Paraimpu: a social tool for the Web of Things @ WoT2011

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My presentation about a scalable architecture for a social Web of Things (Paraimpu) @ WoT2011 Workshop in San Francisco, June 12, 2011

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Paraimpu: a social tool for the Web of Things @ WoT2011

  1. 1. The anatomy of a large scale Social Web for Internet enabled Object Antonio Pintus Davide Carboni Andrea Piras CRS4 WoT 2011 - June 2011 - San Francisco, CA, USAAntonio Pintus - pintux@crs4.it Davide Carboni - dcarboni@crs4.it Andrea Piras - piras@crs4.it 1
  2. 2. Who, where... • Antonio Pintus and Davide Carboni and Andrea Piras • ICT - LBS Group @ CRS4, an interdisciplinary applied research center based in Pula (Cagliari), SARDINIA, Italy 2Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  3. 3. The Web of Things • In the Web of Things (WoT) vision, things are connected to a pervasive wireless/wired network and can communicate with other objects and services using HTTP-based protocols • Everyday surrounding objects (phones, domestic appliances, advertisement billboards, musical instruments,... ) become nodes of the WoT • Web-enabled objects are available on the market just now! 3Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  4. 4. part #1 Our Vision Ph. http://www.flickr.com/photos/salendron/ 4Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  5. 5. Vision: a Social Web of Things /1 #1: connecting Things to the Web must be simple - simple to “plug” - simple to con gure - simple to manage - Web-based UX Ph. Nigel Marshall, http://www.flickr.com/photos/nige_mar/ 5Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  6. 6. Vision: a Social Web of Things /2 • #2: not only “physical” Things but also “virtual” ones –social networks, Web sites, feeds, APIs, ... 6Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  7. 7. Vision: a Social Web of Things /3 #3: interconnecting Things in the Web must be simple - including “physical” and “virtual” Things - data adapting / transformation Ph. John Thurm, http://www.flickr.com/photos/thurm 7Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  8. 8. Vision: a Social Web of Things /4 #4: Social /1: existing social networks become connectable Things - Authentication facilities, friends/contacts import Ph. Nigel Marshall, http://www.flickr.com/photos/nige_mar/ 8Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  9. 9. Vision: a Social Web of Things /5 Ph. Ryan Roberts http://www.flickr.com/photos/ryanr #5: Social /2: Share your Things with friends! 9Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  10. 10. Things Sharing – Things sharing: • it should be possible to share a Thing with friends and let them use it in their connections (according to a de ned policy: public, open, moderated) • sharing objects goes toward a “collaborative consumption” as shaped by the authors of the book What’s mine is yours* * Whats Mine Is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption, Rachel Botsman and Roo Rogers . Harperbusiness, http://www.collaborativeconsumption.com/ 10Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  11. 11. The Model: 4 basic abstractions - Services: - Sensors - Actuators - ConnectionsPh. Windell Oskay http://www.flickr.com/photos/oskay/265899865/ 11Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  12. 12. Services: Sensors - every Thing capable to produce data - using HTTP - anemometers, Arduino boards, but also Foursquare, Pachube, other services in the Web...Ph. Windell Oskay http://www.flickr.com/photos/oskay/ 12Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  13. 13. Services: Actuators - every Thing capable to receive/ consume data and to perfom an action - using HTTP - lighting systems, Arduino, Chumby, Karotz, but also Twitter, Facebook, other applications...Ph. Dieter Drescher http://www.flickr.com/photos/cosmosfan 13Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  14. 14. Connections - between two Services: - a Sensor as the source - an Actuator as the destination - they are con gurable: - data ltering - data mapping Ph. supermaryan http://www.flickr.com/photos/33975256@N06/ 14Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  15. 15. problems: architecture & scalability • Scalability – What happens when the number of users grows? – What happens when thousands of things are added? – What happens when thousands of near real-time data have to be managed? – System MUST be scalable by design! 15Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  16. 16. problems: architecture & scalability Web-based ArchitectureWS-* or REST Web server Load balancing Horizontal Scalability C10K problem Database ? New Sensors/ActuatorsPh. MrFaber, http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrfaber 16 Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  17. 17. part #2 Architectural & Design Choices Ph. Jaime Silva, http://www.flickr.com/photos/20792787@N00/ 17Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  18. 18. WS-* or REST? • in many cases adopting a WS-* stack is too complex: WSDL, SOAP over HTTP, ... • often, we’re talking about (limited) physical digital Things • we’ve chosen REST as architectural style: » Things, connections, data, users, ..., are REST resources » simpler, exible, “mashable”, APIs 18Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  19. 19. Data persistence: SQL or NoSQL? • Considering: – high data heterogeneity: DB schema exibility required – database scalability across distributed systems – data partitioning & data replication • We’ve chosen a NoSQL DB: » no xed schemas, no tables, no relations » high concurrent read-write, scalability, auto- sharding » JSON native format 19Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  20. 20. Web server, Web front-end • Full Web-based system • C10K problem: 10,000 simultaneous open standing HTTP connections (clients) • Horizontal scalability: add new server instances when required • Load balancing/reverse proxy 20Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  21. 21. Things Connections • data transfers between DB-based queues • data adaptation performed by system processes • data adaptation rules de ned by users for each owned connection 21Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  22. 22. Data adaptation: lters • a Filter is a boolean expression evaluated against data coming from a Sensor –using Javascript as expression language » sensor > 12 » sensor. eld == ‘mylabel’ » sensor.data >20 && sensor.type == ‘temp’ » ... 22Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  23. 23. Data adaptation: mappings • Mappings are couple of expressions: (cond, repl) • cond : a boolean expression evaluated against Sensor data (same as for lters) • repl : an expression producing a data value to be forwarded to the Actuator when cond is true 23Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  24. 24. Mappings, examples – Javascript as expression language Sensor data CONDITION REPLACE Actuator data type type numeric sensor > 30 <% sensor * 3.14 / 100 %> numeric Summer is coming, temperature is: numeric sensor > 25 text <% sensor %> °C Data is <% sensor.data %> JSON sensor.data > 30 text and type is <% sensor.type %> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> sensor.A0 > 30 && <value> JSON XML sensor.A5 <= 10 <% sensor.A0 * 100 %> </value> 24Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  25. 25. Paraimpu • is a Web-based social tool • allows people to: – connect, use, share and compose Things, services and devices to create personalized WoT applications 25Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  26. 26. General Architecture Load balancing Web front-end scalability System processes (back- end) scalability DB scalability 26Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  27. 27. Paraimpu: the workspace 27Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  28. 28. Current version • ~ 50 active alpha users • Palette: • 5 ready-to-use Sensors + 1 generic Sensor • 7 ready-to-use Actuators + 1 generic Actuator • Sharing policy: (private), public, open, moderated • Noti cation system between users for Things sharing 28Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  29. 29. Technologies • Architecture mainly written in Python • Web stack based on Tornado Web server • NoSQL DBMS (MongoDB) • HTML+jQuery 29Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  30. 30. Conclusion• We believe that a social Web of Things can help in its diffusion...• Results are encouraging: alpha users are helping us in testing and improving the system• More and better test beds are under de nition to prove system scalability in each of its critical aspects• We’re working hard to add new features and new ready-to-use, easy-con guration, components and Things 30Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  31. 31. The prototype http://paraimpu.crs4.it twitter: @paraimpu 31Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  32. 32. Contacts • Antonio Pintus, pintux@crs4.it, twitter: @apintux • Davide Carboni, dcarboni@crs4.it • Andrea Piras, piras@crs4.it • LBS group @ CRS4: http://geoweb.crs4.it/ • CRS4 Home Page: http://www.crs4.it 32Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA
  33. 33. Q&A Thank you for your attention 33Antonio Pintus, Davide Carboni, Andrea Piras WoT2011 - June 2011- San Francisco, CA, USA

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