TIC para la extensión agrícola: la construcción de conexiones globales, el mantenimiento de las comunidades locales
From telephones to xerox and fax to mobile, the use of technology has been integral to extension education efforts. Rapid reproduction of information
The challenge is to understand technologies and their impacts on learning and community Equitable access by a digitally literate population is essential to achieving a balance – understanding the tech and how to make use is necessary to give voice to all, to counter a one way push of data/information and marketing. The promise of technology is not fulfilled by merely opening access to information and data. Dialogic encounters – hearing and engaging other voices and co-creating – are necessary for a robust and fully realized utilization of technology for education. Questions of veracity, trust in information found online. Shifts in visible knowledge production, exposing or surfacing some of what was previously “hidden” or off the radar
Small farms = $250,000 or less in sales of agricultural commodities per year Milk is New York’s leading agricultural product Milk sales account for one-half of total New York agricultural receipts New York is the 3 rd leading milk producer in the USA Milk production in 2007 was 12.1 billion pounds (5.5 billion kilos) with a value over $2.4 billion Other livestock include: cattle, hogs, pigs, sheep, lambs, chickens, turkeys Fruits (valued at $333 million) Apples (rank #2 in USA) Grapes (rank #3 in USA), wine and juice Tart cherries, pears, strawberries Vegetables (valued at $648 million) Cabbage (rank #2 in USA) Sweet corn (rank #4 in USA) Snap beans (rank #4 in USA) Onion, tomato, pumpkin, cucumber, squash, pea, etc Field Crops Corn, oats, wheat, soybeans, hay, potato, dry beans Maple Syrup Ranks #2 in USA Floriculture Crops Mainly bedding and garden plants
La Extensión Cooperativa de Cornell sistema educativo permite a las personas para mejorar sus vidas y comunidades a través de asociaciones que ponen la experiencia y los conocimientos de investigación para trabajar. Experience and research knowledge
Parallel narratives of extension work: Technology Transfer Participatory Extension Tension inherent in the mixed models at work organizationally Tension also in participant groupings – large ag vs smaller operations, etc Issues of who controls – agenda, research etc.. Extension educators must Understand and be trusted in the farming community in which they work Have cutting edge subject matter knowledge Use different teaching techniques for different audiences Be linked to faculty at the University &quot;We have developed the institutions on public funds to train the farmer and give him voice. These institutions are of vast importance in the founding of a people. The folk are to be developed in themselves rather than by class legislation, or by favor of government, or by any attitude of benevolence from without.&quot; Bailey, L. H. (1916). Ground-levels in democracy . Ithaca, N.Y.
“ This College of Agriculture was not established to serve or to magnify Cornell University. It belongs to the people of the State. The farmers of the State have secured it. Their influence has placed it here. They will keep it close to the ground. If there is any man standing on the land, unattached, uncontrolled, who feels that he has a disadvantages and a problem, this College of Agriculture stands for that man.” L.H. Bailey L. H. Bailey – 1904 First dean of New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell Advocate of state support for colleges of ag Botanist In 1908, Theodore Roosevelt appointed him to chair a presidential Country Life Commission. Always promoted a robust rural culture, not just ag focused but all elements of rural life – and the active engagement of rural people in democratic life
The goal is to promote sustainable practices that will provide economic benefits to landowners and communities while preserving forested areas so they continue to provide ecological, economic and public health benefits to the surrounding human population.
ICT as disruptive, back to idea of dialogic encounters mediated by tech, promise/opportunities for participatory co-creation ICT amplifying relational networks, no real purpose in and of itself but embedded in practices and expanding connections, access to info/knowledge – communities of practice and the social media thing begins to become apparent. &quot;New technology can thus either support or negate the active participation of the peasants as truly co-responsible elements in the process of change.&quot; from Education for Critical Consciousness
Moodle – open source lcms From a constructivist point of view, people actively construct new knowledge as they interact with their environments Large percentage of course are grounded in interaction with the physical world, with Moodle serving as the social learning hub where participants can come together, engage in dialog and reflection and learn. Extensive developed support for new participants (learners) and also new instructors Moodle as distributed community of experts supporting the software and its use Challenges of bandwidth Unique element of ‘blended’ learning – in our case the examples of grafting, illustration as teaching concrete, tangible skills through a virtual medium.
Forest Connect example Journal of Extension article: http://www.joe.org/joe/2010december/a2.php Ability to engage worldwide audience Recording and reuse Bandwidth issues Variable participation/meeting size from 2 to….110 in our case Used for education and also collaborative development of new programs and programming Adobe connect = $$
&quot;Technical and scientific training need not be inimical to humanistic education as long as science and technology in the revolutionary society are at the service of permanent liberation, of humanization.&quot; Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed . New York: Continuum.
Unique for it’s acceptance as valid method of re-certification for pesticide applicators Content/modules created by a team of experts who would previously have to travel to conduct face to face training – technology has expanded access availability. It is a solitary learning expereince
Established in conjunction with a regional program Flg program engages users across a variety of media and uses multiple tools/pathways to interact with its user base.
Collaborative tools used Regional collaboration Remember McDaniels Hints of dialogic encounters – being an emerging field, new knowledge is coming from multiple sources, pathways – researcher, practitioner, tradition and expereince Integrated some data collection ( data as opposed to knowledge) about new crops, etc Delivered structured learning through moodle, included practitioner stories and knowledge delivered via video clips
Multifaceted program, face to face, online through web site, publications and online course New instructor training – identification of new instructors from pool of program participants – not just extension educators but practitioners as instructors.
SoilWeb (iPhone) Free GPS-based soil search application that accesses USDA-NCRS soil categories based on your present location. Information about soil chemical and physical properties, suitability for various uses and crops. PureSense ( iPhone and Droid ) Helps farmers in drought-stricken places monitor how much water is in their soil at various locations and in real time. Monitoring stations placed throughout growers’ fields send data through the Internet every 15 minutes, and the PureSense application allows the grower to access that information in the field. AgWired (iPhone) Agrimarketing news, filtered by key word categories, from the ZimmComm News Network and its agwired.com online community of farmers, ranchers, agribusiness, farm groups, ag media, freelancers and advertising and public relations agencies. Includes podcasts, Twitter feeds, YouTube videos and Flickr photos.
Crowdsourcing Previously existing practice and programs that have made strong use of technologies, both established and emerging, to increase participation Beginning to be tied to/ integrated with online educational programming
Job opps Sustainable by small use fee and sale of school supplies
The hope is to create a technology enabled learning network that connects producers/smallholders to other producers and producers to consumers across distance and difference to build a transparent system of production and consumption that sustains multicultural understanding, the sharing of problems and resources and helps build new pathways for innovation and sustainability
Agriculture happens in a context. Strong sustainable rural communities are mixed economies, agricultural with other production – crafts, for example Womens involvement in production- issues that raises, plus and minus
What is digital literate? Ability to evaluate resources one finds online, ability to engage in the range of activities which comprise online culture, including production of content, confdence ion ability to engage with others and shape discourse.
Ict for ag
ICT for agricultural extension Building global connections, sustaining local communities Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Agriculture, June 2011 Montevideo Uruguay Paul Treadwell, Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
EDUCATION, EXTENSION AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Framing the Conversation </li></ul>
Technology and Extension <ul><li>From the beginning, Extension has employed current technologies to deliver educational opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>The evolution of technologies has increased opportunities for access, inclusion and collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges in adopting new technology include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Literacy (for both staff and public) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul>
The Question of Technology <ul><li>Technology is a tool </li></ul><ul><li>The use of technology carries inherent values. </li></ul><ul><li>How do we balance our use of technology with an educational mission that includes, and respects, diversity? </li></ul>
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION IN NEW YORK STATE <ul><li>A century of growth and change at Cornell University </li></ul>
Agriculture in New York State <ul><li>34,000 Farms in New York State </li></ul><ul><li>7.5 Million Acres (3 million hectares) </li></ul><ul><li>90% are small farms </li></ul><ul><li>Milk is New York’s leading agricultural product </li></ul>
Cornell Cooperative Extension <ul><li>The Cornell Cooperative Extension educational system enables people to improve their lives and communities through partnerships that put experience and research knowledge to work. </li></ul>
The Work of Extension <ul><li>Diverse approaches to knowledge sharing and education </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded in local presence </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to academic research </li></ul><ul><li>Always evolving </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning opportunities for citizens </li></ul>
Extension’s roots at Cornell <ul><li>Established in 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong local presence across New York State </li></ul><ul><li>Transforming research into applied knowledge </li></ul>
Regionalizing Expertise <ul><li>Regional and multi-county agriculture programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand access to specialized crop expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize impact of research and implementation by creating “knowledge networks” that transcend traditional geographic boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on current technologies to generate and share information </li></ul></ul>
Agroforestry Research Center <ul><li>A place based response to evolving needs for sustainability education. </li></ul><ul><li>Sited in the heart of a forest dominated region of New York State. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology enabled meeting spaces and classrooms connect the center to educational resources at Cornell University, as well as other locations. </li></ul>
Engaging technology to extend education <ul><li>ICT opens potential avenues of learning and collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthens existing knowledge networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports distributed learning communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides access to new information pathways </li></ul></ul>
Distance Learning Centers <ul><li>High speed internet enabled locations </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing capable </li></ul><ul><li>Provide increased access for collaboration between campus and community. </li></ul>
Online Learning Center <ul><li>Asynchronous 24/7 access to structured learning </li></ul><ul><li>Many courses are instructor lead – not stand alone modules. </li></ul><ul><li>Courses for both staff development and the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Moodle as LCMS. </li></ul>
Web Conferencing <ul><li>Synchronous web based service connecting remote locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated audio, presentation sharing and chat. </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully used to connect geographically distributed audiences using a variety of connection methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Recordings can be used to create structured learning opportunities. </li></ul>
Learning networks, Learning communities <ul><li>ICT is not a replacement for traditional extension work. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology can support and enlarge extension programming. </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional and well thought use can lead to the growth of learning networks and to the creation of learning communities. </li></ul>
CASE STUDIES <ul><li>Pesticide Applicator Certification </li></ul><ul><li>Finger Lakes Grapes Classifieds </li></ul><ul><li>HWWFF/Agroforestry Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning Farmers Program </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Apps/Social Web </li></ul><ul><li>TEEAL </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Science </li></ul>
E-Learning for e-extension <ul><li>E-Learning opens new pathways for access to educational opportunities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating inclusive learning environments, online, is a challenge that is currently unmet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking online learning to tangible impacts in the real world is essential for extension education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competent online instructors are essential to the success of e-learning. </li></ul></ul>
Online Pesticide Applicator Certification <ul><li>Online learning modules for pesticide applicator recertification </li></ul><ul><li>Staged progress through a pre-test, learning component and post-test leading to certification. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors can monitor time spent in each component to verify participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized by state authorities as a valid method of re-certification. </li></ul>
FLG Exchange <ul><li>Online producer exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet based “classified ads” system facilitating the buying and selling of grapes, juice and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Is one aspect of a larger educational program for producers. </li></ul><ul><li>System was “cloned” and used to respond to a forage feed crisis – rapid deployment, low bandwidth requirements and ease of use were primary considerations in this case. </li></ul>
How, When and Why of Forest Farming <ul><li>An emerging agricultural field </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge generation by professionals and practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>Distance learning courses to expand accessibility to new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Tied to physical locations – Agroforestry Resource Center, McDaniel's Nut Grove, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of high bandwidth resources to rural participants via CD-ROM </li></ul>
Beginning Farmers Program <ul><li>Uses multiple technologies to engage participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Video case studies </li></ul><ul><li>A series of online courses to assist new farmers covering topics such as farm management, evaluating resources and soil health. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed community of instructors/ program managers making use of technology for collaborative tools for continued development of the program. </li></ul>
Mobile apps <ul><li>The proliferation of smart phones has lead to the growth of powerful mobile apps. </li></ul><ul><li>The currently prohibitive cost of smartphones, and data subscriber plans, has limited the spread of apps to many. </li></ul><ul><li>If technology trends hold true, however, advances in phone technology should begin to appear in more affordable phones. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some very powerful and useful text based systems which are currently being widely used. </li></ul>
TEAAL – Digital research library on a disk <ul><li>2 million full text articles from agricultural journals. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar reviewed selection of content for inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive search and browse options. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be run standalone or on a network. </li></ul><ul><li>Base cost of $5,000 (U.S. dollars). </li></ul>
Citizen Science <ul><li>Data gathering by broad distributed groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be combined with educational and data analysis opportunities for participants deepen understanding of current and emerging scientific issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers a broad range of scientific topics from astrophysics to ornithology to horticulture. </li></ul><ul><li>Can make use of new and emerging mobile technologies for data reporting. </li></ul>
eXtension – connecting educators <ul><li>A nationwide (United States) online extension “system”. </li></ul><ul><li>Both a public facing web presence and backend content development space. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension educators, staff and faculty collaborate in “Communities of Practice” to develop content for public use. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes educator/staff development opportunities to increase digital and information literacy. </li></ul>
LEARNING EXCHANGE <ul><li>Telecenters </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning for Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>eCommerce </li></ul>
Evolving work in Nicaragua <ul><li>San Ramon, Matagalpa, Nicaragua </li></ul><ul><li>Heart of coffee growing region in Nicaragua. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub of activity for NGO’s working in the surrounding rural regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited broadband access via a cyber café in San Ramon. No public broadband in surrounding communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive cell phone usage for voice and text. </li></ul>
Telecenters <ul><li>Provide access to computers and the internet for the otherwise disconnected. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide training opportunities to develop digital literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Are social spaces. </li></ul>
Social learning for connection and transparency <ul><li>Technology can enable greater transparency along the supply chain for producers and consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>A collaborative discovery process that can reveal commonalities across distance, crop produced and cultural setting. </li></ul><ul><li>The fair trade movement offers some examples of connecting consumers to producers. </li></ul>
E-Commerce ? <ul><li>The challenges of ecommerce for small producers is large. </li></ul><ul><li>To reach a global market issues of import/export must be addressed and for many this is a bar too high. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining a vital rural community encompasses all aspects of production for survival and sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Crafts production and marketing can play a role in supporting families during post harvest lean times. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we innovate around the barriers to provide sustainable pathways for ecommerce is small villages? </li></ul>
Global Connections, Local Impacts <ul><li>Increased opportunities for collaboration across borders </li></ul><ul><li>Greater awareness of commonalities in issues facing citizens (farmers and rural community members, in our context) </li></ul><ul><li>More transparent connections between producers and consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to stronger, more sustainable, local communities. </li></ul>
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES <ul><li>Looking Forward </li></ul>
Disconnected <ul><li>Universal broadband access does not exist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive online programming must be delivered through multiple channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging mobile technologies, text and voice based interaction and the potential of social media must be recognized. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative models for community knowledge workers, telecenters and mobile phones can be used to bridge the gap between connected and disconnected. </li></ul></ul></ul>
Digital Literacy <ul><li>The digital divide is twofold: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to the internet and online resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to effectively use the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To realize the potential of ICT, issues of access and technical facility have to be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>While mobile tech may increase access, digital literacy remains an issue. </li></ul>
The Facebook effect <ul><li>Social media are emerging as an important point of access for many. </li></ul><ul><li>The impacts of participation are still being debated. Examples of increased civic participation are balanced by examples of the use of social media for “surveillance”. </li></ul><ul><li>Are the skills learned transferable? Can social media platforms be used to engage in dialog, reflection and learning? </li></ul>
Defining Appropriate ICT <ul><li>In looking at our use of ICT multiple models present themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The appropriate ICT model is a parallel to participatory development processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive and sustainable (appropriate) ICT presents challenges that can be circumvented by a traditional technology transfer model. </li></ul><ul><li>The question is – how do we want to work? In ICT endeavors this question is not necessarily given high value. </li></ul>
The Work Ahead <ul><ul><li>Increasing growth and investment in sustainable and transparent ICT efforts . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging new and emerging modalities such as mobile technologies and social media. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Honoring local knowledge in an increasingly connected world. </li></ul>