Makalah 1 copy (2)


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Makalah 1 copy (2)

  1. 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION1. Background of the StudyHistory of poetryPoetry as an art form predates literacy. In preliterate societies, poetry was frequentlyemployed as a means of recording oral history, storytelling (epic poetry), genealogy,law and other forms of expression or knowledge that modern societies might expectto be handled in prose. The Ramayana, a Sanskrit epic which includes poetry, wasprobably written in the 3rd century BCE in a language described by William Jones as"more perfect than Latin, more copious than Greek and more exquisitely refined thaneither." Poetry is also often closely identified with liturgy in these societies, as theformal nature of poetry makes it easier to remember priestly incantations orprophecies. The greater part of the worlds sacred scriptures are made up of poetryrather than prose.The use of verse to transmit cultural information continues today. Many Englishspeaking–Americans know that "in 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue". Analphabet song teaches the names and order of the letters of the alphabet; anotherjingle states the lengths and names of the months in the Gregorian calendar.Preliterate societies, lacking the means to write down important cultural information,use similar methods to preserve it.Some writers believe that poetry has its origins in song. Most of the characteristicsthat distinguish it from other forms of utterance—rhythm, rhyme, compression,intensity of feeling, the use of refrains—appear to have come about from efforts to fitwords to musical forms. However, in the European tradition the earliest survivingpoems, the Homeric and Hesiodic epics, identify themselves as poems to be recited orchanted to a musical accompaniment rather than as pure song. Another interpretation, 1
  2. 2. developed from 20th-century studies of living Montenegran epic reciters by MilmanParry and others, is that rhythm, refrains, and kennings are essentially paratacticdevices that enable the reciter to reconstruct the poem from memory.In preliterate societies, all these forms of poetry were composed for, and sometimesduring, performance. As such, there was a certain degree of fluidity to the exactwording of poems, given this could change from one performance or performer toanother. The introduction of writing tended to fix the content of a poem to the versionthat happened to be written down and survive. Written composition also meant thatpoets began to compose not for an audience that was sitting in front of them but foran absent reader. Later, the invention of printing tended to accelerate these trends.Poets were now writing more for the eye than for the ear.The development of literacy gave rise to more personal, shorter poems intended to besung. These are called lyrics, which derives from the Greek lura or lyre, theinstrument that was used to accompany the performance of Greek lyrics from aboutthe seventh century BCE onward. The Greeks practice of singing hymns in largechoruses gave rise in the sixth century BCE to dramatic verse, and to the practice ofwriting poetic plays for performance in their theatres.In more recent times, the introduction of electronic media and the rise of the poetryreading have led to a resurgence of performance poetry and have resulted in asituation where poetry for the eye and poetry for the ear coexist, sometimes in thesame poem. The late 20th-century rise of the singer-songwriter and Rap culture andthe increase in popularity of Slam poetry have led to a renewed debate as to thenature of poetry that can be crudely characterised as a split between the academic andpopular views. As of 2005, this debate is ongoing with no immediate prospect of aresolution. 2
  3. 3. Love poems proliferate now, in weblogs and personal pages, as a new way ofexpression and liberty of hearts, "I have won many female relations with this validresource", has said a contemporaneus writer called Federic P. Sabeloteur.2. Identification of the ProblemRelated to the background of the study, there are some problems that may arise. Thewriter identifies the problems as follows :How to read a poem? 3
  4. 4. CHAPTER II CONTENTA.1.How To Read A Poem Reading poetry well is part attitude and part technique. Curiosity is a usefulattitude, especially when it’s free of preconceived ideas about what poetry is orshould be. Effective technique directs your curiosity into asking questions, drawingyou into a conversation with the poem. - See more at:How to Read a PoemPoems can be read many ways. The following steps describe one approach. Ofcourse not all poems require close study and all should be read first for pleasure.• Look at the poem’s tittle: What might this poem be about?•Read the poem straight throughwithout stopping to analyze it (aloud, if pos-sible). This will help you get a sense of how it sounds, how it works, what itmight be about.•Start with what you knowIf the poem is difficult, distinguish between what you do and do not understand. Ifpermissible, underline the parts you do not immediately understand.•Check for understandingWrite a quick ―first-impression‖ of the poem by answering the questions, ―What doyou notice about this poem so far?‖ and―What is this poem about?‖•Look for patternsWatch for repeated, interesting, or even unfamiliar use of language, imagery, sound,color, or arrangement. Ask, ―What is the poet trying to show through this pattern?‖•Look for changesin tone, focus, narrator, structure, voice, patterns. Ask: ―What has changed and whatdoes the change mean?‖•Identify the narator 4
  5. 5. .Ask: Who is speaking in the poem? What do you knowabout them?•Check for new understandingRe-read the poem (aloud, if you can) from start to finish, underlining (again) thoseportions you do not yet understand. Explain the poem to yourself or someone else.•Find the crucial moments.The pivotal moment might be as small as the word Butor yet Such words often actlike hinges within a poem to swing the poemin a whole new direction. Also payattention to breaks between stanzas or between lines.•Consider for mand functionNow is a good time to look at some of the poet’s more critical choices. Did the poetuse a specific form, such as the sonnet? How did this particular form---e.g., a sonnet---allow them to express their ideas? Did the poet use other specific poetic deviceswhich you should learn so you can better understand the poem? Examples mightinclude: enjambment, assonance, alliteration, symbols, metaphors, or allusions. Otherexamples might include unusual use of capitalization, punctuation (or lack of any), ortypography. Ask. ―How is the poet using punctuation in the poem?‖•Check for improved understanding. Read the poem through again, aloud if possible. Return to the title and ask yourselfwhat the poem is about and how the poem relates to the title. 1. Understand the usage of lines, stanzas (basically paragraphs for poems), and punctuation. Poetry is not merely fancy words that rhyme. Think on how you might say a sentence in many different ways, depending on what you want to imply to the person you are speaking to. 2. Understand that poets use of words is more restricted than the casual writer. A poet will work within established rhyme and meter to use words in surprising and unexpected ways... ways that will bring enjoyment to you, the reader. 5
  6. 6. 3. Know that just because a line might end, doesnt mean that the sentence did, and that you should pause. The pause you take for breath comes at the punctuation, regardless of where it occurs in the line. Take, for example, the first paragraph of the poem "Cenone" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson: There lies a vale in Ida, lovelier Than all the valleys of Ioni n hills. a The swimming vapour slopes athwart the glen, Puts forth an arm, and creeps from pine to pine, And loiters, slowly drawn. On either hand The lawns and meadow-hedges midway down Hang rich in flowers, and far below them roars The l ng brook fallen thro the clovn ravine o In cataract after cataract to the sea. Behind the valley topmost Gargarus Stands up and takes the morning: but in front The gorges, opening wide apart, reveal Troas and Ilions columnd citadel, Th crown of Troas. e 4. Look at the sentences. You can see that sometimes a line ends with a comma, and sometimes it doesnt. If you read it like this: "There lies a vale in Ida, lovelier (pause, pause) Than all the valleys of Ionian hills. (pause, pause)" . You might be a little puzzled as to the poet would write a poem that doesnt flow. 5. Look again how you read it.This time, you probably paused at Ida, and made lovelier flow together with than without pause. Notice that the emphasis was still placed on Ida, but the word lovelier and all had a stronger feeling to it- it was said with a greater accent, giving it an arrested and smitten sound. This poem was written rather like a paragraph in a story, 6
  7. 7. or a monologue in a play. Notice how different it sounds when read like a story and not a ballad!6. Go back and read the poem with the correct pauses, keeping in mind the feeling of reading it like a paragraph. Note: This takes practice! You might have to read it aloud several times before getting it right. When you are finished, did you see that you were actually able to follow along with the story being relayed? Oftentimes when reading a poem like a ballad (with breaks at the end of each line) you can get caught up in maintaining the rhythm, and find it difficult to concentrate on the actual poem.7. Dont be afraid to look up the words you dont know. This should be obvious, but oftentimes you can simply skip over a word, and chalk up its meaning to "context clues" or "implied meaning" like they taught in 2nd grade. Look up the words you dont know, and even the words you think you know but are maybe a little unsure on. You may be surprised as to how the poem changes colors in your head. How to Read a Poem is an unprecedented exploration of poetry and feeling. Inlanguage at once acute and emotional, distinguished poet and critic EdwardHirsch describes why poetry matters and how we can open up our imaginations sothat its message can make a difference. In a marvelous reading of verse fromaround the world, including work by Pablo Neruda, Elizabeth Bishop, WallaceStevens, and Sylvia Plath, among many others, Hirsch discovers the true meaningof their words and ideas and brings their sublime message home into our hearts. Amasterful work by a master poet, this brilliant summation of poetry and humannature will speak to all readers who long to place poetry in their lives.2.How to read a poem 7
  8. 8. 1. Remember That a Poem Is a Communication Just because it’s called ―poetry,‖ a poem is not necessarily more difficult to read than a story or an essay or a newspaper article—in fact, some poems are easier to read than just about anything else. There’s a reason we start teaching kids to read with nursery rhymes and simple stories told in rhyme. A poem is fundamentally a communication, perhaps not as straightforward as a command or an unembellished story, but its purpose is to connect poet and reader/listener and share an idea or a feeling or an experience across that connection.2. Keep an Open Mind for First Impressions When you first approach a new poem, just read it. Don’t feel you must ―crack the code‖ the first time through. One of the great things about poems is the way they open up in repeated readings, revealing deeper understandings and richer echoes each time you pass through again. But you can only experience one first-time reading, and if you empty your mind of preconceptions before you start, you give the poem leave to work its particular magic and to surprise you. Read the whole poem through just to see what happens, without trying to make any judgments about it.3. Reread the Poem Right Away While the first reading is fresh in your mind, reread the poem. This time around you can ask some questions that will help you formulate your understanding of the poem: Is it telling a story? Is it making an argument? Who is the speaker? Who is the audience? Is there one particular image or metaphor that stands out? Are there memorable repetitions, or rhymes, or rhythms? Does the poem have turning points—a moment of climactic change in the trajectory of events if it’s a narrative poem, or a crucial change in mood or attitude, or a move from one speaker to another? 8
  9. 9. 4. Read the Poem Aloud Poetry has its roots in human speech—the oral tradition of poems goes back to the dawn of human culture, well before the invention of writing or printing. And many poems create their effects in the interplay of sound and sense, so that unless you read the poem out loud, you will miss most of the poetry. You read the poem aloud to hear the individual words, the vowel and consonant sounds, the rhymes and rhythms and speed changes, the slight pauses where your breaths or the line breaks fall. 5. Think About the Poem’s Form and Language Is the poem shaped in a particular poetic form? What does it look like on the page? Does it use a special vocabulary, or a particular kind of language— academic, vernacular, dialect, slang, etc.? 6. Memorize the Poem You might be tempted to paraphrase the poem, to write a summary of what it’s ―about‖—but a poem is much more than its ―meaning‖ and such an explanation diminishes it. You’re better off memorizing the poem, or at least a favorite part of it. The process of memorizing lines of poetry shows you a great deal about how they work, and owning a poem in your memory makes it available for the repeated experiences that open up its inner riches. Reading poetry can be very frustrating if you dont know what it means. Somany poems are perplexing, paradoxical, and just plain hard to understand. And yet itis often the poems that are the most difficult to crack open that can offer us the richestreading experiences — if we know how to read them and what to expect from them.With this activity, you can offer your students reading strategies that will allow themto enjoy sophisticated and subtle writing of all kinds. 9
  10. 10. Begin by explaining to your students that poems dont have answers. Instead, theyhave possibilities. They point toward feelings, capture contradictions, awaken ourunderstandings. Sometimes they leave us with questions and no answers at all. Oneday we notice something new about a poem, another day something else. The goodnews is you cant get a poem right or wrong. A good poem has many, many possiblemeanings.Offer your students the following strategies for reading a poem.A poem with rich layers of possible meanings that students might enjoy talking aboutis Robert Frosts "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening." Tell them first that they shouldnt try to explain the poem or figure out its message or "point." They should begin by just noticing the poem: I notice that the poet repeats the last line of the poem. I notice he only "thinks" he knows whose woods these are; hes not certain. They should ask questions of the poem: Why does he repeat the last line? Why is he so tired? They should let the poem remind them of things in their own lives: This reminds me of when I am so tired at the end of the day and the bus ride seems to be taking forever and I just want to go home. Remind students that they are under no obligation to "understand" the poem. They just have to be able to notice things, ask questions, and make 10
  11. 11. connections. Have students read and respond to the poem on their own and then talk about it as a class. Be careful that they dont try to arrive at a single interpretation of the poem but explore all the possible meanings it might have. When students feel that they dont have to understand everything about a poem right away, you may notice them reading more and more difficult pieces! Encourage them to read and respond to all kinds of poems in their journals. First, forget everything you have learned, that poetry is difficult, that it cannot be appreciated by the likes of you, with your high school equivalency diploma, your steel-tipped boots, or your white-collar misunderstandings. Do not assume meanings hidden from you: the best poems mean what they say and say it. To read poetry requires only courage enough to leap from the edge and trust. Treat a poem like dirt, humus rich and heavy from the garden. Later it will become the fat tomatoes and golden squash piled high upon your kitchen table. Poetry demands surrender, language saying what is true, doing holy things to the ordinary. Read just one poem a day. Someday a book of poems may open in your hands like a daffodil offering its cup to the sun. When you can name five poets without including Bob Dylan, when you exceed your quota and dont even notice, close this manual. - See more at: 3.How to Read a PoemStep IThe first time you start to read a poem you must relax and read it once throughwithout concentrating on its meaning. This first reading should be very much the way 11
  12. 12. you would size up someone whom you are meeting for the first time. You will justget a first impression. You will observe this individual and listen to his or her voice,and you might enjoy just looking at or noticing his or her shape or movement. Youmay form some ideas about this person, but you should not think you really know orunderstand what he or she is all about. This metaphor or analogy is similar to readinga poem for the first time. You may enjoy the sound, rhythms, or description of thewords, and you might form some general impressions about the poem, but you willwant to learn more about it after each reading.Step 2On your second or third reading, you should concentrate a bit more closely on thegeneral meaning or meanings in the poem. It is still too early to think about eachspecific line or word; stop, however, to think about a particular line that strikes you. Itmay be a certain phrase, or a word that is unfamiliar to you. You might ask aclassmate in your group about this phrase, or look up the word in a dictionary. Youwill by now want to compare your feelings about the poem after reading it the secondor third time with how you felt about it when you encountered it for the first time.Are your feelings the same? Are they similar? What is different and why?Step 3Any additional readings of the poem should be used to think more specifically aboutthe words, phrases, or images you have read. It is now time to think more specificallyabout what the poem means. Once again, use the example given before about meetingsomeone. After you have seen this person on different occasions, do you still have thesame first impressions? Or is this individual somewhat different now that you havegotten to know more personal details about his or her experiences, values, or beliefs?Step 4Poems usually are written to describe something that the poet sees differently, or is 12
  13. 13. eager to convey uniquely. The poet may want to paint a picture or image with wordsfor the reader, or to express a point of view so that the reader will think about it froma different perspective or meaning. These are some of the possibilities to keep inmind as you search for a clearer understanding of the poem.Step 5The more you become familiar with the poem, the better you should understand it.One helpful approach to understanding it is to try to summarize, or to put into yourown words, the different interpretations you have about individual lines or stanzas inthe poem. Compare your views with those of others in your group, and listen to howother students form opinions about the poem. Remember, however, that there isgenerally no exact or right meaning for a poem. Poets will often confess that they arenot exactly sure what they meant when they wrote certain lines or phrases; they haveeven been heard to say on occasion that sometimes words seem to "drop fromheaven" and land on the page. That is what awakening the imagination is all about. Ifyou are lucky, and if you practice enough, magical things may happen when youwrite and you may be able to produce a beautiful poem or other work of art yourself.Step 1) Read the poem without worrying about meaning. Don’t even worry about what’shappening in the poem. Take in the words. Do you notice any words that seem interesting, odd,or especially evocative? Circle them. Make a note about why this word or these words seem tojump out at you.Step 2) Read it again. Underline any words that youdon’t understand or that you don’t know.Break out the dictionary—or—and look it up.Try to figure out a few different 13
  14. 14. connotations for the meanings of the words.Step 3) Read it again. This time, look for what happens in the poem. Write a summary of thepoem, and be completely sure that you understand the poem. Is there a story being told? Is it anarrative poem? Or, is the poem describing, in particular detail, something else? Is it a lyricpoem?Step 4) Read it again (notice a pattern here?). This time, read the poem aloud. Pay attention tothe possible rhythms of the poem. Read it to someone, or record yourself reading it aloud. Tryreading at different speeds. Try reading with different inflections and annunciations. Slow down.Speed up. Read to the punctuation. Read to the linebreaks. Try to establish what you think is the―right‖ way to read it aloud. There isn’t necessarily a ―right‖ way, but there is the way you thinkis best.Step 5) Read the poem again. Examine the form thistime. Are there patterns that you notice?What do you make of the line breaks? Is there any kind of rhyme scheme? End rhyme? Internalrhyme? Slant rhyme? What do you make of the stanzabreaks? What about the punctuation of thepoem? Where do sentences begin and end in the poem?What does this do to the poem? Is thereanything about the shape of the poem that seems important? 14
  15. 15. Step 6) Start writing about what you’ve read. Do you ―like‖ the poem? Does it speak to you?Does it defamiliarize you? How so? What works in the poem? What does not work? Why do youthink someone wrote this? Why do think people wouldwant to read this poem? How would yourewrite this poem? At this point, you’ve enough work toward appreciating the poem to havesome opinion of the poem.Step 7) Now, you’re ready for analysis. Start playing the text and context game. Ask somedriving questions. Ask some more driving questions.Answer those questions. Examine themeanings of the poem.B.Example of poetryEyes I See the SadnessIn Your Eyes I See The SadnessWishing To Wipe Away Your TearsHeartache Etched Within Your SoulLeaving You With All Of Your FearsMy Gaze Burning DesperatelyTrying To See WithinI Struggle To Embrace Your Broken HeartRelease The Compassion That Struggles To Be Free Again 15
  16. 16. Reaching Out To Hold YouClose To My Heart You Do LayI Will Always Be Here To Catch YouNever Allowing You To Wither AwayI See Within Your Crying EyesSo Desperate To BelongEnvious Of The FutureAs The Past Hinders You From Which You Long****By WilliamsThe Reason We CriedSomeday, We’ll ForgetThe Hurt ,The Reason We CriedAndWho Caused Us PainWe’ll Finally Realize ThatThe Secret Of Being FreeIs Not RevengeButLetting Things Unfold InTheir Own Way n Own TimeAfter All What Matters Is NotThe First 16
  17. 17. ButThe Last Chapter Of Our LifeWhich Shows How Well WeRan The RaceSoSMILE, LAUGH, FORGIVEBELIEVE n LOVE All OverAgain . .By George 17
  18. 18. CHAPTER III CONCLUSION How to Read a Poem is an unprecedented exploration of poetry and feeling. Inlanguage at once acute and emotional, distinguished poet and critic EdwardHirsch describes why poetry matters and how we can open up our imaginations sothat its message can make a difference. In a marvelous reading of verse fromaround the world, including work by Pablo Neruda, Elizabeth Bishop, WallaceStevens, and Sylvia Plath, among many others, Hirsch discovers the true meaningof their words and ideas and brings their sublime message home into our hearts. Amasterful work by a master poet, this brilliant summation of poetry and humannature will speak to all readers who long to place poetry in their lives. 18
  19. 19. REFERENCE 19