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Food insecurity

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Food insecurity and a way forward

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Food insecurity

  1. 1. INSECURITYFOOD AND WAY FORWARD Mr. Pankajkumar H. Mugaonkar Ph. D. 417 Fish Business Management Fisheries Economics, Extension and Statistics Division Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai
  2. 2. OUTLINE • Food security concepts • Status of food insecurity • Energy supplies, Nutrition transition • Global Hunger Index • India Food Insecurity • Measures to improve food security
  3. 3. Food security : History and Definition
  4. 4. 1974 1983 1986 1996 1990 • Adequate Basic foodstuff • Offset fluctuations in production and prices • Balance between demand and supply side of the equation • Enough food for active and healthy life • Food safety and Nutrition • World Food Summit Most careful definition 2001 • Physical, Social and Economic 1996 Food Security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. - World Food Summit Source:www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e06.htm
  5. 5. Food Security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Stability of the other three dimensions Food Security Physical availability Economic and Physical access to food Food Utilization (Source:FAO,Practical Guides)
  6. 6. “A situation that exists when people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life.” Food insecurity Chronic food insecurity Transitory food insecurity Seasonal food insecurity (Source:FAO,Practical Guides)
  7. 7. Malnutrition A broad term for a range of conditions that hinder good health, caused by inadequate or unbalanced food intake or from poor absorption of food consumed. It refers to both undernutrition (food deprivation) and overnutrition (excessive food intake in relation to energy requirements). Undernutrition The result of prolonged low levels of food intake and/or low absorption of food consumed. Generally applied to energy (or protein and energy) deficiency, but it may also relate to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Undernourishment or Chronic Hunger The status of persons, whose food intake regularly provides less than their minimum energy requirements. The average minimum energy requirement per person is about 1800 kcal per day. The exact requirement is determined by a person’s age, body size, activity level and physiological conditions such as illness, infection, pregnancy and lactation.
  8. 8. • When did FAO start counting the hungry? • What are the hunger targets? The 1996 World Food Summit target The Millennium Development Goals (Source: FAO, Hunger Portal)
  9. 9. FOOD INSECURITY IN THE WORLD • Undernourishment around the world • Hunger Trends
  10. 10. Sub-Saharan Africa Southern Asia Eastern Asia Western Asia Caucasus and Central Asia Caribbean Oceania South-Eastern Asia Latin America Northern Africa World Regions
  11. 11. About 870 million people (12.5 % of the global population) 2010-2012 852 million in developing countries
  12. 12. (Source: State of Food Insecurity in The World, 2012)
  13. 13. (Source: State of Food Insecurity in The World, 2012)
  14. 14. (Source: State of Food Insecurity in The World, 2012)
  15. 15. (Source: State of Food Insecurity in The World, 2012)
  16. 16. (Source: State of Food Insecurity in The World, 2012)
  17. 17. Energy Supply……
  18. 18. Nutrition Transition and the Double Burden
  19. 19. IFPRI Global Hunger Index
  20. 20. The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. The 2012 Global Hunger Index (GHI) is calculated for 120 developing countries and countries in transition for which data on the three indicators of hunger are available. GHI measures three dimensions of hunger Undernourishment Child underweight Child mortality An increase in a country’s GHI score indicates that the hunger situation is worsening, while a decrease in the score indicates improvement in the country’s hunger situation
  21. 21. Causes for food insecurity Price Spikes, High prices for oil and other agricultural inputs are making production more expensive. Extreme weather increasingly threatens harvests, and agricultural productivity gains are waning as investment falters.
  22. 22. According to the GHI, Hunger on a global scale remains “serious.” Twenty countries have levels of hunger that are “alarming” or “extremely alarming.” The 2012 world GHI fell by 26 per cent from the 1990 world GHI, from a score of 19.8 to 14.7. South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have the highest levels of hunger with regional scores of 22.5 and 20.7, respectively. From the 1990 GHI to the 2012 GHI, 15 countries reduced their scores by 50 per cent or more. (Source: Global Food Security Index Report 2012)
  23. 23. Brief about India’s Food insecurity
  24. 24. India and Food insecurity • According to the United Nations, malnutrition is more common in India than in sub-Saharan Africa. • India alone accounts for 54% of all malnutrition-related child deaths. • UNICEF estimates that in India, one in every three children is malnourished, and nearly half of all childhood deaths are attributed to malnutrition. • UNICEF studies reveal maximum under-nutrition in the five Indian states: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Orissa. • India has been ranked 66 in the list of 105 countries – much lower than neighboring China (ranked 39) and somewhat lower than Sri Lanka (62) – in the 2012 Global Food Security Index released by DuPont. • The problem centres not necessarily on how much people eat, but on what they eat
  25. 25. India Total Population 1241.5 million Number of undernourished persons 217.0 million Prevalence of Undernourishment 18%
  26. 26. http://cdn.wfp.org/hungermap/#IN WFP - India
  27. 27. India expected to become the most populous country in the world by 2025, feeding the population is likely to be one of the serious challenges that the country will face in the coming decades. • High level of poverty, • lower income, • less public spending on farm research, • poor infrastructure, • sluggish supply of quality protein are some of the key challenges that India needs to address.. On the positive side, however, the presence of food safety net programs and access to farm credit has helped the country achieve some level of food security. Also, India grows enough food to meet the needs of its 1.2 billion people. It is estimated that about seven per cent of food grains are wasted due to lack of storage space and inefficient transportation. http://www.voanews.com/content/article--in-india-indadequate-storage-could-mean- wasted-food-148848425/370292.html
  28. 28. Measures to overcome food insecurity?  Political commitment and good governance at all levels  Importance of nutrition  Sustainable food production  Investing to protect the most vulnerable  Emphasis on right based approaches  Strenghtening gender equality
  29. 29. Thank you !!

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