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University of Arizona 

Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries
From the university with the number one
space astronomy progr...
A top 20 public research
university
University of Arizona leads in space sciences
UA ranked #1
among observational, theoretical, and space
astronomy programs in the United States
– National Science Founda...
University of Arizona is a world
leader in astronomy,
leading or partnering in running over

20 unique telescopes across t...
University of Arizona leaders in space systems
University of Arizona 

is responsible for the discovery
of all near-Earth
...
Uranus’s atmosphere 

is created by a mixture of gases
1996: A team that included Erich Karkoschka, UA Lunar
and Planetary Lab senior staff scientist, captured images
of Uranus’...
Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features
of three layers of the planet’s atmosphere.
1.
2.
3.
World’s first images of
Saturn’s moon, Titan
1994: A team of astronomers led by Peter Smith, professor
emeritus at the UA, took the world’s first images of Saturn’s
mo...
The images revealed that, in fact, there
was at least some solid surface on Titan.
A rare view
of Saturn’s rings
1996: Through research done by then UA senior staff scientist
Steve Larson and others, Hubble captured a rare view of Satu...
This perspective is unusual because
This perspective is unusual because
the Earth is slightly
above Saturn’s rings
This perspective is unusual because
and the Sun is
below them,
the Earth is slightly
above Saturn’s rings
This perspective is unusual because
and the Sun is
below them, so normally we see the rings fully
illuminated by the Sun.
...
8-year mission to measure 

the expanding universe
1999: Hubble completed an eight-year mission to
measure the expanding universe, co-led by Robert
Kennicutt, then UA profes...
The team found that a galaxy appears to be moving
The team found that a galaxy appears to be moving 160
thousand miles per hour faster for every 3.3 light-years
away from E...
The team used the Hubble telescope to observe 

18 galaxies out to 

65 million light-years.
First views of a dust ring
around a star
1999: The Hubble Space Telescope gave astronomers their first views
of a dust ring around a star and a dark gap dividing a...
UA found direct proof 

of dark matter
2006
A team including Steward Observatory astronomer Dennis Zaritsky 

and led by then University of Arizona astronomer Do...
Images of Vesta & Ceres
helped astronomers plan for the Dawn
spacecraft’s tour of these asteroids
2007: Hubble took images of
asteroids, Vesta and Ceres,
that helped astronomers prepare for
a spacecraft visit. UA astrono...
The images of Vesta and
Ceres showed two of the
most massive asteroids
in the asteroid belt,
The images of Vesta and
Ceres showed two of the
most massive asteroids
in the asteroid belt, a
region between Mars and
Jup...
Atmospheric features on
Uranus are revealed in
images taken with the
Space Telescope Imaging
Spectrograph and the
Advanced...
Erich Karkoschka from the University of Arizona 

took the Uranus image that is now a US Postal Service stamp
At first glance, 

Jupiter looks like it has 

a mild case of 

the measles.
Closer inspection with Hubble
reveals that these spots are actually 

a rare alignment of three 

of Jupiter’s largest moo...
Erich Karkoschka from the University of Arizona 

took the Jupiter image that is now a US Postal Service stamp
a giant star-forming region
2000: This image shows a
giant star-forming region in the
southern sky known as the
Carina Nebula and combines
the light f...
The color is also representative
of the temperature in the
ionized gas: blue is relatively
hot and red is cooler.
The pict...
The Carina Nebula composite
image shows the light from 3
different filters, which traces
emission from:
oxygen – blue
hydr...
In the Carina
Nebula, oxygen is
shown in blue.
The blue has been enhanced
for the color blind.
In the Carina
Nebula, hydrogen is
shown in green.
The green has been enhanced
for the color blind.
In the Carina
Nebula, sulfur is
shown in red.
The red has been enhanced for
the color blind.
University of Arizona designed NICMOS 

to capture unique views of the Universe.
1997: Hubble’s Near Infrared Camera and Multi-
Object Spectrometer, or NICMOS, was installed on
the space telescope with t...
To do this, NICMOS was encased in a thermos-like
container filled with solid nitrogen ice. It was expected
that the solid ...
Determined not to be defeated, NASA scientists
and engineers devised a plan to restore NICMOS
to life. They turned to a ne...
The mechanical cooler, a cryogenic refrigerator, operates on
principles similar to a home refrigerator. It pumps ultra-col...
After more than 3 years of being down and out, 

NICMOS was put back to work in 2002, 

debuting new and breathtaking view...
The photo on the right, of the Cone Nebula (NGC 2264), is one of the photos NICMOS
snapped in 2002.
The NICMOS images were...
Interested in the future of ground & space telescopes?
Giant Magellan Telescope (ground) James Webb Space Telescope (space...
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University of Arizona Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries

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Since NASA launched its Hubble Space Telescope in 1990, space scientists at the University of Arizona in Tucson have used it to expand our knowledge of the Universe time and time again.

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University of Arizona Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries

  1. 1. ` University of Arizona 
 Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries From the university with the number one space astronomy program in the nation
  2. 2. A top 20 public research university University of Arizona leads in space sciences
  3. 3. UA ranked #1 among observational, theoretical, and space astronomy programs in the United States – National Science Foundation, 2015 University of Arizona leads in space sciences
  4. 4. University of Arizona is a world leader in astronomy, leading or partnering in running over
 20 unique telescopes across the globe University of Arizona leads in space sciences
  5. 5. University of Arizona leaders in space systems University of Arizona 
 is responsible for the discovery of all near-Earth asteroids 
 & comets52%
  6. 6. Uranus’s atmosphere 
 is created by a mixture of gases
  7. 7. 1996: A team that included Erich Karkoschka, UA Lunar and Planetary Lab senior staff scientist, captured images of Uranus’s atmosphere, observing clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases.
  8. 8. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of the planet’s atmosphere. 1. 2. 3.
  9. 9. World’s first images of Saturn’s moon, Titan
  10. 10. 1994: A team of astronomers led by Peter Smith, professor emeritus at the UA, took the world’s first images of Saturn’s moon, Titan. At the time, scientists suspected that Titan’s surface was covered with a global ethane-methane ocean.
  11. 11. The images revealed that, in fact, there was at least some solid surface on Titan.
  12. 12. A rare view of Saturn’s rings
  13. 13. 1996: Through research done by then UA senior staff scientist Steve Larson and others, Hubble captured a rare view of Saturn’s rings, seen just after the sun had set below the ring plane. Credit: Phil Nicholson (Cornell University), Steve Larson (University of Arizona) and NASA/ESA
  14. 14. This perspective is unusual because
  15. 15. This perspective is unusual because the Earth is slightly above Saturn’s rings
  16. 16. This perspective is unusual because and the Sun is below them, the Earth is slightly above Saturn’s rings
  17. 17. This perspective is unusual because and the Sun is below them, so normally we see the rings fully illuminated by the Sun. the Earth is slightly above Saturn’s rings
  18. 18. 8-year mission to measure 
 the expanding universe
  19. 19. 1999: Hubble completed an eight-year mission to measure the expanding universe, co-led by Robert Kennicutt, then UA professor of astronomy.
  20. 20. The team found that a galaxy appears to be moving
  21. 21. The team found that a galaxy appears to be moving 160 thousand miles per hour faster for every 3.3 light-years away from Earth.
  22. 22. The team used the Hubble telescope to observe 
 18 galaxies out to 
 65 million light-years.
  23. 23. First views of a dust ring around a star
  24. 24. 1999: The Hubble Space Telescope gave astronomers their first views of a dust ring around a star and a dark gap dividing an immense dust disk around another star. UA astronomer for Steward Observatory Glenn Schneider was on the team that captured these images.
  25. 25. UA found direct proof 
 of dark matter
  26. 26. 2006 A team including Steward Observatory astronomer Dennis Zaritsky 
 and led by then University of Arizona astronomer Doug Clowe, found direct proof of dark matter using Hubble Space Telescope. Images credit (top right); ESA/XMM-Newton/F. Gastaldello (INAF/IASF, Milano, Italy)/CFHTLS (bottom left); X-ray: NASA, ESA, CXC, M. Bradac (University of California, Santa Barbara), and S. Allen (Stanford University) (bottom right). These colliding galaxy clusters show a clear separation between the normal matter (in pink) and the gravitational effects (in blue).
  27. 27. Images of Vesta & Ceres helped astronomers plan for the Dawn spacecraft’s tour of these asteroids
  28. 28. 2007: Hubble took images of asteroids, Vesta and Ceres, that helped astronomers prepare for a spacecraft visit. UA astronomer Mark Sykes was on the team that captured the images.
  29. 29. The images of Vesta and Ceres showed two of the most massive asteroids in the asteroid belt,
  30. 30. The images of Vesta and Ceres showed two of the most massive asteroids in the asteroid belt, a region between Mars and Jupiter, and helped astronomers plan for the Dawn spacecraft’s tour of these asteroids.
  31. 31. Atmospheric features on Uranus are revealed in images taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.
  32. 32. Erich Karkoschka from the University of Arizona 
 took the Uranus image that is now a US Postal Service stamp
  33. 33. At first glance, 
 Jupiter looks like it has 
 a mild case of 
 the measles.
  34. 34. Closer inspection with Hubble reveals that these spots are actually 
 a rare alignment of three 
 of Jupiter’s largest moons – 
 Io, Ganymede, & Callisto – 
 across the planet's face.
  35. 35. Erich Karkoschka from the University of Arizona 
 took the Jupiter image that is now a US Postal Service stamp
  36. 36. a giant star-forming region
  37. 37. 2000: This image shows a giant star-forming region in the southern sky known as the Carina Nebula and combines the light from three different filters. Nathan Smith, UA associate professor of astronomy, contributed to the composite. The picture is a composite of several exposures made in February 2000 with the Curtis Schmidt telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile.
  38. 38. The color is also representative of the temperature in the ionized gas: blue is relatively hot and red is cooler. The picture is a composite of several exposures made in February 2000 with the Curtis Schmidt telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile.
  39. 39. The Carina Nebula composite image shows the light from 3 different filters, which traces emission from: oxygen – blue hydrogen – green sulfur – red
  40. 40. In the Carina Nebula, oxygen is shown in blue. The blue has been enhanced for the color blind.
  41. 41. In the Carina Nebula, hydrogen is shown in green. The green has been enhanced for the color blind.
  42. 42. In the Carina Nebula, sulfur is shown in red. The red has been enhanced for the color blind.
  43. 43. University of Arizona designed NICMOS 
 to capture unique views of the Universe.
  44. 44. 1997: Hubble’s Near Infrared Camera and Multi- Object Spectrometer, or NICMOS, was installed on the space telescope with the UA’s Rodger Thompson as its principal investigator. In order for its detectors to function properly, NICMOS needed to be kept very cold.
  45. 45. To do this, NICMOS was encased in a thermos-like container filled with solid nitrogen ice. It was expected that the solid nitrogen ice would last approximately four years. However, the ice evaporated about twice as fast as planned and was depleted after only 23 months of NICMOS operations. In 1999, with its supply of ice exhausted, NICMOS became dormant.
  46. 46. Determined not to be defeated, NASA scientists and engineers devised a plan to restore NICMOS to life. They turned to a new mechanical cooling technology, jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Air Force.
  47. 47. The mechanical cooler, a cryogenic refrigerator, operates on principles similar to a home refrigerator. It pumps ultra-cold neon gas through the internal plumbing of the instrument. The NICMOS cooling system keeps the technology at about -321 degrees Fahrenheit (as is necessary). It’s also virtually vibration- free, an important aspect for Hubble since vibrations can affect image quality in much the same way that a shaky camera produces blurred pictures.
  48. 48. After more than 3 years of being down and out, 
 NICMOS was put back to work in 2002, 
 debuting new and breathtaking views of galaxies 
 in several stages of development.
  49. 49. The photo on the right, of the Cone Nebula (NGC 2264), is one of the photos NICMOS snapped in 2002. The NICMOS images were taken on 11 May 2002. Credits for NICMOS image: NASA, ESA, the NICMOS Group (STScI, ESA) and the NICMOS Science Team (Univ. of Arizona) Credits for ACS image: NASA, ESA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (UCSC/LO), M.Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA
  50. 50. Interested in the future of ground & space telescopes? Giant Magellan Telescope (ground) James Webb Space Telescope (space) University of Arizona 
 Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries

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