Other telescopes

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Other telescopes

  1. 1. OTHER TELESCOPES<br />
  2. 2. OTHER TELESCOPES<br />Radio telescopes<br />Fundamental design similar to optical telescopes.<br />Made up of large dishes to accommodate longer wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.<br />Bowl-shaped surface is crafted of steel and wire mesh. <br />
  3. 3. Radio Telescopes<br />Radio signals can be detected round the clock.<br />Radio signals coming from celestial bodies are week, so radio telescopes are usually built in valleys to shield from artificial radio waves.<br />E.g. of radio telescope<br />Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico measures 305 meters across.<br />
  4. 4. Radio Telescopes <br />Radio Interferometry<br />Links signals from two or more radio telescopes in separate locations for greater detail when observing.<br />The more telescopes added the greater the resolving power.<br />E.g. <br />VLA (Very Large Array) near Socorro, New Mexico. <br />A Y-shaped array of 27 dish-shaped antennas,<br />Each 25 meters wide and extending 21 km long. <br />
  5. 5. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY<br />
  6. 6. ARECIBO RADIO TELESCOPE<br />
  7. 7. ARECIBO RADIO TELESCOPE<br />The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico contains the largest single stationary radio telescope in the world. <br />Because it remains stationary, the Arecibo telescope uses Earth’s rotation to turn its field of view across the sky. <br />Radio waves bounce off the bowl of the telescope and into the detecting platform suspended above the bowl.<br />
  8. 8. RADIO MAP<br />
  9. 9. RADIO MAP<br />The Parkes 64-m (210-ft) radio telescope in Australia produced this radio map of the Large Magellanic Cloud. <br />The colors of the image correspond to radio wave intensity; black is the least intense, red the most. <br />A radio map often reveals structures that are invisible to visible-light telescopes.<br />
  10. 10. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY<br />Radio telescopes detect electromagnetic radiation from space in wavelengths ranging from about 1 mm (0.04 in) to more than 1 km (0.6 mi). <br />Since radio telescopes are only sensitive to electromagnetic radiation with a relatively long wavelength, signals from a group of telescopes pointing at the same object can be combined, dramatically improving resolution. <br />For example, the Very Large Array (VLA) in Socorro, New Mexico, has 27 dishes whose individual signals can be combined to form a single high-resolution image.<br />
  11. 11. Infrared Telescopes<br />Permits scientist to explore dark dusty regions of space both within and beyond our galaxy to uncover clues about:<br />A. Birth of stars<br />B. Formation of planetary systems<br />C. Behavior of comets <br />D. Behavior of planetary atmospheres <br />E. Core of the Milky Way<br />F. and Birth of some of the most distant galaxies in the universe. <br />
  12. 12. Infrared Telescopes<br />Infrared astronomy can be performed on <br />A. dry high-altitude observing sites.<br />B. Aircraft<br />C. Outer Space (Space telescopes)<br />Uses the basic design of optical telescopes but detector gathers only infrared light at the focus.<br />
  13. 13. Infrared Telescopes<br />Image can be contaminated by<br />A. Atmospheric heat and<br />B. Heat produced by telescope itself. <br />Corrects the image by subtracting background information heat from final image.<br />Telescope is cooled to reduce heat contamination.<br />
  14. 14. STELLAR NURSERY IN INFRARED<br />
  15. 15. STELLAR NURSERY IN INFRARED<br />The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected infrared radiation in space. <br />It could see through clouds of interstellar dust because infrared radiation is not blocked by the dust as much as visible light is. <br />The ISO took this picture of new stars forming out of a cloud of dust and gas. <br />The stars are not visible to optical telescopes because the visible light that they emit is blocked by the dust surrounding them.<br />
  16. 16. INFRARED TELESCOPES<br />
  17. 17. INFRARED TELESCOPES<br />Infrared telescopes detect radiation that has wavelengths longer than the light that humans can see. <br />Infrared radiation enters the telescope and reflects off of a large mirror on the bottom of the telescope, then off of a smaller mirror. <br />Detectors and instruments beneath the mirrors record the radiation. <br />Infrared telescopes must be kept at very low temperatures to prevent their own heat from producing infrared radiation that could interfere with observations.<br />
  18. 18. Ultraviolet Telescopes<br />Similar to optical telescopes but mirrors have special coatings that reflect ultraviolet light very well.<br />Provides much information about:<br />A. Interstellar gas<br />B. Young stars<br />C. Gaseous areas of active galaxies.<br />
  19. 19. Ultraviolet telescopes <br />Some of the hottest and most energetic stars are visible in the ultraviolet light region of the spectrum.<br />E.g. <br />1. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) <br />2. Extreme Violet Explorer (EUE)<br />3. ASTRO space shuttle observatory<br />4. Hubble Space Telescope (HST)<br />These four are Earth-orbiting observatories or telescopes. <br />
  20. 20. X-ray Telescopes<br />Built like optical refracting telescopes.<br />The main mirror of these telescopes are nearly cylindrical. <br />Mirror shape lets light be reflected in shallow angles towards the detector.<br />To block untargeted x-rays, telescopes are surrounded with x-ray absorbing lead.<br />
  21. 21. X-ray Telescopes<br />E.g.<br />1. US space explorer 42<br />2. NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory<br />3. ESA’s X-ray Multimirror System Mission mounted on high altitude rockets. <br />
  22. 22. THE SUN IN X-RAYS<br />X-ray telescopes gather X rays just as optical telescopes gather visible light. <br />Hot gases in the sun produce X rays that an X-ray telescope can detect, creating an image such as the one pictured here.<br />
  23. 23. CHANDRA X-RAY OBSERVATORY<br />This artist's impression depicts the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. <br />The orbiting observatory has detected many new astronomical X-ray sources and produced a wealth of high-resolution images of stars, nebulas, and galaxies.<br />
  24. 24. CHANDRA X-RAY OBSERVATORY<br />
  25. 25. SUN IN X-RAYS<br />X-ray telescopes gather X rays just as optical telescopes gather visible light. <br />Hot gases in the sun produce X rays that an X-ray telescope can detect, creating an image such as the one pictured here.<br />
  26. 26. THE SUN IN X-RAYS<br />
  27. 27. Gamma-Ray Telescopes<br />Consist of two or more Gamma ray detectors in a line.<br />Two detectors are placed in a line pointing to the source.<br />Gamma ray from the targeted source will pass through both detectors.<br />Detectors triggered by gamma ray passes through it, no matter what direction the gamma ray is travelling. <br />
  28. 28. Gamma-Ray Telescopes<br />Some of the most catastrophic events in the universe, such as neutron star collisions and black holes,<br />Blast high energy gamma rays across space.<br />E.g. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) <br />
  29. 29. GAMMA-RAY TELESCOPE<br />
  30. 30. GAMMA-RAY TELESCOPE<br />A gamma-ray telescope detects radiation that has a shorter wavelength than visible light.<br /> Gamma rays enter the telescope through the charged-particle detector and pass into layers of material that transform the gamma rays into electrons and positrons. <br />The electrons and positrons have electric charges, which cause sparks as the particles pass through the spark chambers in the lower part of the telescope. <br />Light detectors at the bottom of the telescope record the sparks.<br />
  31. 31. End of Presentation<br />

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