Introduction to human resource development

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Introduction to human resource development

  1. 1. Introduction to HumanResource DevelopmentChapter 1 Werner & DeSimone (2006) 1
  2. 2. Definition of HRD A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 2
  3. 3. Evolution of HRD Early apprenticeship programs Early vocational education programs Early factory schools Early training for unskilled/semiskilled Human relations movement Establishment of training profession Emergence of HRD Werner & DeSimone (2006) 3
  4. 4. Early Apprenticeship Programs Artisans in 1700s Artisans had to train their own workers Guild schools Yeomanries (early worker unions) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 4
  5. 5. Early Vocational EducationPrograms 1809 – DeWitt Clinton’s manual school 1863 – President Lincoln signs the Land-Grant Act promoting A&M colleges 1917 – Smith-Hughes Act provides funding for vocational education at the state level Werner & DeSimone (2006) 5
  6. 6. Early Factory Schools Industrial Revolution increases need for trained workers to design, build, and repair machines used by unskilled workers Companies started machinist and mechanical schools in-house Shorter and more narrowly-focused than apprenticeship programs Werner & DeSimone (2006) 6
  7. 7. Early Training forUnskilled/Semiskilled Workers Mass production (Model T)  Semiskilled and unskilled workers  Production line – one task = one worker World War I  Retool & retrain  “Show, Tell, Do, Check” (OJT) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 7
  8. 8. Human Relations Movement Factory system often abused workers “Human relations” movement promoted better working conditions Start of business & management education Tied to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Werner & DeSimone (2006) 8
  9. 9. Establishment of the TrainingProfession Outbreak of WWII increased the need for trained workers Federal government started the Training Within Industry (TWI) program 1942 – American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) formed Werner & DeSimone (2006) 9
  10. 10. Emergence of HRD Employee needs extend beyond the training classroom Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving Need for basic employee development Need for structured career development ASTD changes its name to the American Society for Training and Development Werner & DeSimone (2006) 10
  11. 11. Relationship Between HRMand HRD Human resource management (HRM) encompasses many functions Human resource development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM Werner & DeSimone (2006) 11
  12. 12. Primary Functions of HRM Human resource planning Equal employment opportunity Staffing (recruitment and selection) Compensation and benefits Employee and labor relations Health, safety, and security Human resource development Werner & DeSimone (2006) 12
  13. 13. Secondary HRM Functions Organization and job design Performance management/ performance appraisal systems Research and information systems Werner & DeSimone (2006) 13
  14. 14. Line versus Staff Authority Line Authority – given to managers directly responsible for the production of goods and services (direct function) Staff Authority – given to units that advise and consult line units Werner & DeSimone (2006) 14
  15. 15. Limits of Authority HRM & HRD units have staff authority (Overhead function) Line authority takes precedence Scope of authority – how far (how much) can you authorize? Werner & DeSimone (2006) 15
  16. 16. HRD Functions Training and development (T&D) Organizational development Career development Werner & DeSimone (2006) 16
  17. 17. Training and Development(T&D) Training – improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to a specific job or task – e.g.,  Employee orientation  Skills & technical training  Coaching  Counseling Werner & DeSimone (2006) 17
  18. 18. Training and Development(T&D) Development – preparing for future responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job  Management training  Supervisor development Werner & DeSimone (2006) 18
  19. 19. Organizational Development The process of improving an organization’s effectiveness and member’s well-being through the application of behavioral science concepts Focuses on both macro- and micro- levels HRD plays the role of a change agent Werner & DeSimone (2006) 19
  20. 20. Career Development Ongoing process by which individuals progress through series of changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement.  Career planning  Career management Werner & DeSimone (2006) 20
  21. 21. Learning & PerformanceBy Permission: Naughton & Rothwell (2004) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 21
  22. 22. Critical HRD Issues Strategic management and HRD The supervisor’s role in HRD Organizational structure of HRD Werner & DeSimone (2006) 22
  23. 23. Strategic Management & HRD Strategic management aims to ensure organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable future – e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new products, procedures, and materials Werner & DeSimone (2006) 23
  24. 24. Supervisor’s Role in HRD Implements HRD programs and procedures On-the-job training (OJT) Coaching/mentoring/counseling Career and employee development A “front-line participant” in HRD Werner & DeSimone (2006) 24
  25. 25. Organizational Structure ofHRD Departments Depends on company size, industry and maturity No single structure used Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager becomes an institutional part of the company – i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue user Werner & DeSimone (2006) 25
  26. 26. HRD Organization in a LargeCompany Werner & DeSimone (2006) 26
  27. 27. Sample HRD Jobs/Roles Executive/Manager HR Strategic Advisor HR Systems Designer/Developer Organization Change Agent Organization Design Consultant Learning Program Specialist Werner & DeSimone (2006) 27
  28. 28. Sample HRD Jobs/Roles – 2 Instructor/Facilitator Individual Development and Career Counselor Performance Consultant (Coach) Researcher Werner & DeSimone (2006) 28
  29. 29. HR Manager Role Integrates HRD with organizational goals and strategies Promotes HRD as a profit enhancer Tailors HRD to corporate needs and budget Institutionalizes performance enhancement Werner & DeSimone (2006) 29
  30. 30. HR Strategic Advisor Role Consults with corporate strategic thinkers Helps to articulate goals and strategies Develops HR plans Develops strategic planning education and training programs Werner & DeSimone (2006) 30
  31. 31. HR SystemsDesigner/Developer Assists HR manager in the design and development of HR systems Designs HR programs Develops intervention strategies Plans HR implementation actions Werner & DeSimone (2006) 31
  32. 32. Organization Change Agent Develops more efficient work teams Improves quality management Implements intervention strategies Develops change reports Werner & DeSimone (2006) 32
  33. 33. Organization DesignConsultant Designs work systems Develops effective alternative work designs Implements changed systems Werner & DeSimone (2006) 33
  34. 34. Learning Program Specialist Identifies needs of learners Develops and designs learning programs Prepares learning materials and learning aids Develops program objectives, lesson plans, and strategies Werner & DeSimone (2006) 34
  35. 35. Instructor/Facilitator Presents learning materials Leads and facilitates structured learning experiences Selects appropriate instructional methods and techniques Delivers instruction Werner & DeSimone (2006) 35
  36. 36. Individual Development andCareer Counselor Assists individuals in career planning Develops individual assessments Facilitates career workshops Provides career guidance Werner & DeSimone (2006) 36
  37. 37. Performance Consultant(Coach) Advises line management on appropriate interventions to improve individual and group performance Provides intervention strategies Develops and provides coaching designs Implements coaching activities Werner & DeSimone (2006) 37
  38. 38. Researcher Assesses HRD practices and programs Determines HRD program effectiveness Develops requirements for changing HRD programs to address current and future problems Werner & DeSimone (2006) 38
  39. 39. Certification and HRD Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP™) The ASTD Certification Institute offers workplace learning and performance (WLP) professionals an opportunity to enhance credibility and prove value in an increasingly competitive marketplace. It covers nine areas of expertise as defined by the ASTD Competency Model. Professional in Human Resources (PHR) SHRM offers the PHR exam to all HR professionals ..PHR Exam Breakdown by Topic.doc Werner & DeSimone (2006) 39
  40. 40. Challenges for HRD Changing workforce demographics Competing in global economy Eliminating the skills gap Need for lifelong learning Need for organizational learning Werner & DeSimone (2006) 40
  41. 41. Changing Demographics in theU.S. WorkplaceBy 2020, it is predicted that: African-Americans will remain at 11% Hispanics will increase from 9% to 14% Asians will increase from 4% to 6% Whites will decrease from 76% to 68% Women will increase from 46% to 50% Older workers (>55) will increase to 25% Werner & DeSimone (2006) 41
  42. 42. Competing in the GlobalEconomy New technologies Need for more skilled and educated workers Cultural sensitivity required Team involvement Problem solving Better communications skills Werner & DeSimone (2006) 42
  43. 43. Eliminating the Skills Gap Example: In South Carolina, 47% of entering high school freshmen don’t graduate.  Best state is Vermont, with 81% graduating Employees need to be taught basic skills:  Math  Reading  Applied subjects Need to improve U.S. schools! Werner & DeSimone (2006) 43
  44. 44. Need for Lifelong Learning Organizations change Technologies change Products change Processes change PEOPLE must change!! Werner & DeSimone (2006) 44
  45. 45. Need for OrganizationalLearning Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and change Principles:  Systems thinking  Personal mastery  Mental models  Shared visions  Team learning Werner & DeSimone (2006) 45
  46. 46. A Framework for the HRDProcess HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages): Needs assessment Design Implementation Evaluation (“A DImE”) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 46
  47. 47. Training & HRD Process Model Werner & DeSimone (2006) 47
  48. 48. Needs Assessment Phase Establishing HRD priorities Defining specific training and objectives Establishing evaluation criteria Werner & DeSimone (2006) 48
  49. 49. Design Phase Selecting who delivers program Selecting and developing program content Scheduling the training program Werner & DeSimone (2006) 49
  50. 50. Implementation Phase Implementing or delivering the program Werner & DeSimone (2006) 50
  51. 51. Evaluation PhaseDetermining program effectiveness – e.g., Keep or change providers? Offer it again? What are the true costs? Can we do it another way? Werner & DeSimone (2006) 51
  52. 52. Summary HRD is too important to be left to amateurs HRD should be a revenue producer, not a revenue user HRD should be a central part of company You need to be able to talk MONEY Werner & DeSimone (2006) 52

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