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Johannes kepler

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Johannes kepler

  1. 1. The birth of modern astronomy<br />Johannes Kepler<br />
  2. 2. Johannes Kepler<br />Johannes Kepler<br />German astronomer<br />Birth December 27, 1571 <br />Death November 15, 1630 <br />Place of Birth Weil der Stadt, Württemberg<br /> Known for:<br /> Discovering the three laws of planetary motion, now known as Kepler's laws.<br />
  3. 3. Johannes Kepler<br />Career: <br />1594: Became professor of mathematics at Graz<br />1600: Assisted Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe with his astronomical research in Prague <br />1601: Took over as imperial mathematician and court astronomer to Emperor Rudolf II in Prague upon Brahe's death <br />1609: Published Astronomia Nova (New Astronomy), which included the first and second laws of planetary motion <br />1612: Accepted a position as mathematician to the states of Upper Austria at Linz <br />1619: Published Harmonice Mundi (Harmony of the World) which contained the third law of planetary motion<br />
  4. 4. Johannes Kepler<br />Did You Know?<br /> In addition to astronomy, Kepler studied astrology, which proposes that astronomical bodies influence the course of earthly events. <br />A Lutheran, Kepler was forced to move and change jobs several times during his life to escape religious persecution.<br />
  5. 5. Johannes Kepler<br />Johannes Kepler (1571 to 1630)<br />A German astronomer born in Wurttemberg in southwestern Germany.<br />Ushered in the new age of astronomy.<br />A very good mathematician.<br />Strongly believed in the accuracy of Tycho’s works.<br />He derived the three basic laws of planetary motion.<br />
  6. 6. Johannes Kepler’s Portrait in 1610 by an unknown artist<br />
  7. 7. Kepler’s Law <br />The first two laws resulted from his inability to fit Tycho’s observation of Mars to a circular orbit.<br />This led him to discover that orbit of Mars is not a perfect circle but is elliptical.<br />He also realized at about the same time that Mars orbital speed varies in a predictable way.<br />In 1609, after almost a decade of work, Kepler proposed his first two laws of planetary motion. <br />
  8. 8. PARTS OF AN ELLIPSE<br />Ellipse – is the simplest kind of closed curve.<br />It belongs to a family of curves known as conic sections.<br />Conic section – the curve of intersection between a hollow cone and a plane that cuts through it.<br />Foci – from any point on the curve the sum of the distances to two points inside the ellipse, called the foci is the same. <br />
  9. 9. PARTS OF AN ELLIPSE<br />Major axis – the maximum diameter of the ellipse.<br />Semimajor axis – the distance from the center of the ellipse to one point.<br />Eccentricity – ratio of the distance between the foci to the major axis.<br />
  10. 10. DRAWING AN ELLIPSE WITH TWO PINS, A PEN AND A STRING.<br />
  11. 11. AN ELLIPSE OBTAINED WITH THE INTERSECTION OF PLANE ON THE CONE<br />
  12. 12. Conic Sections<br />
  13. 13. A group of ellipses with the same major axis but various eccentricities<br />
  14. 14. Ellipses with the same eccentricity but various major axes<br />
  15. 15. Diagram of the geocentric trajectory of Mars through several periods of apparentretrograde motion.<br />
  16. 16. Johannes Kepler<br />The Three Laws of Planetary Motion as proposed by Kepler:<br />1. The path of each planet around the <br /> Sun is an ellipse.<br />> The Sun is located at one focus.<br />> The other focus is symmetrically located at the opposite end of the ellipse.<br />
  17. 17. Johannes Kepler<br />The Three Laws of Planetary Motion<br />2. The planet revolves so that an imaginary line connecting it to the Sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time.<br />> Expresses geometrically the variation in orbital speeds of the planet. <br />
  18. 18. KEPLER’S LAW OF EQUAL AREAS<br />
  19. 19. Johannes Kepler<br />The Three Laws of Planetary Motion<br />Kepler was a very religious person.<br />He believed that the creator made an orderly universe.<br />In 1619, Kepler published his third law in “The Harmony of the Worlds”.<br />
  20. 20. Johannes Kepler<br />The Three Laws of Planetary Motion<br />3. The orbital speeds of the planets and their distances to the Sun are proportional.<br />> The third law states that the planet’s orbital period squared (p2) is equal to its mean solar distance cubed (d3). (p2=d3)<br />
  21. 21. Johannes Kepler<br />The solar distances of the planets can be calculated when their periods of revolution are known.<br />E.g.<br />Mars has a period of revolution equal to 1.88 years. How far away is it from the Sun.<br />1.88 years (squared) = 3.54.<br />3.54 (get the cube root of it) = 1.52<br />The answer is 1.52 AU.<br />1.882 = 1.523 (p2=d3)(Both has the value of 3.54)<br />
  22. 22. OBSERVATIONAL TEST OF KEPLER’S LAW<br />
  23. 23. Johannes Kepler<br />Kepler attempted to associate numerical relations to the Solar System with music.<br /> The Earth plays the note mi, fa, mi.<br />Kepler’s laws assert that the planets revolve around the Sun and therefore support the Copernican theory. <br />Kepler fell short on determining the forces that act to produce the planetary motion he had described.<br />
  24. 24. Detail from Kepler’s “Harmony of the World’s”<br />
  25. 25. CARL SAGAN Video<br />
  26. 26. Sir Zybrinskie<br />Prepared By:<br />

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