SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Plasma Protein
By
N.Santhosh Kumar
Asst.Professor
Department of Biochemistry
SIMS & RH
SEPARATION OF BLOOD COMPONENTS BY
CENTRIFUGE
•The formed elements like cells can be separated from plasma by centrifuge.
•Blood sample is spun for a few minutes in a tube to separate, its
components according to their densities.
Blood
↓
Place in suitable tubes
↓
Centrifuge with
appropriate rpm
↓
Obtain Components
BLOOD COMPONENTS
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Plasma:
•Plasma makes up the top of the tube, which is a pale red color and
contains 55% of the total volume.
Buffy coat:
• It is the narrow cream colored found above the RBCs formed by the
WBCs and platelets.
Hematocrit:
•Volume when RBCs settle to the bottom of the test tube which is
about 45% of the total volume, also called packed cell volume (PCV)
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
55%
45%
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
• Serum and plasma both come from the liquid portion of the blood that
remains once the cells settle down after centrifugation
PLASMA SERUM
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Centrifugation plasma obtained by centrifuging
blood
no need centifuge
Anticoagulants Needed Not needed
Fibrinogen Present Absent
PLASMA:
• Plasma is a clear, colored liquid portion of the blood.
Composition
Components Functions
Water (91.5%) Liquid portion of blood.
Acts as solvent and suspending medium for components of blood.
Plasma proteins
(7%)
Exert colloid osmotic pressure, which helps to maintain water balance
between blood & tissues and regulates blood volume
Other solutes
(1.5%)
Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg2+, Cl-, HPO4
-, SO-
4, HCO-
3 are inorganic salts
Nutrients- amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals
Oxygen, carbon dioxide & nitrogen are gases
Regulatory substances such as enzymes, hormones, vitamins
Waste products- urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin and ammonia etc,
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
 Major plasma proteins - Albumin
Globulin
Fibrinogen
 The human plasma proteins are a mixture of
Simple proteins – Albumins
Conjugated protein – Lipoprotein & Glycoprotein
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Separation of plasma proteins
Salting out
Electrophoresis
Immunoelectrophoresis
Ultracentrifugation
Functions of plasma proteins
• Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure of blood
• Maintain viscosity and blood pressure
• Essential for blood clotting
• Transport of certain substances in blood
• Involved in Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
• Act as buffers
• Act as a protein reserve
• Antibodies
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
TOTAL PROTEINS
It represents the sum of albumin and globulins
Normal levels is 6 to 8 gm%
•Increased in chronic infection, liver dysfunction & alcoholism,
dehydration, hemolysis & leukemia
•Decreased in malnutrition and malabsorption, liver disease,
diarrhea & severe burns
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
ALBUMIN
• Simple, globular & heat coagulable protein with mol wt is 69
kDa and isoelectric pH is 4.7
• Synthesized in liver (10-15g/day) & has half life is 20 -25 days.
• Consists of a single polypeptide chain having 585 a.a’s with 17
intrachain disulfide linkages.
• Precipitated by full saturation with ammonium sulphate.
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Functions of Albumin
1. Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure in vascular & extra vascular
spaces
2. Max buffering capacity (histidine)- maintain acid-base balance
3. Transport of
4. It exerts low viscosity.
5. First class protein - tissue proteins, enzymes & hormones etc.
Metabolites(Bilirubin)
Steroid
hormones
Metabolic waste
Nutrients(Fatty acids)
Drugs (Sulfonamides, Penicillin, Aspirin)
Ca++
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Clinical significance of Albumin
(Normal range-3.5 - 5 gm%)
Hypoalbuminemia
Decreased conc. of
alb in serum.
- Cirrhosis of liver,
- Nephrotic syndrome,
-Malnutrition,
-Burns (-ve nirogen balance) and
-Protein losing enteropathy
Analbuminemia
(less than 1gm%
Congenital rare autosomal recessive
disorder
Defective mutations in the gene is
responsible for absence of albumin
synthesis.
A/G ratio is reversed
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Clinical significance of Albumin
Albuminuria
Albumin is excreted
into urine(30mg/day)
-Renal diseases
-Nephrotic syndrome,
-Diabetic Nephropathy,
-hyper tention
-Certain inflammatory conditions of urinary
tract.
Micro albuminuria
(about 30-300mg/ day)
In renal disease &
Diabetic Nephropathy
Decreased in plasma albumin levels (fall in osmotic pressure) &
excreted in urine leads to edema
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Role of albumin in oedema (Oncotic pressure)
• OP/COP is a form of Osmotic pressure, Induced by albumin in blood vessel’s
plasma
• Total COP is 25mmHg (75-85% is contributed by albumin)
• COP of the blood is imp in maintaining a balance b/w the water inside the blood
& that in the tissue fluid around the cells
• Effective osmotic pressure (EOP) - maintenance of blood volume and
distribution of body fluids
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Pedal edema
• Albumin and other proteins in the blood act
like sponges to keep fluid in blood vessels.
• Low albumin levels leads to decrease in
osmotic pressure, preventing the return of water
into the vesicular compartment –interstitial
oedema
• Pedal edema (accumulation of fluid in the feet
& lower legs).
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Hypoalbuminaemia
(less than 2gm% )
Increased capillary
permeability
Protein loss
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Protein-losing enteropathy
Reduced albumin
synthesis
- Liver disease
- Malnutrition
(Kwashiorkar)
Burns
Trauma
Inflammation or sepsis
Allergic reactions
Adult respiratory distress
syndrome
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
MECHANISMS
• Venous edema, caused by increased capillary filtration and retention of
protein-poor fluid from the venous system into the interstitial space.
• Lymphatic edema, caused by obstruction or dysfunction of lymphatic
outflow from the legs resulting in accumulation of protein-rich interstitial
fluid.
• These two mechanisms can operate
independently or together
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
DURING PREGNANCY
1) Body releases hormones that encourage fluid retention, and a woman
tends to retain more sodium and water than usual- face, hands, lower
limbs, and feet may swell.
2) Resting in a reclined position during pregnancy, the enlarged uterus can
press on inferior vena cava- obstruct the femoral veins
3) The blood clots more easily during pregnancy, can increase the risk of
deep venous thrombosis (DVT)
4) Eclampsia, results from pregnancy-induced hypertension, or high
blood pressure
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Clinical Importance of Albumin
Hyper-albuminemia
Acute dehydration In Vomiting, diarrhoea. No clinical
significance
Hyper-proteinemia
Excessive production
of gamma globulins
- Hypoalbuminaemia
- Multiple myeloma
- Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
↑ Beta globulins - Hyper-lipoproteinaemia
- Other Hyper-lipidaemic conditions
↑Alpha globulins - Nephrotic syndrome
(Alpha 2-macroglobulin is increased)
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
GLOBULINS
• Glycoprotein with mol wt – 90 -1300kDa.
• There are separated by half saturation with ammonium sulphate.
• Functions: Transport &Immunity.
• Globulins contributes different fractions in electrophoresis (α1,α2,β, γ
-globulins).
• Normal range of Globulins -1.8 to 3.6 gm%
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Fraction Examples c (gm%)
1-globulins 1-antitrypsin, 1-acid glyco- protein,
RBP, 1-lipoprotein (HDL), 1-
fetoprotein,
0.1 to 0.4
2-globulins Haptoglobin, Ceruloplasmin
2-Macroglobulin, Thyroxin-binding
globulin (TBG),
0.4 to 0. 8
-globulins C-reactive protein (CRP) Transferrin,
Hemopexin, 2-Micro globulin, -
lipoprotein (LDL)
0.5 to 1.2
-globulins IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD, 0.7 to 1.5
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Name of the
Globulin
Function Normal
range
Clinical significance
Increased in Decreased in
α1 –anti
trypsin
 Inhibits serine protease
activity
75 to 200
mg/dl
Liver disease,
Burns & trauma
Nephrotic
syndrome ,
Emphysema
α1-feto
globulin
 Immuno-regulator
during pregnancy
less than 1
μg/ dl
pregnancy, open
neural tube defect
Hepatoma
Down’s
syndrome
α2-macro
globulin
 Inhibits protease
activity
 Anti coagulant.
 Carrier of many
growth factors
130 to 300
mg/ dl
Nephrotic
syndrome
Acute
pancreatitis ,
Advanced
carcinoma of the
prostate
Globulin Fractions And Its Role In The Body
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Haptoglobin  prevents the loss of
free Hb from the
kidney
40 -170
mg/dl
Inflammatory
conditions
Rheumatic
diseases,
intravascular
haemolytic
anaemia
Ceruloplasmin  Transports copper
ions (6 to 8 cu/ mol).
 Ferroxidase
activities.
 Antioxidant in
plasma
25 to50
mg/dl
Inflammatory
conditions &
Collagen
disorders
Nephrotic
syndrome,
Wilson’s disease
and
Menke’s
diseases
Name of the
Globulin
Function Normal
range
Clinical significance
Increased in Decreased in
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
γ- globulins
 γ- fraction of globulins are
immunoglobulin / antibodies.
 Produced by plasma cells
Functions
 To protect against infectious
agents or their products.
.
Neutralize toxins & viruses
Opsonize microbes
Activate complement & prevent the
attachment of microbes to mucosal surfaces
Igs provide resistance because they can
FIBRINOGEN
 Soluble glycoprotein with mol wt – 3,40,000
 It constitutes 2 to 3% of total plasma proteins.
 Imp soluble plasma clotting factor precursor, participates in blood
coagulation.
 Which converted to fibrin, which polymerizes to form fibrin clot.
Clinical significance:
Plasma conc. of fibrinogen – 0.2 - 0.4 gm%
• High fibrinogen levels: inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis)
• Low levels of fibrinogen: in Liver diseases, bone lesions,
malnutrition &bleeding disorders
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of
Biochem / SIMSRH
A/G (ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN) RATIO
• Normal Ranges is 1.2:1 to 1.5: 1
• A/G ratio elevated in hypothyroidism, high protein / high
carbohydrate diet with poor nitrogen retention and Hypo- γ-
globulinemia
• Decreased in liver dysfunction
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of
Biochem / SIMSRH
ABNORMAL PLASMA PROTEINS
Bence – Jones proteins Cryoglobulins
Occurs in blood & urine of people
suffering from a disease called
multiple myeloma.
B.J protein have mol wt – 20,000 to
40,000.
Excess synthesed light chain ( k &
λ) of Ig in blood or urine causes renal
tubules damages.
These proteins are coagulated when
plasma or serum is cooled to very low
temp.
It’s mol wt 1,65,000 – 6,00,000.
Increased in rheumatoid arthritis,
Lymphocytic leukemia, Multiple
myeloma
Lymphosarcomas.
Next PPT on
PP-02: Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport
proteins & Separation Of Plasma Proteins by
Electrophoresis
N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
Believe In Yourself And
All That You Are.
Know That There Is Something Inside
You
That Is Greater Than Any Obstacle.
Thank You

More Related Content

What's hot

Inborn errors of protein metabolism
Inborn errors of protein metabolismInborn errors of protein metabolism
Inborn errors of protein metabolism
Tapeshwar Yadav
 
Diagnostic Application of enzyme ppt
Diagnostic Application of enzyme pptDiagnostic Application of enzyme ppt
Diagnostic Application of enzyme ppt
Ibad khan
 
porphyrin metabolism
porphyrin metabolismporphyrin metabolism
porphyrin metabolism
jyoti arora
 
SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDSSYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
YESANNA
 
clinical enzymology
clinical enzymologyclinical enzymology
clinical enzymology
Ali Faris
 
Metabolism of triglycerides
Metabolism of triglyceridesMetabolism of triglycerides
Metabolism of triglycerides
Ramesh Gupta
 
Hemoglobin structure
Hemoglobin structure Hemoglobin structure
Hemoglobin structure
MLT LECTURES BY TANVEER TARA
 
Adipose tissue hormones
Adipose tissue hormonesAdipose tissue hormones
Adipose tissue hormones
Farshad Mirzavi
 
Hemoglobinopathies
HemoglobinopathiesHemoglobinopathies
Hemoglobinopathies
Ali Faris
 
Glycolipids
GlycolipidsGlycolipids
Glycolipids
Dr.M.Prasad Naidu
 
lipid storage diseases
lipid storage diseaseslipid storage diseases
lipid storage diseases
dr. Mirza Muhammad Kafeel
 
Structure and function of hemoglobin
Structure and function of hemoglobinStructure and function of hemoglobin
Structure and function of hemoglobin
Asif Zeb
 
Estimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. Tehmas
Estimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. TehmasEstimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. Tehmas
Estimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. Tehmas
Tehmas Ahmad
 
Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)
Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)
Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)
subramaniam sethupathy
 
Sphingolipids
SphingolipidsSphingolipids
Sphingolipids
Andres mu?z
 
isoenzymes
isoenzymesisoenzymes
Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)
Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)
Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)
Ashok Katta
 
LDH Isoenzymes
LDH Isoenzymes LDH Isoenzymes
LDH Isoenzymes
IshaqueAbdulla
 
Protein digestion and absorption
Protein digestion and absorptionProtein digestion and absorption
Protein digestion and absorption
Dr. Aamir Ali Khan
 
lipid chemistry
 lipid chemistry lipid chemistry
lipid chemistry
Ganesh Mote
 

What's hot (20)

Inborn errors of protein metabolism
Inborn errors of protein metabolismInborn errors of protein metabolism
Inborn errors of protein metabolism
 
Diagnostic Application of enzyme ppt
Diagnostic Application of enzyme pptDiagnostic Application of enzyme ppt
Diagnostic Application of enzyme ppt
 
porphyrin metabolism
porphyrin metabolismporphyrin metabolism
porphyrin metabolism
 
SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDSSYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
 
clinical enzymology
clinical enzymologyclinical enzymology
clinical enzymology
 
Metabolism of triglycerides
Metabolism of triglyceridesMetabolism of triglycerides
Metabolism of triglycerides
 
Hemoglobin structure
Hemoglobin structure Hemoglobin structure
Hemoglobin structure
 
Adipose tissue hormones
Adipose tissue hormonesAdipose tissue hormones
Adipose tissue hormones
 
Hemoglobinopathies
HemoglobinopathiesHemoglobinopathies
Hemoglobinopathies
 
Glycolipids
GlycolipidsGlycolipids
Glycolipids
 
lipid storage diseases
lipid storage diseaseslipid storage diseases
lipid storage diseases
 
Structure and function of hemoglobin
Structure and function of hemoglobinStructure and function of hemoglobin
Structure and function of hemoglobin
 
Estimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. Tehmas
Estimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. TehmasEstimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. Tehmas
Estimation of serum triglycerides by Dr. Tehmas
 
Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)
Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)
Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM)
 
Sphingolipids
SphingolipidsSphingolipids
Sphingolipids
 
isoenzymes
isoenzymesisoenzymes
isoenzymes
 
Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)
Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)
Lipoprotein metabolism - (transport of lipids in the Blood)
 
LDH Isoenzymes
LDH Isoenzymes LDH Isoenzymes
LDH Isoenzymes
 
Protein digestion and absorption
Protein digestion and absorptionProtein digestion and absorption
Protein digestion and absorption
 
lipid chemistry
 lipid chemistry lipid chemistry
lipid chemistry
 

Similar to PP-01: Role of Plasma Proteins in Health and diseases

Plasma proteins by Dr Anurag Yadav
Plasma proteins by Dr Anurag YadavPlasma proteins by Dr Anurag Yadav
Plasma proteins by Dr Anurag Yadav
Dr Anurag Yadav
 
PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)
PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)
PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
08 Plasma Proteins.ppt
08 Plasma Proteins.ppt08 Plasma Proteins.ppt
08 Plasma Proteins.ppt
Lucifer532649
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteinsPlasma proteins
Shk biochemical tests
Shk   biochemical testsShk   biochemical tests
Shk biochemical tests
S H Murali Karthick
 
Proteinuria Evaluation
Proteinuria EvaluationProteinuria Evaluation
Proteinuria Evaluation
tarun kumar
 
Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01
Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01
Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01
DrShamimAkram
 
Lec,7-plasma proteins
Lec,7-plasma proteinsLec,7-plasma proteins
Lec,7-plasma proteins
Shamim Akram
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteinsPlasma proteins
Plasma proteins
Irtaza Naqvi
 
L7-plasma proteins.pdf
L7-plasma proteins.pdfL7-plasma proteins.pdf
L7-plasma proteins.pdf
KoreshTafuteni
 
Plasma proteins.
Plasma proteins.Plasma proteins.
Plasma proteins.
Dr.M.Prasad Naidu
 
Proteinuria sobh
Proteinuria sobhProteinuria sobh
Proteinuria sobh
FarragBahbah
 
ROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY
ROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGYROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY
ROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY
Ankita Sain
 
Plasma protiens and their clinical significance
Plasma protiens and their clinical significancePlasma protiens and their clinical significance
Plasma protiens and their clinical significance
Hussan Sheikh
 
Plasma proteins.pptx
Plasma proteins.pptxPlasma proteins.pptx
Plasma proteins.pptx
BETHAMCHERLA BALA CHANDRUDU
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteins Plasma proteins
Plasma proteins
Dr. Sanjeev Shrivastava
 
24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein
24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein 24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein
24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein
Dr UAK
 
CLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptx
CLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptxCLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptx
CLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptx
Vivek Rathod
 
Plasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh Thakur
Plasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh ThakurPlasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh Thakur
Plasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh Thakur
DrRahul Thakur
 
Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02
Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02
Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02
Cleophas Rwemera
 

Similar to PP-01: Role of Plasma Proteins in Health and diseases (20)

Plasma proteins by Dr Anurag Yadav
Plasma proteins by Dr Anurag YadavPlasma proteins by Dr Anurag Yadav
Plasma proteins by Dr Anurag Yadav
 
PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)
PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)
PP-02: Plasma Proteins (Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins)
 
08 Plasma Proteins.ppt
08 Plasma Proteins.ppt08 Plasma Proteins.ppt
08 Plasma Proteins.ppt
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteinsPlasma proteins
Plasma proteins
 
Shk biochemical tests
Shk   biochemical testsShk   biochemical tests
Shk biochemical tests
 
Proteinuria Evaluation
Proteinuria EvaluationProteinuria Evaluation
Proteinuria Evaluation
 
Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01
Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01
Plasmaproteins 120711133728-phpapp01
 
Lec,7-plasma proteins
Lec,7-plasma proteinsLec,7-plasma proteins
Lec,7-plasma proteins
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteinsPlasma proteins
Plasma proteins
 
L7-plasma proteins.pdf
L7-plasma proteins.pdfL7-plasma proteins.pdf
L7-plasma proteins.pdf
 
Plasma proteins.
Plasma proteins.Plasma proteins.
Plasma proteins.
 
Proteinuria sobh
Proteinuria sobhProteinuria sobh
Proteinuria sobh
 
ROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY
ROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGYROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY
ROLE OF LIVER ENZYMES IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY
 
Plasma protiens and their clinical significance
Plasma protiens and their clinical significancePlasma protiens and their clinical significance
Plasma protiens and their clinical significance
 
Plasma proteins.pptx
Plasma proteins.pptxPlasma proteins.pptx
Plasma proteins.pptx
 
Plasma proteins
Plasma proteins Plasma proteins
Plasma proteins
 
24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein
24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein 24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein
24 lec composition of plasma & plasma protein
 
CLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptx
CLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptxCLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptx
CLINICAL ENZYMOLOGY.pptx
 
Plasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh Thakur
Plasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh ThakurPlasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh Thakur
Plasma protein by Dr. Rahul Singh Thakur
 
Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02
Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02
Lec1 level4-deplasmaproteins-130204033709-phpapp02
 

More from Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N

Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptxAlcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptxM-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptxMetabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptxMetabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptxMetabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptxHM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptxHM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptxclass -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptxclass-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptxOFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptxOFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docxDIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docxBasic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptxCH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptxEstimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptxThiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptxVitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 

More from Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N (20)

Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptxAlcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
Alcohol metabolism and alcoholism & Fatty liver.pptx
 
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptxM-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
M-2- General Reactions of amino acids.pptx
 
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptxMetabolism of  lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
Metabolism of lipoproteins & its disorders(Chylomicron & VLDL & LDL).pptx
 
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptxMetabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
Metabolism , Metabolic Fate& disorders of cholesterol.pptx
 
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptxMetabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
 
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptxHM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
HM-02 Heme catabolism & Genetic defects.pptx
 
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptxHM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
HM-01 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS & Porphyrias.pptx
 
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptxclass -2  Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
class -2 Simple & Compound lipids.pptx
 
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptxclass-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
 
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptxOFT 04- AFTs.pptx
OFT 04- AFTs.pptx
 
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx0FT 02. RFT.pptx
0FT 02. RFT.pptx
 
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptxOFT 03. TFT.pptx
OFT 03. TFT.pptx
 
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docxDIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS.docx
 
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docxBasic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
Basic notes of Metabolism of Carbohydrates-1.docx
 
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptxCH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
CH-03. Glycogen metabolism.pptx
 
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptxEstimation  of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
Estimation of serum total Proteins & Albumin .pptx
 
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
2. TCA cycle and fate of pyruvate & acetyl CoA.pptx
 
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
1.Digestion & absorption of carbohydrate.pptx
 
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptxThiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
Thiamine & Riboflavin.pptx
 
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptxVitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
Vitamin - B3 and B6.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdfpharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
KerlynIgnacio
 
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and AntagonistPharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Dr. Nikhilkumar Sakle
 
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...
AyushGadhvi1
 
Ophthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdf
Ophthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdfOphthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdf
Ophthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdf
MuhammadMuneer49
 
Medical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdf
Medical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdfMedical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdf
Medical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdf
Jim Jacob Roy
 
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptxRecent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
DrGirishJHoogar
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
rishi2789
 
June 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan Patro
June 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan PatroJune 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan Patro
June 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan Patro
Kanhu Charan
 
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USENARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
Dr. Ahana Haroon
 
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdfNAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
Rahul Sen
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
rishi2789
 
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...
Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...
Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...
PVI, PeerView Institute for Medical Education
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Jim Jacob Roy
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
HongBiThi1
 
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdfTest bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
rightmanforbloodline
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.Gawad
NephroTube - Dr.Gawad
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
phuakl
 
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principlesDECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
anaghabharat01
 
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune DiseaseCell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Health Advances
 

Recently uploaded (20)

pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdfpharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
 
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and AntagonistPharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
Pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine and Antagonist
 
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...
Lecture 6 -- Memory 2015.pptlearning occurs when a stimulus (unconditioned st...
 
Ophthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdf
Ophthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdfOphthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdf
Ophthalmic drugs latest. Xxxxxxzxxxxxx.pdf
 
Medical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdf
Medical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdfMedical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdf
Medical Quiz ( Online Quiz for API Meet 2024 ).pdf
 
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptxRecent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 1_ANTI TB DRUGS.pdf
 
June 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan Patro
June 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan PatroJune 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan Patro
June 2024 Oncology Cartoons By Dr Kanhu Charan Patro
 
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USENARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
 
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdfNAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
 
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
 
Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...
Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...
Alzheimer’s Disease Case Conference: Gearing Up for the Expanding Role of Neu...
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
 
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdfTest bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 5, Dialyzers Overview - Dr.Gawad
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
 
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principlesDECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
 
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune DiseaseCell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
 

PP-01: Role of Plasma Proteins in Health and diseases

  • 2. SEPARATION OF BLOOD COMPONENTS BY CENTRIFUGE •The formed elements like cells can be separated from plasma by centrifuge. •Blood sample is spun for a few minutes in a tube to separate, its components according to their densities. Blood ↓ Place in suitable tubes ↓ Centrifuge with appropriate rpm ↓ Obtain Components BLOOD COMPONENTS N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 3. Plasma: •Plasma makes up the top of the tube, which is a pale red color and contains 55% of the total volume. Buffy coat: • It is the narrow cream colored found above the RBCs formed by the WBCs and platelets. Hematocrit: •Volume when RBCs settle to the bottom of the test tube which is about 45% of the total volume, also called packed cell volume (PCV) N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 5. • Serum and plasma both come from the liquid portion of the blood that remains once the cells settle down after centrifugation PLASMA SERUM N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH Centrifugation plasma obtained by centrifuging blood no need centifuge Anticoagulants Needed Not needed Fibrinogen Present Absent
  • 6. PLASMA: • Plasma is a clear, colored liquid portion of the blood. Composition Components Functions Water (91.5%) Liquid portion of blood. Acts as solvent and suspending medium for components of blood. Plasma proteins (7%) Exert colloid osmotic pressure, which helps to maintain water balance between blood & tissues and regulates blood volume Other solutes (1.5%) Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg2+, Cl-, HPO4 -, SO- 4, HCO- 3 are inorganic salts Nutrients- amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals Oxygen, carbon dioxide & nitrogen are gases Regulatory substances such as enzymes, hormones, vitamins Waste products- urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin and ammonia etc, N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 7.  Major plasma proteins - Albumin Globulin Fibrinogen  The human plasma proteins are a mixture of Simple proteins – Albumins Conjugated protein – Lipoprotein & Glycoprotein N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 8. Separation of plasma proteins Salting out Electrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis Ultracentrifugation
  • 9. Functions of plasma proteins • Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure of blood • Maintain viscosity and blood pressure • Essential for blood clotting • Transport of certain substances in blood • Involved in Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) • Act as buffers • Act as a protein reserve • Antibodies N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 10. TOTAL PROTEINS It represents the sum of albumin and globulins Normal levels is 6 to 8 gm% •Increased in chronic infection, liver dysfunction & alcoholism, dehydration, hemolysis & leukemia •Decreased in malnutrition and malabsorption, liver disease, diarrhea & severe burns N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 11. ALBUMIN • Simple, globular & heat coagulable protein with mol wt is 69 kDa and isoelectric pH is 4.7 • Synthesized in liver (10-15g/day) & has half life is 20 -25 days. • Consists of a single polypeptide chain having 585 a.a’s with 17 intrachain disulfide linkages. • Precipitated by full saturation with ammonium sulphate. N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 12. Functions of Albumin 1. Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure in vascular & extra vascular spaces 2. Max buffering capacity (histidine)- maintain acid-base balance 3. Transport of 4. It exerts low viscosity. 5. First class protein - tissue proteins, enzymes & hormones etc. Metabolites(Bilirubin) Steroid hormones Metabolic waste Nutrients(Fatty acids) Drugs (Sulfonamides, Penicillin, Aspirin) Ca++ N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 13. Clinical significance of Albumin (Normal range-3.5 - 5 gm%) Hypoalbuminemia Decreased conc. of alb in serum. - Cirrhosis of liver, - Nephrotic syndrome, -Malnutrition, -Burns (-ve nirogen balance) and -Protein losing enteropathy Analbuminemia (less than 1gm% Congenital rare autosomal recessive disorder Defective mutations in the gene is responsible for absence of albumin synthesis. A/G ratio is reversed N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 14. Clinical significance of Albumin Albuminuria Albumin is excreted into urine(30mg/day) -Renal diseases -Nephrotic syndrome, -Diabetic Nephropathy, -hyper tention -Certain inflammatory conditions of urinary tract. Micro albuminuria (about 30-300mg/ day) In renal disease & Diabetic Nephropathy Decreased in plasma albumin levels (fall in osmotic pressure) & excreted in urine leads to edema N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 15. Role of albumin in oedema (Oncotic pressure) • OP/COP is a form of Osmotic pressure, Induced by albumin in blood vessel’s plasma • Total COP is 25mmHg (75-85% is contributed by albumin) • COP of the blood is imp in maintaining a balance b/w the water inside the blood & that in the tissue fluid around the cells • Effective osmotic pressure (EOP) - maintenance of blood volume and distribution of body fluids N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 16. Pedal edema • Albumin and other proteins in the blood act like sponges to keep fluid in blood vessels. • Low albumin levels leads to decrease in osmotic pressure, preventing the return of water into the vesicular compartment –interstitial oedema • Pedal edema (accumulation of fluid in the feet & lower legs). N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 17. Hypoalbuminaemia (less than 2gm% ) Increased capillary permeability Protein loss - Nephrotic syndrome - Protein-losing enteropathy Reduced albumin synthesis - Liver disease - Malnutrition (Kwashiorkar) Burns Trauma Inflammation or sepsis Allergic reactions Adult respiratory distress syndrome N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 18. N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 19. MECHANISMS • Venous edema, caused by increased capillary filtration and retention of protein-poor fluid from the venous system into the interstitial space. • Lymphatic edema, caused by obstruction or dysfunction of lymphatic outflow from the legs resulting in accumulation of protein-rich interstitial fluid. • These two mechanisms can operate independently or together N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 20. DURING PREGNANCY 1) Body releases hormones that encourage fluid retention, and a woman tends to retain more sodium and water than usual- face, hands, lower limbs, and feet may swell. 2) Resting in a reclined position during pregnancy, the enlarged uterus can press on inferior vena cava- obstruct the femoral veins 3) The blood clots more easily during pregnancy, can increase the risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) 4) Eclampsia, results from pregnancy-induced hypertension, or high blood pressure N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 21. Clinical Importance of Albumin Hyper-albuminemia Acute dehydration In Vomiting, diarrhoea. No clinical significance Hyper-proteinemia Excessive production of gamma globulins - Hypoalbuminaemia - Multiple myeloma - Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia ↑ Beta globulins - Hyper-lipoproteinaemia - Other Hyper-lipidaemic conditions ↑Alpha globulins - Nephrotic syndrome (Alpha 2-macroglobulin is increased) N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 22. GLOBULINS • Glycoprotein with mol wt – 90 -1300kDa. • There are separated by half saturation with ammonium sulphate. • Functions: Transport &Immunity. • Globulins contributes different fractions in electrophoresis (α1,α2,β, γ -globulins). • Normal range of Globulins -1.8 to 3.6 gm% N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 23. Fraction Examples c (gm%) 1-globulins 1-antitrypsin, 1-acid glyco- protein, RBP, 1-lipoprotein (HDL), 1- fetoprotein, 0.1 to 0.4 2-globulins Haptoglobin, Ceruloplasmin 2-Macroglobulin, Thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG), 0.4 to 0. 8 -globulins C-reactive protein (CRP) Transferrin, Hemopexin, 2-Micro globulin, - lipoprotein (LDL) 0.5 to 1.2 -globulins IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD, 0.7 to 1.5 N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 24. Name of the Globulin Function Normal range Clinical significance Increased in Decreased in α1 –anti trypsin  Inhibits serine protease activity 75 to 200 mg/dl Liver disease, Burns & trauma Nephrotic syndrome , Emphysema α1-feto globulin  Immuno-regulator during pregnancy less than 1 μg/ dl pregnancy, open neural tube defect Hepatoma Down’s syndrome α2-macro globulin  Inhibits protease activity  Anti coagulant.  Carrier of many growth factors 130 to 300 mg/ dl Nephrotic syndrome Acute pancreatitis , Advanced carcinoma of the prostate Globulin Fractions And Its Role In The Body N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 25. Haptoglobin  prevents the loss of free Hb from the kidney 40 -170 mg/dl Inflammatory conditions Rheumatic diseases, intravascular haemolytic anaemia Ceruloplasmin  Transports copper ions (6 to 8 cu/ mol).  Ferroxidase activities.  Antioxidant in plasma 25 to50 mg/dl Inflammatory conditions & Collagen disorders Nephrotic syndrome, Wilson’s disease and Menke’s diseases Name of the Globulin Function Normal range Clinical significance Increased in Decreased in N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 26. γ- globulins  γ- fraction of globulins are immunoglobulin / antibodies.  Produced by plasma cells Functions  To protect against infectious agents or their products. .
  • 27. Neutralize toxins & viruses Opsonize microbes Activate complement & prevent the attachment of microbes to mucosal surfaces Igs provide resistance because they can
  • 28. FIBRINOGEN  Soluble glycoprotein with mol wt – 3,40,000  It constitutes 2 to 3% of total plasma proteins.  Imp soluble plasma clotting factor precursor, participates in blood coagulation.  Which converted to fibrin, which polymerizes to form fibrin clot.
  • 29.
  • 30. Clinical significance: Plasma conc. of fibrinogen – 0.2 - 0.4 gm% • High fibrinogen levels: inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis) • Low levels of fibrinogen: in Liver diseases, bone lesions, malnutrition &bleeding disorders N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 31. A/G (ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN) RATIO • Normal Ranges is 1.2:1 to 1.5: 1 • A/G ratio elevated in hypothyroidism, high protein / high carbohydrate diet with poor nitrogen retention and Hypo- γ- globulinemia • Decreased in liver dysfunction N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 32. ABNORMAL PLASMA PROTEINS Bence – Jones proteins Cryoglobulins Occurs in blood & urine of people suffering from a disease called multiple myeloma. B.J protein have mol wt – 20,000 to 40,000. Excess synthesed light chain ( k & λ) of Ig in blood or urine causes renal tubules damages. These proteins are coagulated when plasma or serum is cooled to very low temp. It’s mol wt 1,65,000 – 6,00,000. Increased in rheumatoid arthritis, Lymphocytic leukemia, Multiple myeloma Lymphosarcomas.
  • 33. Next PPT on PP-02: Globulins, Acute phase proteins, Transport proteins & Separation Of Plasma Proteins by Electrophoresis N.Santhosh Kumar /Asst.Professor of Biochem / SIMSRH
  • 34. Believe In Yourself And All That You Are. Know That There Is Something Inside You That Is Greater Than Any Obstacle. Thank You