DENDROECOLOGY
“   Many ecosystem processes, especially those affected    by climate changes, manifest themselves only over    longer time...
“   Understanding the dynamics of long-lived organisms    and ecosystems — and the role of climate in controlling    these...
Dendroecology is the use of tree-ring dating and analysesto investigate events and processes involvingthe interactions of ...
THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
DENDROECOLOGYA. Forest demographyB. Growth dynamicsC. Disturbance ecology
A. Forest demography
Photograph: Dawn Hopkins   Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller
“   Ecologists have long recognized that time series of    tree births and deaths are of fundamental value for            ...
Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller
1500   1600   1700   1800   1900   2000
1500   1600   1700   1800   1900   2000
1500   1600   1700   1800   1900   2000
Tree recruitment dates (by 50-year periods)    1500      1600      1700      1800        1900   2000
Tree mortality dates (by 50-year periods)    1500      1600      1700       1800     1900   2000
TREE               DOES               NOT    DATE OF              EQUAL   GERMINATIONRECRUITMENT
PithHi ing the pith is easy when you collect an entire cross-section
It’s more difficult when coring, especially if growth is asymmetric.
Coring height                                                        Root collarHow many years separate the root collar fr...
The germination date can be much earlier than tree age at coring height.Source: Gutsell and Johnston (2002)
Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller                  Germination doesn’t happen immediately a er disturbance.
The ecesis interval is the amount of time betweenan initial disturbance and the successful establishmentof the first trees.
The condition of dead trees affects the continuity of their recordPhotograph: John Krumm
Snags may have lost an unknown number of outer rings.
How can we reduce the effectsof these different sources of uncertainty?
“   In old, uneven-aged forests, sometimes hundreds of trees    must be sampled to obtain adequate characterization       ...
5-ha plotsDemographic surveys in the Mazama Mountains Tom Swetnam
Sampling dead trees in the pinon-juniper woodlands Tom Swetnam
Pinyon Demography at Sevilleta LTER, Central New MexicoSource: Betancourt et al. (2004)
less than 85% of average precipitation             for 10 or more yearsSource: Swetnam and Betancourt (1998)              ...
Source: Swetnam and Brown (2010)    Germination of ponderosa pine coincides with warm, wet summers
THE ‘FADING RECORD’ PROBLEMThe preservation of dead trees becomes less commonwith time before present, and obtaining estim...
B. Growth dynamicsPhotograph: Kyle Pierce
A growth suppression is a rapid reduction of growthfrom one year to the next, usually lasting for several years.
Photograph: Eli Sagor          Growth suppressions are caused commonly by defoliating insects.
Source: Fri s and Swetnam, 1989         Suppression, possibly caused by 1064 eruption at Sunset Crater
A growth release is the opposite of a suppression,with growth increasing rapidly for several years.
Growth releases may be caused by the death of ‘overstory’ trees.
Source: Fri s and Swetnam, 1989         Growth release caused by 1966 timber harvest.
Source: Berg et al. (2006)     Using release events to identify insect outbreaks
Source: Berg et al. (2006)              Studying the frequency of growth releases across many stands.
C. Disturbance ecologyPhotograph: Miguel Vieira
THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
Photograph: William Ciesla
Western spruce budworm Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman
Photograph: brewbooks         White fir Abies concolor
Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii
Photograph: William Ciesla
“   No typical pa ern or trend in western spruce budworm epidemics    has been apparent; most of the early epidemics laste...
Photograph: Dave Powell
“   The tree-ring basis for developing outbreak chronologies    is the observation of very sharply reduced ring growth    ...
Photograph: Tom Swetnam         Growth suppression in white fir defoliated by spruce budworm
THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et                          ?
HOST   NON-hOST
HOST         NON-hOST White fir              Ponderosa PineDouglas-fir
Photograph: Brewbooks
G(HOST) < G(NON-HOST)            =   potential outbreak
Source: Ryerson et al. (2003)
Using host/non-host comparisons to identify budworm outbreaks                                BLACK = Host < Non-host   GRA...
Percentage of trees recording an outbreak of western spruce budworm in the Rio Grande National Forest, ColoradoSource: Rye...
397 trees
Do drought conditions inhibit spruce budworm outbreaks?Source: Ryerson et al. (2003)
Dendroecology is the use of tree-ring dating and analysesto investigate events and processes involvingthe interactions of ...
Strengths of dendroecology
Strengths of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records provide a much longer perspective   than documentary records or modern surv...
Strengths of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records provide a much longer perspective   than documentary records or modern surv...
Strengths of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records provide a much longer perspective   than documentary records or modern surv...
Limitations of dendroecology
Limitations of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records are fragmentary and can be   distributed irregularly in time and space.
Limitations of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records are fragmentary and can be   distributed irregularly in time and space.2....
Limitations of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records are fragmentary and can be   distributed irregularly in time and space.2....
ASSIGNED READINGTom Swetnam and Peter Brown (2010), Climatic inferencesfrom dendroecological reconstructions. M.K. Hughes ...
D. Fire history and fire climatology
Class visitor Dr. Kurt Kipfmueller
FOR NEXT CLASS  Read sections 9.2.1 (Fire History and Fire Climatology) and 9.3 (The Late Eighteenth-Century, Early Ninete...
GEOG3839.16, Dendroecology
GEOG3839.16, Dendroecology
GEOG3839.16, Dendroecology
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GEOG3839.16, Dendroecology

  1. 1. DENDROECOLOGY
  2. 2. “ Many ecosystem processes, especially those affected by climate changes, manifest themselves only over longer time periods and broader spatial scales than ” encompassed in typical ecological studies. Swetnam and Brown, 2010
  3. 3. “ Understanding the dynamics of long-lived organisms and ecosystems — and the role of climate in controlling these dynamics — requires decadal to centennial and ” landscape- to regional-scale perspectives. Swetnam and Brown, 2010
  4. 4. Dendroecology is the use of tree-ring dating and analysesto investigate events and processes involvingthe interactions of organisms with their environment.
  5. 5. THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
  6. 6. THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
  7. 7. DENDROECOLOGYA. Forest demographyB. Growth dynamicsC. Disturbance ecology
  8. 8. A. Forest demography
  9. 9. Photograph: Dawn Hopkins Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller
  10. 10. “ Ecologists have long recognized that time series of tree births and deaths are of fundamental value for ” understanding forest and woodland dynamics. Swetnam and Brown, 2010
  11. 11. Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller
  12. 12. 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  13. 13. 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  14. 14. 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  15. 15. Tree recruitment dates (by 50-year periods) 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  16. 16. Tree mortality dates (by 50-year periods) 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  17. 17. TREE DOES NOT DATE OF EQUAL GERMINATIONRECRUITMENT
  18. 18. PithHi ing the pith is easy when you collect an entire cross-section
  19. 19. It’s more difficult when coring, especially if growth is asymmetric.
  20. 20. Coring height Root collarHow many years separate the root collar from the stem at coring height?
  21. 21. The germination date can be much earlier than tree age at coring height.Source: Gutsell and Johnston (2002)
  22. 22. Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller Germination doesn’t happen immediately a er disturbance.
  23. 23. The ecesis interval is the amount of time betweenan initial disturbance and the successful establishmentof the first trees.
  24. 24. The condition of dead trees affects the continuity of their recordPhotograph: John Krumm
  25. 25. Snags may have lost an unknown number of outer rings.
  26. 26. How can we reduce the effectsof these different sources of uncertainty?
  27. 27. “ In old, uneven-aged forests, sometimes hundreds of trees must be sampled to obtain adequate characterization ” of age structure distributions. Swetnam and Brown, 2010
  28. 28. 5-ha plotsDemographic surveys in the Mazama Mountains Tom Swetnam
  29. 29. Sampling dead trees in the pinon-juniper woodlands Tom Swetnam
  30. 30. Pinyon Demography at Sevilleta LTER, Central New MexicoSource: Betancourt et al. (2004)
  31. 31. less than 85% of average precipitation for 10 or more yearsSource: Swetnam and Betancourt (1998) Severe sustained drought in the Southwest during the 1950s
  32. 32. Source: Swetnam and Brown (2010) Germination of ponderosa pine coincides with warm, wet summers
  33. 33. THE ‘FADING RECORD’ PROBLEMThe preservation of dead trees becomes less commonwith time before present, and obtaining estimates ofpast mortality events depends both on persistence ofwoody material and the ability to adequately samplethe material to obtain death dates.
  34. 34. B. Growth dynamicsPhotograph: Kyle Pierce
  35. 35. A growth suppression is a rapid reduction of growthfrom one year to the next, usually lasting for several years.
  36. 36. Photograph: Eli Sagor Growth suppressions are caused commonly by defoliating insects.
  37. 37. Source: Fri s and Swetnam, 1989 Suppression, possibly caused by 1064 eruption at Sunset Crater
  38. 38. A growth release is the opposite of a suppression,with growth increasing rapidly for several years.
  39. 39. Growth releases may be caused by the death of ‘overstory’ trees.
  40. 40. Source: Fri s and Swetnam, 1989 Growth release caused by 1966 timber harvest.
  41. 41. Source: Berg et al. (2006) Using release events to identify insect outbreaks
  42. 42. Source: Berg et al. (2006) Studying the frequency of growth releases across many stands.
  43. 43. C. Disturbance ecologyPhotograph: Miguel Vieira
  44. 44. THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
  45. 45. Photograph: William Ciesla
  46. 46. Western spruce budworm Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman
  47. 47. Photograph: brewbooks White fir Abies concolor
  48. 48. Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii
  49. 49. Photograph: William Ciesla
  50. 50. “ No typical pa ern or trend in western spruce budworm epidemics has been apparent; most of the early epidemics lasted for a few years and then subsided naturally; others persisted longer, ” at times without spreading over large areas. Fellin and Dewey, 1982
  51. 51. Photograph: Dave Powell
  52. 52. “ The tree-ring basis for developing outbreak chronologies is the observation of very sharply reduced ring growth in the host species during the defoliation episode, ” which typically lasts for a decade or longer. Swetnam and Brown, 2010
  53. 53. Photograph: Tom Swetnam Growth suppression in white fir defoliated by spruce budworm
  54. 54. THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et ?
  55. 55. HOST NON-hOST
  56. 56. HOST NON-hOST White fir Ponderosa PineDouglas-fir
  57. 57. Photograph: Brewbooks
  58. 58. G(HOST) < G(NON-HOST) = potential outbreak
  59. 59. Source: Ryerson et al. (2003)
  60. 60. Using host/non-host comparisons to identify budworm outbreaks BLACK = Host < Non-host GRAY = Host > Non-hostSource: Ryerson et al. (2003)
  61. 61. Percentage of trees recording an outbreak of western spruce budworm in the Rio Grande National Forest, ColoradoSource: Ryerson et al. (2003)
  62. 62. 397 trees
  63. 63. Do drought conditions inhibit spruce budworm outbreaks?Source: Ryerson et al. (2003)
  64. 64. Dendroecology is the use of tree-ring dating and analysesto investigate events and processes involvingthe interactions of organisms with their environment.
  65. 65. Strengths of dendroecology
  66. 66. Strengths of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records provide a much longer perspective than documentary records or modern surveys.
  67. 67. Strengths of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records provide a much longer perspective than documentary records or modern surveys.2. Tree-ring evidence has a high degree of temporal precision compared to other paleoecological tools.
  68. 68. Strengths of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records provide a much longer perspective than documentary records or modern surveys.2. Tree-ring evidence has a high degree of temporal precision compared to other paleoecological tools.3. Chronological control allows multiple lines of evidence to be compared.
  69. 69. Limitations of dendroecology
  70. 70. Limitations of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records are fragmentary and can be distributed irregularly in time and space.
  71. 71. Limitations of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records are fragmentary and can be distributed irregularly in time and space.2. Some species, events or processes cannot be reconstructed and therefore remain unknown.
  72. 72. Limitations of dendroecology1. Tree-ring records are fragmentary and can be distributed irregularly in time and space.2. Some species, events or processes cannot be reconstructed and therefore remain unknown.3. Past ecological conditions may have no analog in the modern system, making their behavior difficult to interpret.
  73. 73. ASSIGNED READINGTom Swetnam and Peter Brown (2010), Climatic inferencesfrom dendroecological reconstructions. M.K. Hughes et al.(eds.), Dendroclimatology, Developments inPaleoenvironmental Research.
  74. 74. D. Fire history and fire climatology
  75. 75. Class visitor Dr. Kurt Kipfmueller
  76. 76. FOR NEXT CLASS Read sections 9.2.1 (Fire History and Fire Climatology) and 9.3 (The Late Eighteenth-Century, Early Nineteenth-Century Fire Gap)

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