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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular system

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This presentation describe the anatomy of the cardiovascular system.

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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular system

  1. 1. Cardiovascular System Anatomy
  2. 2. Objectives • • • • • Introduction and Gross Anatomy Coronary Circulation Conduction System Arterial System & Venous system Histology of blood vessels
  3. 3. Introduction to CVS • Components Of CVS – Heart – Blood Vessels – Blood • Two types of Circulation – Systemic circulation – Pulmonary circulation
  4. 4. Circulation
  5. 5. Gross Anatomy • Conical hollow muscular organ • 12 x 9 cm and weighs 300g males 250g females • 4 chambers – Right and left atria – Right and left ventricles • Septum – Interatrial septum – Interventricular septum
  6. 6. Gross Anatomy
  7. 7. Pericardium • Fibroserous sac – encloses heart and roots of the great vessels • Consists of – Fibrous pericardium – Serous pericardium • Parietal layer – fused with fibrous pericardium • Visceral layer – fused to the heart
  8. 8. Pericardium
  9. 9. Pericardial Cavity • Pericardial cavity – Potential space between the parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium – Contains thin film of serous fluid
  10. 10. Wall of the Heart • Three layers – Epicardium – Myocardium – Endocardium
  11. 11. Position of the Heart • Obliquely behind the body of the sternum • 1/3 right to the median plane other 2/3 left to the median plane • Apex of the Heart – Formed by left ventricle – Directed downward, forward to the left – Left 5th intercostal space 3 ½ inches lateral to midsternal line (just medial to the left midclavicular line)
  12. 12. • Base of the Heart – Formed by left atrium and small part of right atrium – Opening of pulmonary veins – Forms posterior surface of the heart
  13. 13. Right Atrium • External extension – right auricle • 3 main openings – Superior vena cava – Inferior vena cava – Coronary sinus • Interior – Smooth posterior part – Rough anterior/pectinate part ( musculi pectinati) – Septal wall • Receive blood from the whole body and pumps to right ventricle through right AV orifice
  14. 14. Left atrium • External extension – left auricle • Two Pulmonary veins opens into the atrium each side of the posterior wall • Interior – Greater part smooth – Musculi Pectinati - auricle • Receive oxygenated blood from the lungs – 4 pulmonary veins • Pumps to left ventricle through left AV orifice
  15. 15. Right Ventricle • Receive blood from the right atrium • Pumps to the lungs through pulmonary artery • Interior – Rough part ( inflowing part)– trabecular carneae • Papillary muscles – finger like projections from the ventricle wall – Other end connects to cusps of AV valves through chordae tendinae – Smooth part ( out flowing part)- infundibulum – 2 orifices – tricuspid, pulmonary
  16. 16. Left Ventricle • • • • Receive oxygenated blood from the left atrium Pumps into the aorta Forms apex of the heart Interior – Rough part (inflowing) – Smooth part(outflow) – Aortic vestibule – 2 orifices – mitral , aortic • Wall Thickness – Left ventricle>>> Right Ventricle
  17. 17. Heart - Interior
  18. 18. Valves of the Heart • 2 types of valves • Atrioventricular Valves – Left – bicuspid / mitral ( 2flaps) – Right – tricuspid ( 3flpas) – Papillary muscles and chordae tendinae prevent them from eversion towards atria • Semilunar Valves- aortic and pulmonary – 3 cusps – directly attached to vessel wall – Blood caught in cusps push them to close position
  19. 19. Murmurs • Turbulent flow through narrowed orifice cause abnormal sound • Stenosis – Mitral valve stenosis – Aortic valve stenosis • Regurgitation – Aortic valve regurgitation – Mitral valve regurgitation
  20. 20. Blood flow through the heart
  21. 21. Coronary Circulation • Supply blood to the heart • 2 coronary arteries – Arise from the ascending aorta • Right coronary artery – Marginal – Posterior interventricular • Left coronary artery – Anterior interventricular – Circumflex
  22. 22. Coronary circulation
  23. 23. Veins of the heart ?
  24. 24. Veins of the heart ?
  25. 25. Arterial System
  26. 26. Venous System
  27. 27. Conduction system of the Heart • Consists of modified cardiac muscle cells which are specialized for initiation and conduction of cardiac impulse • Consists of – SA node • cardiac pacemaker – impulse 70/min • Located at junction of SVC at right atrium – AV node • Located at right posterior part of interatrial septum • Only conduction pathway between atria and ventricles
  28. 28. Conduction system of the Heart
  29. 29. Histology of Blood vessels
  30. 30. Histology of Blood vessels
  31. 31. Cross section of artery wall
  32. 32. Cross section of small vein
  33. 33. Thank You

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