Ozone Depletion and Global Warming

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Ozone Depletion and Global Warming

  1. 1. OZONE DEPLETION Reasons, Impacts, Prevention By Reshma.A G overnment Engineering College T hrissur
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. OZONE <ul><li>Bluish colored gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant smelling in small concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>Pungent smelling as concentration increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration under 10 parts per million. </li></ul><ul><li>Found places near the oceans. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Troposphere Tropopause Stratosphere Stratopause Mesosphere Mesopause Thermosphere Thermopause Exosphere Ionosphere Ozone layer 7.16Km 50km 80Km 500Km
  5. 5. Oxygen molecules(O2) SUN UV Rays OZONE PHOTOLYSIS
  6. 6. OZONE LAYER UV Rays UV Ray EARTH
  7. 7. DISCOVERY OF OZONE DEPLETION <ul><li>In 1985, using satellites, balloons, </li></ul><ul><li>and surface stations, a team of researchers had discovered </li></ul><ul><li>a balding patch of ozone in the upper stratosphere, the size of the United States, over Antarctica. </li></ul>Team who discovered the hole 1985. From left: Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin
  8. 8. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) <ul><li>Used by NASA to measure Ozone concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>TOMS – a satellite-borne instrument </li></ul><ul><li>TOMS launched in 1996 – makes 35 measurements every 8 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of ozone are measured in Dobson units (DU), where 100 DU is equivalent to a 1 millimeter thick layer of pure ozone </li></ul>
  9. 9. FORMATION OF HOLE <ul><li>Hole Formation Based on Two different </li></ul><ul><li>mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorological Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Mechanism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Meteorological Mechanism <ul><ul><li>Movement of air from one place to another in the upper stratosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold temperature in the upper atmosphere causes nitric acid to freeze into crystals forming wispy pink clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a vortex of tightly twisted winds thus forming a hole in the upper atmosphere </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Chemical Mechanism <ul><li>Different chemicals are responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer </li></ul><ul><li>Topping the list : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>man-made, non-toxic and inert in the troposphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the stratosphere are photolysed, releasing reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. RECEPIE OF OZONE DEPLETION <ul><li>The polar winter </li></ul><ul><li>Cold temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of chlorine and bromine </li></ul><ul><li>sunlight </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ozone Depleting Substance
  14. 14. REASONS for Ozone Depletion <ul><li>Usage of CFC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Space probes </li></ul><ul><li>Oxides of Nitrogen </li></ul>
  15. 15. OZONE HOLE 1995-2008
  16. 16. Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)
  17. 17. IMPACT OF OZONE DEPLETION
  18. 18. <ul><li>Skin Cancer (melanoma and nonmelanoma) </li></ul><ul><li>Premature aging of the skin and other skin problems </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts and other eye damage </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system suppression </li></ul>EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH
  19. 19. SKIN CANCER Malignant melanoma - Fastest growing type of cancer in the united states. Risk of malignant melanoma has increased 10% Nonmalignant melanoma - less deadly than malignant melanoma Risk of nonmalignant melanoma has increased 26% Basal carcinomas –small tumors, fleshy bumps or nodules .penetrate into bones. Squamous Cell Carcinomas -unlike basal cell carcinoma it can spread to other parts of the body. Basal Carcinomas Squamous cell carcinomas malignant Non-malignant
  20. 20. <ul><li>Other skin damages </li></ul>Actinic keratoses and premature aging of the skin
  21. 21. Cataracts and other Eye damage <ul><li>Over Exposure to UV-B…. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the risk of cataracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>○ Induces type of protein that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provokes cleaving (splitting) in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>○ Leading cause of blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>○ The prevalence of cataract after age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 is doubling each decade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes pterygium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A wedge-shaped growth over the central cornea </li></ul></ul>vitreous humor Cornea is encountered first Then the lens cataracts Pterygium Cancer
  22. 22. EFFECTS ON PLANTS Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion on plants
  23. 23. DNA & UV-B <ul><li>DNA absorbs UV-B radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Changes shape in DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the DNA molecule mean that enzymes cannot “read” the DNA code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in mutated cells or the cells die </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells have developed the ability to repair DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A special enzyme arrives at the damage site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>removes the damaged section of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>replaces it with the proper components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This makes DNA somewhat resilient to damage by UV-B </li></ul>
  24. 24. EFFECT ON MARINE ECOSYSTEM Phytoplankton <ul><li>○ UV-B penetrates water columns to depths of 30m </li></ul><ul><li>○ Increased UV-B exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Reduces productivity by interfering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with processes of photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Damages DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Alters nitrogen metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Inhibits mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterioplankton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where found in the water column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of protection when moving from one mixing layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to another. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Global Decline Seen In Amphibians <ul><li>Range of explanations as to why amphibians are declining, which include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of exotic species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental contaminants and other aspects of global climate change </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. EFFECTS ON BIOGROCHEMICAL CYCLES <ul><li>Affect terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>Altering the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. </li></ul>
  27. 27. EFFECTS ON MATERIALS <ul><li>Affect Synthetic polymers, biopolymers </li></ul><ul><li>Special additives to protect. </li></ul>
  28. 28. ○ MONTREAL PROTOCOL(1987) ○ THE ENVIRONMENTAL AGENCY(EPA) STEPS AGAINST OZONE DEPLETION
  29. 29. Prevention of Ozone Depletion <ul><li>Use unleaded gasoline in vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Equip vehicles with catalytic converter </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Replace CFC’s with HCFC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement of Montreal Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Gain a better overall understanding on just how ozone depletion is affecting our planet </li></ul>
  30. 30. Protection <ul><li>Sunglasses with 100% UV block </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap around sunglasses </li></ul><ul><li>Eye protection for children </li></ul><ul><li>Hats </li></ul>
  31. 31. GLOBAL WARMING
  32. 32. GLOBAL WARMING <ul><li>Increase of the average temperature on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten warmest years since global temperatures measured all occur within the last 12-year period 1997-2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Green houses gases trapping heat. </li></ul>
  33. 33. GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  34. 34. GREENHOUSE GASES life givers and life takers CO2 produced in different countries <ul><li>(1) Carbon dioxide(CO2) </li></ul><ul><li>C ontribution to Human-Induced Climate change -70% </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming potential(100 years) – 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Since the beginning of Industrial revolution Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>increased by 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Burning fossil, deforestation and Industrial Production </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>(2)Methane – A Ticking Bomb(CH4) </li></ul><ul><li>Second most important greenhouse gas </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to Human –Induced Climate Change – 23% </li></ul><ul><li>Number 2 among man-made climate warmers </li></ul><ul><li>GWP (100years) -25 times stronger than CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Marshes, coal mines, volcanoes. </li></ul>
  36. 36. (3)Nitrous Oxide – Nothing to Laugh About <ul><li>Laughing Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to Human-Induced Climate Change – 7% </li></ul><ul><li>GWP(100years) -298 times stronger than CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Digesting Bacteria, nitrogen cycle, other important Chemical reactions in Earth. </li></ul>
  37. 37. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING <ul><li>FLOODING </li></ul><ul><li>DROUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREAM HEAT WAVES </li></ul><ul><li>RISING SEA LEVELS </li></ul><ul><li>MELTING OF GLACIERS </li></ul><ul><li>RISK OF SEVERE ACNE </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADING OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>AGRICULTURAL CHANGES </li></ul>
  38. 38. FLOODING
  39. 39. DROUGHT
  40. 40. EXTREAM HEAT WAVES
  41. 41. RISING SEA LEVELS
  42. 42. MELTING OF GLACIERS
  43. 43. HEALTH HAZARDS <ul><li>Risk of Severe Acne. </li></ul><ul><li>Likely Infectious Diseases – Malaria, Dengue fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Problems – Asthma, bronchitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Chest pain, Severe infection in Lungs. </li></ul>
  44. 44. ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCE
  45. 45. CARBON FOOTPRINT <ul><li>The total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission caused by an individual. </li></ul>
  46. 46. STEPS AGAINST Global Warming <ul><li>Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Aim : stabilization of greenhouse gas  concentrations in </li></ul><ul><li>the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>for the reduction of four greenhouse gases (carbon </li></ul><ul><li>dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane, Sulphur hexafluoride) </li></ul>
  47. 47. TO STOP GLOBAL WARMING….
  48. 48. 1.Clean or replace filters on your furnace and air conditioner. 2.Choose energy efficient apparatus. 3.Do not leave appliances stand by. 4.Recycle your organic waste. 5.Plant a tree. 6.Switch to green power. 7.Encourage the switch up to renewable energy. 8.Protect and conserve forest worldwide 9.Buy Organic food as much as possible. 10.Recycle and Reuse. 11.Steps from the Government .
  49. 49. pace Sunshades Roger Angel at the University of Arizona has proposed launching trillions of space shades into orbit between the sun and Earth. reduce sunlight hitting Earth by 2%. Expensive.
  50. 50. Cloud Seeding reflect more sunlight back into space is to increase reflectivity of the world's marine clouds John Latham and Stephen Salter proposed wind-powered yachts (pictured) that would spray seawater droplets into the air to produce more clouds. Studies are going.
  51. 51. Ocean Iron Enrichment Sprinkling iron dust can trigger plankton blooms in ocean waters plankton would be able to absorb more carbon dioxide
  52. 52. Ocean Tubes Proposed by James lovelock and Chris Rapley. Thousands of giant plastic tubes in the ocean with a one-way valve to push deep water through the tubes to the surface It’ll emit a chemical called dimethyl sulfide , which stimulates the formation of sun-reflecting clouds.
  53. 53. Biochar A biomass-derived black carbon To enrich agricultural soils and capture carbon dioxide Produced by a process called pyrolysis
  54. 54. Green Cars For a Warming World
  55. 55. CONCLUSION
  56. 56. <ul><li>Ozone layer depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect </li></ul>

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