Source: Ralph Sievert
Bur oak >450 yrSource: Joe Zeleznik NDSU
White pine 1714Source: Kurt Kipfmueller
White cedar 1452Source: Danny Margoles
Source: Robert Simon, NASA and the Woods Hole Research Center
Source: Jonathan Frazier
Source: Erik Nielsen
42Source: Erik Nielsen
Source: Baillie (1982)
APPLICATIONDating wood artifacts
Source: Pearce Paul Creasman
‘Rat River’ House 1859Source: Erik Nielsen
THREE MAIN REQUIREMENTSFOR TREE-RING DATING  WOOD ARTIFACTS
1   Specimens should have enough rings to describe    the unique sequence of growth (generally, more    than 80 years).
2   The ring sequence should exhibit a high degree of    year-to-year variability (in other words, each ring    should not...
3   The artifact should have been constructed from local    trees, with the wood transported not more than a    few hundre...
Dugout canoe McLoud County Historical Museum, Minnesota
APPLICATIONReconstructing past droughts
“The growth of trees is undoubtably controlledmore by the movement of water than by themovement of any other single substa...
water stressnarrow ring    reduced photosynthesis                  less cell expansion                 reduced cell division
Tree rings provide the long perspective on drought severity   Drought severity                                            ...
NORTH AMERICAN                                           DROUGHT ATLASCook et al., 2007, Earth Science Reviews
Tree-ring estimates of summer drought across North America                                                      AD 1452Sou...
Drought (and tree growth) can be ‘tuned’ to different seasonsSt. George et al., The Holocene, 2010
APPLICATIONUnderstanding natural hazards
floods                  climate             landscape changeforest dynamics                            ecology
AP Photo/U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
69St.. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
Source: Lane Johnson
1875                       1653Source: Lane Johnson
DENDROCHRONOLOGY ISMUCH MORE     THAN JUST COUNTING TREE RINGS.
Kurt Kipfmueller University of MinnesotaPhoto: Calvin Ferris
CURRENT PROJECTS                                         How has the hydrology of Lake Winnipeg                           ...
INTRODUCTION TO DENDROCHRONOLOGY
CLIMATE VARIATIONS
National Geographic ‘Beam Expeditions’ 1920s
Social Sciences    Tower
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota
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What archeologists need to know about dendrochronology in Minnesota

  1. 1. Bachelor of Science Master of Science Doctor of PhilosophyUniversity of Winnipeg University of Western Ontario University of Arizona
  2. 2. Source: Dave Sauchyn
  3. 3. Behold, there comes seven years of great plentythroughout all the land of Egypt: And there shallarise a er them seven years of famine; and all theplenty shall be forgo en in the land of Egypt; andthe famine shall consume the land; Genesis 41, 29-30
  4. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY
  5. 5. Tree-ring display at elementary schoolSource: Tom Swetnam
  6. 6. DENDROCHRONOLOGY ISMUCH MORE THAN JUST COUNTING TREE RINGS.
  7. 7. “ RINGS ” IN THE BRANCHES OF SAWED TREES SHOWTHE NUMBER OF YEARS AND, ACCORDING TO THEIR THICKNESS, THE YEARS WHICH WERE MORE OR LESS DRY. Leonardo da Vinci
  8. 8. Andrew Douglass University of Arizona
  9. 9. “ Crossdating is the recognition of the same ring pa ern in different trees, so that the actual growth date of any one ring of the pa ern is the same in the different trees and one may carry a chronology across from tree to tree. ” A.E. Douglass Journal of Forestry, 1941
  10. 10. Pueblo Bonito New Mexico (before it was excavated)
  11. 11. Source: Stones 55
  12. 12. Source: mlhradio
  13. 13. Source: Alan Stark
  14. 14. Tree-ring display at elementary school Photograph:Tom Swetnam
  15. 15. “ Tree-ring analysis is one of the most powerful tools available for the study of environmental change and the identification of fundamental relationships between tree growth and climate. Edward Cook and Neil Pederson ” Uncertainty, Emergence, and Statistics in Dendrochronology
  16. 16. WHAT ARCHEOLOGISTS NEED TO KNOW ABOUTDENDRO-CHRONOLOGY IN MINNESOTA
  17. 17. How old is the oldest tree in Minnesota?
  18. 18. The Seward oak 330 yr?Source: Ralph Sievert
  19. 19. Bur oak >450 yrSource: Joe Zeleznik NDSU
  20. 20. White pine 1714Source: Kurt Kipfmueller
  21. 21. White cedar 1452Source: Danny Margoles
  22. 22. Source: Robert Simon, NASA and the Woods Hole Research Center
  23. 23. Source: Jonathan Frazier
  24. 24. Source: Erik Nielsen
  25. 25. 42Source: Erik Nielsen
  26. 26. Source: Baillie (1982)
  27. 27. APPLICATIONDating wood artifacts
  28. 28. Source: Pearce Paul Creasman
  29. 29. ‘Rat River’ House 1859Source: Erik Nielsen
  30. 30. THREE MAIN REQUIREMENTSFOR TREE-RING DATING WOOD ARTIFACTS
  31. 31. 1 Specimens should have enough rings to describe the unique sequence of growth (generally, more than 80 years).
  32. 32. 2 The ring sequence should exhibit a high degree of year-to-year variability (in other words, each ring should not look like every other ring).
  33. 33. 3 The artifact should have been constructed from local trees, with the wood transported not more than a few hundred kilometers from its cu ing location.
  34. 34. Dugout canoe McLoud County Historical Museum, Minnesota
  35. 35. APPLICATIONReconstructing past droughts
  36. 36. “The growth of trees is undoubtably controlledmore by the movement of water than by themovement of any other single substance.” Hal Fri s Tree Rings and Climate
  37. 37. water stressnarrow ring reduced photosynthesis less cell expansion reduced cell division
  38. 38. Tree rings provide the long perspective on drought severity Drought severity Weather measurements Estimated from tree ringsSource: St. George et al., Journal of Climate, 2009
  39. 39. NORTH AMERICAN DROUGHT ATLASCook et al., 2007, Earth Science Reviews
  40. 40. Tree-ring estimates of summer drought across North America AD 1452Source: Cook and Krusic, 2004
  41. 41. Drought (and tree growth) can be ‘tuned’ to different seasonsSt. George et al., The Holocene, 2010
  42. 42. APPLICATIONUnderstanding natural hazards
  43. 43. floods climate landscape changeforest dynamics ecology
  44. 44. AP Photo/U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
  45. 45. 69St.. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  46. 46. Source: Lane Johnson
  47. 47. 1875 1653Source: Lane Johnson
  48. 48. DENDROCHRONOLOGY ISMUCH MORE THAN JUST COUNTING TREE RINGS.
  49. 49. Kurt Kipfmueller University of MinnesotaPhoto: Calvin Ferris
  50. 50. CURRENT PROJECTS How has the hydrology of Lake Winnipeg changed during the late Holocene? How has climate and human activity affected forest fires in the Boundary Waters? How is the snowpack in the central Rockies changing? How o en do severe floods occur on the Red River, and why?Does decadal climate variability affect forest ecology and wildfire risks?
  51. 51. INTRODUCTION TO DENDROCHRONOLOGY
  52. 52. CLIMATE VARIATIONS
  53. 53. National Geographic ‘Beam Expeditions’ 1920s
  54. 54. Social Sciences Tower

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