GEOG5839.18, Dendrogeomorphology

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GEOG5839.18, Dendrogeomorphology

  1. 1. November 8 DendrogeomorphologySource: Erica Bigio
  2. 2. HOW STABLE IS THIS MOUNTAIN SLOPE?Source: slgwv
  3. 3. HOW OFTEN DOES THIS RIVER FLOOD?Source: Nic McPhee
  4. 4. HOW FAST CAN THIS GLACIER MOVE?Source: Bob Sanford
  5. 5. Source: Julian Lozos Sudden change in ring-width and color a er the 1812 New Madrid earthquake.
  6. 6. “ A visual inspection of the increment rings will in no case allow determination of the process that was causing the disturbance. ” Markus Stoffel and Michelle Bollschweiler Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008
  7. 7. “ Geomorphology ma ers! Markus Stoffel and Michelle BollschweilerNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008 ”
  8. 8. PROCESS • EVENT • RESPONSE
  9. 9. PROCESS • EVENT • RESPONSEdebris flows A specific Wounded tree(in general) debris flow (scars) event
  10. 10. MASS MOVEMENTS GLACIERS DEPOSITION
  11. 11. MASS MOVEMENTS
  12. 12. Source: Munir Squires Earthflows are downslope, viscous flows of saturated, fine-grained materials.
  13. 13. Source: darkensiva A debris flow is a fast moving, liquefied landslide of unconsolidated, saturated debris.
  14. 14. Source: Washington State Department of Transportation A rockfall is the downward motion of a rock involving free falling, bouncing, rolling, and sliding.
  15. 15. How do mass movements affect the growth of treesor the demography of forests?
  16. 16. Source: Erica Bigio
  17. 17. Source: Stoffel and Bollschweiler, 2008
  18. 18. How can you distinguish the scars caused by mass movements from those caused by wildfire?
  19. 19. IMPACT FIRE
  20. 20. “ Geomorphology ma ers! Markus Stoffel and Michelle BollschweilerNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008 ”
  21. 21. Source: Brian Luckman
  22. 22. Source: Brian Luckman
  23. 23. Abrasion or impact scars are NOTthe sole source of geomorphic evidence.
  24. 24. Source: Brian Luckman
  25. 25. Source: snebtor
  26. 26. “ Partial uprooting can cause smaller trees to form vertical sprouts along their main stem, with the age of the sprout indicating the date of the flood ” that caused the change in growth habit. Sco St. George Tree Rings and Natural Hazards, 2010
  27. 27. Source: Erica Bigio
  28. 28. Compression wood• forms in conifers• formed on lower side of tree• wider rings• more latewood• denser and more bri le• tracheids are heavily lignified
  29. 29. Tension wood• occurs in hardwoods• formed on the upper side of the lean• fewer (and smaller) vessels• increased production of thick-walled fibers• reduced amount of lignification
  30. 30. Pinyon Demography at Sevilleta LTER, Central New MexicoSource: Betancourt et al. (2004)
  31. 31. Age of trees growing on rockfall slope Stoffel, Schneuwly and Bollschweiler 2010
  32. 32. Reconstructed rockfall frequency near Valais, Switzerland Schneuwly 2010
  33. 33. Glacial advances and retreats
  34. 34. Source: Dan Smith Sheared stumps killed by advance of the Saskatchewan Glacier circa 2800 yr BP
  35. 35. GLACIALFOREFIELD
  36. 36. Photograph: Brian Luckman
  37. 37. The ecesis interval is the amount of time betweenan initial disturbance and the successful establishmentof the first trees.
  38. 38. Conifers on forefields ‘ecize’ in ca. 5 to 60 years. (McCarthy and Luckman, 1993)Source: Brian Luckman
  39. 39. Source: avern
  40. 40. Source: Luckman, Geomorphology, 2000
  41. 41. Burial and erosional processes
  42. 42. Jasper Lake Alberta, Canada
  43. 43. “ Dust accumulations measured at Jasper Lake, a seasonally-filled reach of the glacially- fed Athabasca River in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, are some of ” the highest contemporary rates recorded to date. Chris Hugenholtz and Steve Wolfe Geomorphology, 2010
  44. 44. Modern surface Germination surface
  45. 45. “Adventitious” roots
  46. 46. Adventitious roots
  47. 47. Source: Erica Bigio
  48. 48. November 8 DendrogeomorphologySource: Erica Bigio
  49. 49. 1964 Alaskan earthquake
  50. 50. “ Geological evidence shows that an earthquake a ended by a tsunami, or a series of such earthquakes, ruptured at least 900 km of the Cascadia subduction ” zone along the west coast of North America between the years 1700 and 1720. David Yamaguchi et al. Nature, 1997
  51. 51. Source: Teachers on the Leading Edge
  52. 52. Source: Teachers on the Leading Edge
  53. 53. Source: Teachers on the Leading Edge
  54. 54. “ By converging on January 1700, the dates mean that Canada and the northwestern United States are plausibly subject to earthquakes of magnitude 9. ” David Yamaguchi et al. Nature, 1997
  55. 55. “ The reason that most [dendrogeomorphic] studies tend to be relatively short is because the life expectancy of trees growing in [dangerous locations] is comparatively brief. ” Sco St. George Tree Rings and Natural Hazards, 2010
  56. 56. “ Geomorphology ma ers! Markus Stoffel and Michelle BollschweilerNatural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2008 ”
  57. 57. GEOG8280 XT C L AS S NEh p://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/people/briffa/temmaps/

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