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EFFECTIVE HEALTHCARE
COMMUNICATION
Anthony Wallace
Liberty University
DEFINITIONS
   Communication – is the continuous, complex, collaborative process of
    verbal and non-verbal meaning-making.
   Interpersonal – Communication within the family or persons that are
    intimate or person close friend.
   Intrapersonal – Communication with a group of people that are not
    related or not associate on a personal level (i.e co-workers).
   Sender – The person that is talking or relaying a message.
   Receiver – The person that is listening to the message from the sender.
   Flat-Brain – The analogy for someone that does not listen to people
    well. This person has a closed ear-mind to those that relating messages
    to him/her.
   Heart – The analogy of feelings (hard/soft) related to the message that
    was delivered by the sender.
   Stomach – Is the analogy of primary reactions to the message from the
    sender. The inside feelings or outside stimulus (butterflies).
   Listening – The art of hearing and comprehending the message of the
    sender.
DEFINITIONS
   Inhaling - This information applies to communication receiving. It
    is the art of listening to others completely.
   Exhaling – Is the art of becoming vulnerable. Talking openly with
    others and releasing feelings. It is also communicating with others.
   Behavior Styles – These are style that describe a persons attitude,
    personality, responses, and even actions related to events.
   Metamessage – Is the unspoken message about the relationship
    between speaker and hearer. It is the way how a message was
    interpreted.
   Truth Bias – It is the act of believing someone is telling the truth
    before confirming other wise.
   Defensive Behaviors – It is behavior that is perceived when a
    person feels attacked or threaten by someone or a group.
INTRODUCTION
   Communication is a vital response in human service. As Practitioners,
    We are charged with ensuring that our patients and clients understand
    the complexity of the message that we are sending. The messages that
    we send out to the patients are aimed to make a positive change within
    the patients condition or community.
   For example, a patient must be assessed mentally for comprehension
    before assigning written forms of instructions for discharge. This
    recommendation is due to the possible education level of the client or
    patients. Most patients may be too embarrassed to say I can not read or
    write. In that case verbal discharge instructions or written instructions
    with pictures would be the appropriate.
   In the presentation, I will being to explain the complexity of the
    communication models and demonstrate by example how we can defuse
    conflict through proper communication, build positive relationships, and
    ensure that effective communication models/goals are in place for
    improvement.
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
   Effective Communication is the
    art of relay a message that is
    received with general
    understanding and respect for
    the sender.
   For example, some of the
    medical lingo can be confusing
    for the patients. The patients
    may began to feel alone in their
    fight for survival. The patient
    could also feel dumb.
   As a practitioner, I have learned
    to take this into account when
    explaining procedures to a
    client/patient. It is important that
    all parties are on the same page
    to prevent confusion and
    conflict.
BAD COMMUNICATION
   Bad Communication affects us all              This is a YouTube video of
    regardless of industry or ministry.            improper interpersonal
   We must learn to adapt to good                 communication with
    communication practices all the time           nursing students.
    even in our personal interactions.
   Example, a Nurse in the Pre-op
                                                  Bad Interpersonal Communication
    surgical ward just informed the family
    that “We are going to take you dad
    back for his procedure. So, you can
    come back and say good-by to him.”
   What is wrong with this statement?
    Events can cause for patient families to
    panic and go into a rage behind
    statement.
   The statement the Nurse could have
    said was “We are going to take you
    dad back for his procedure, If you
    would like you can tell him you will
    see him later.”
   This gives the clients and patients
    family hope for a healthier prognosis.
WALLACE THEORY AND PERSONAL
GOALS
   The communication style that is used can produce favorable or
    unfavorable behaviors within situations of panic or distress.
   My personal goal is to provide a communication styles that is
    effective for a large crowd. Believe it or not, I am totally shy and
    stubble upon words when speaking in front of large crowds.
   I want to learn to break this habit and release the knowledge I have
    learned to teach others.
   My theory of communication is to correctly change the negative
    behavior, we must first resemble to positive actions within our
    personality to bring about positive change. To clarify it up, we must
    look within to see the positive within our ourselves and force
    negative feelings to the side.
COMMUNICATION EXAMPLES
   During the school year of 2005, I decided to take a jobs as a Adjunct
    Instructor with Everest College (Corinthian Colleges).
   I was instructing a class of about 20 Medical Assistant students
    along with my colleague that was a Nurse Practitioner.
   She taught the theory portion of the class and I taught the clinical
    portions including check-off of skills.
   I taught skills such as suturing, intubations, medication
    administration, basic nursing assisting and back office positioning,
    etc.
   The easiest part for me was that I had expert power when talking
    with these student about something I knew best and that is medicine.
    When it comes to speaking on a subject that I hardly know about, I
    am shaking, stumbling over words, second guess, it is just a disaster.
COMMUNICATION
   These is a book that truly blessed my
    socks off.
   The book located on the right describes
    through analogies the process of
    communication.
   I am working on being a speaker but
    very shy. The author talks about the
    process of nervous stomach and how
    we can prevent nerves.
   The flat brain, the stomach, and the
    heart are all within the process that our
    body uses to respond to outside
    influences.
   I believe that if I learn to breath a little
    better I might become aware of the
    stomach and release the heart to share
    the information that I am blessed to
    teach.
   The author has a interesting name for
    butterflies or nerves (stomach-overload
    (pg 23).
EFFECTIVE LISTENING
   Listening can come as a shock when
    we miss important pertinent
    information such as a answer for a test,
    directions to a place of business, or
    symptoms that a patient my tell you.
   Effective listening can save time and
    effort in times of arrest (code blue),
    listening to other practitioners, and
    reassurance of important information.
   I personally do not have a in this area
    unless I am muti-tasking. I personally
    tend to focus more on something that I
    am most interested first. Then tune in
    the secondary after.
   For example, I would rather listen to
    the speaker that is talking about that
    latest research finding in cancer
    research rather than the employee that
    is talking about financial digest.
BEHAVIOR BLENDS
   Behavior blends are several
    personality types that demonstrate a
    persons behavior (pg 7).
   Each personality describes why a
    person do what they do?
   Type “D” - Directive, Driven,
    Demanding, Dominating,
    Determine, Decisive
   Type “C” – Cautious, Competent,
    Calculating, Compliant, Careful,
    Contemplative.
   Type “I” – Inspiring, Influencing,
    inducing, impressing, interactive,
    interesting
   Type “S” – Steady, Stable, Shy,
    Security-oriented, servant,
    submissive, specialist
BEHAVIOR BLENDS
   There are many test that can determine your personality type. For
    example, there are personality test, attitude test, management style
    test, and even love test but the real test is within you.
   The book entitled “How to solve the people puzzle” engages
    personality and communication into one. I took a personality test
    that was suggested on the website unqiueyou.com. The results of the
    test were not as shocking as I thought it would be.
   I am a pretty laid back person and it did not surprise me that I am an
    I/S blended person. The books stated that I am an encourager and
    supporter of others. My leadership style is more geared towards
    emotions rather than factual.
   What I like was the conflict style of handling issues. The book
    stated that I tend to prefer healthier environments (pg 63). I said
    bingo, that was the nail that hit the coffin. This is truly me. I don’t
    like to fight anyone. It takes to much valuable energy to argue, fuss,
    and fight.
BEHAVIOR BLENDS
   There are downsides to every good side and the bad exchange for
    me was the stubbornness and the stability. When my medical
    judgment is questioned I get very defensive. I want to know why
    and how. Medicine/Nursing is a practice that I truly come to love. I
    am learning daily how to improve my communication, listening
    skills, and new procedures.
   As a naturopathic practitioner, when my views or theories are
    questioned, I have to take in account who’s asking? Second, why,
    and third, is it a true question or is it an insult? I tend to stand my
    ground and do not give up unless proven wrong. I will admit if I am
    wrong and learn from the situation at hand.
   My saying is that “clarification is totally different from accusation.”
   I would suggest that anyone take this test on the uniqueyou.com
    website. It may open the eyes of those that seek to become better
    listeners and communicators.
POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN
COMMUNICATION
   The book describes several view points or terms that describe
    listening and communication.
   Perception-Reception-Attention – Perception is the key to
    reception and the attention span. We listen to the message for a
    while until the key word is said then we respond to it. I tend to listen
    a the message but filter words that don’t promote my views. I'm
    working on that.
   Hearing what you want to hear – We tend to do this ever time we
    ask for advice. I am a give it to me straight person. I ask you a
    question, I expect the answer weather good or bad.
   Biased listening - We tend to tune out thing that we do not want to
    hear. I tend to do this with some people. I need to look at everyone
    as important and not as a bothersome person. I am working on that
    one too. Its not an overnight process but I tend to switch shoes and
    learn to treat people as I would like to be treated.
POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN
COMMUNICATION
   Green Flag Words – This is all new to me in terms but not actions.
    I have been told before to go on and it was not the right time. Just as
    the book says “salesman are a prime example” (pg 58) Salesman
    will tell you that the time is right and it is not.
   He Effects of Emotions on Listening – There are guest preachers
    that tend to “work the room”. These preachers give ministry a bad
    name. The ministers will tell people to give and God told them
    personally to give $1000.00 right now and God will open doors. I
    have been in the situation where I gave money and nothing happen.
    When the minister said good things would happen I rushed to make
    it come through. It was terrible that it happen but it taught me a
    valuable lesson.
   Styles of listening – This is very interesting to me because it really
    gets me think of how I relate messages to others and how I'm paying
    them back by my listening styles.
POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN
COMMUNICATION
   The faker – This is when someone looks at you and is really not paying
    attention. This is just rude. I cant look at someone and not be listening to them.
    It is just best to say I'm not listening right now. At least it was up front.
   Dependant listener – This is a person that is worried about their listening skills
    that they miss out on the whole conversation. I'm sure we all have a little of this
    in us. We want to give all our attention to someone that is in need and forsake
    our own feelings. In turn, we miss what the main idea of the conversation.
   The interpreter – I would say this is a mirroring affect, it is when a person lets
    you know that you are hearing them but instead the person is repeating all the
    time. I tend to repeat to refocus a person back on task or switch the subject when
    it is not therapeutic.
   The Self-Conscious Listener – I use to have a friend that will go on and on
    about herself. I would listen and then when I have issues myself she will switch
    it back to her.
   The Intellectual or Logical Listener – I didn’t even know there was a such
    thing. I tend to do this a lot. When friend or family tell me something I will
    analyze it and sum it up. I will use book theories to relate the message. I got to
    do better and listen to people along the way.
   Physical barriers – fatigue is a major factor in physical barriers. I was really
    thinking deafness or physical disability but fatigue wow. I can see that because
POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN
COMMUNICATION
   Semantic Barriers – This is more of a cultural, education, personal
    knowledge experience (pg 65)
   External Distractions – This is outer actions of the speaker that can
    become distracting.
   Internal Distraction – Is the things people do inwardly to become
    distracted. It can be ignoring someone, thinking about other things.
   Discrepancies – This is where you verbal communication conflict
    with your non-verbal communication. Wow this is a real blessing
    because most don’t know that they are displaying bad behavior
    through postures and gestures.
   The terms promote good communication by asking for clarification
    as I stated before. The book also had it listed as well on page 75 in
    the text.
COMMUNICATION EXAMPLE
   I have always had a problems speaking in front of groups of people. When I am
    called to recite any speech I always rehearse it to the point of remembering it by
    heart.
   I can deliver a medical message in no time due to my expertise in the field of
    study. I have learned the secrete to effective communication, the secrete is be
    yourself.
   Most audience members know the background of he speaker and came to hear
    them speak on an interesting topic.
   In the medical community, it is what you know that gets you the speaking jobs.
    The questions are what did you research, what was the outcomes, how can it
    apply to my patients, and how many people did it kill?
   There was a time I was not so confident in myself. I went to Sanford Brown to
    apply for a teaching gig as faculty. I had no degree but I wanted to see if I could
    get it as a medical assistant. I got up there in front of the panel and begin to give
    them my presentation regarding herbs and treatments. I bummed so bad in my
    book. I got questions from the panel, applauds from the panel, and a invitation to
    come back. I felt great even though I didn’t get the job but I stuck it out to the
    very end. The moral is that effective communication is important when teaching,
    in casual conversation, and in careers.
COMMUNICATION GOALS FOR
SUCCESS
   Remain humble to God and to the
    patients that I serve. I need to use
    effective communication with patients,
    staff , and passengers at the airport.
   Break down technical terms and relate
    them to the situation that will make it
    easier for the patient to understand.
   Open the ear gates and listen to the
    patients and family members. I don’t
    have a problem doing this is just rude
    people I do selective hearing. I don’t
    like to fight “either do it or don’t”
   Learn to relax when someone
    challenge my medical authority. Again,
    clarification is different from
    accusations.
   I am going to reward myself when I
    begin to accomplish one goal at a time.
REFERENCES
   Stewart, J (2012), Bridges Not Walls, A Book About Interpersonal
    Communication 7th (edition), University of Dubuque, New York, NY,
    McGraw-Hill Publishers
   Allen, M (1995), Listening: The Forgotten Skill, A Self-Teaching
    Guide, 2 (edition), Canada, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
   Carbonell, M (2008), How To Solve The People Puzzle, Blue Ridge,
    GA, Uniquely you publishers

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Intercommunication Project - Liberty

  • 2. DEFINITIONS  Communication – is the continuous, complex, collaborative process of verbal and non-verbal meaning-making.  Interpersonal – Communication within the family or persons that are intimate or person close friend.  Intrapersonal – Communication with a group of people that are not related or not associate on a personal level (i.e co-workers).  Sender – The person that is talking or relaying a message.  Receiver – The person that is listening to the message from the sender.  Flat-Brain – The analogy for someone that does not listen to people well. This person has a closed ear-mind to those that relating messages to him/her.  Heart – The analogy of feelings (hard/soft) related to the message that was delivered by the sender.  Stomach – Is the analogy of primary reactions to the message from the sender. The inside feelings or outside stimulus (butterflies).  Listening – The art of hearing and comprehending the message of the sender.
  • 3. DEFINITIONS  Inhaling - This information applies to communication receiving. It is the art of listening to others completely.  Exhaling – Is the art of becoming vulnerable. Talking openly with others and releasing feelings. It is also communicating with others.  Behavior Styles – These are style that describe a persons attitude, personality, responses, and even actions related to events.  Metamessage – Is the unspoken message about the relationship between speaker and hearer. It is the way how a message was interpreted.  Truth Bias – It is the act of believing someone is telling the truth before confirming other wise.  Defensive Behaviors – It is behavior that is perceived when a person feels attacked or threaten by someone or a group.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  Communication is a vital response in human service. As Practitioners, We are charged with ensuring that our patients and clients understand the complexity of the message that we are sending. The messages that we send out to the patients are aimed to make a positive change within the patients condition or community.  For example, a patient must be assessed mentally for comprehension before assigning written forms of instructions for discharge. This recommendation is due to the possible education level of the client or patients. Most patients may be too embarrassed to say I can not read or write. In that case verbal discharge instructions or written instructions with pictures would be the appropriate.  In the presentation, I will being to explain the complexity of the communication models and demonstrate by example how we can defuse conflict through proper communication, build positive relationships, and ensure that effective communication models/goals are in place for improvement.
  • 5. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION  Effective Communication is the art of relay a message that is received with general understanding and respect for the sender.  For example, some of the medical lingo can be confusing for the patients. The patients may began to feel alone in their fight for survival. The patient could also feel dumb.  As a practitioner, I have learned to take this into account when explaining procedures to a client/patient. It is important that all parties are on the same page to prevent confusion and conflict.
  • 6. BAD COMMUNICATION  Bad Communication affects us all  This is a YouTube video of regardless of industry or ministry. improper interpersonal  We must learn to adapt to good communication with communication practices all the time nursing students. even in our personal interactions.  Example, a Nurse in the Pre-op  Bad Interpersonal Communication surgical ward just informed the family that “We are going to take you dad back for his procedure. So, you can come back and say good-by to him.”  What is wrong with this statement? Events can cause for patient families to panic and go into a rage behind statement.  The statement the Nurse could have said was “We are going to take you dad back for his procedure, If you would like you can tell him you will see him later.”  This gives the clients and patients family hope for a healthier prognosis.
  • 7. WALLACE THEORY AND PERSONAL GOALS  The communication style that is used can produce favorable or unfavorable behaviors within situations of panic or distress.  My personal goal is to provide a communication styles that is effective for a large crowd. Believe it or not, I am totally shy and stubble upon words when speaking in front of large crowds.  I want to learn to break this habit and release the knowledge I have learned to teach others.  My theory of communication is to correctly change the negative behavior, we must first resemble to positive actions within our personality to bring about positive change. To clarify it up, we must look within to see the positive within our ourselves and force negative feelings to the side.
  • 8. COMMUNICATION EXAMPLES  During the school year of 2005, I decided to take a jobs as a Adjunct Instructor with Everest College (Corinthian Colleges).  I was instructing a class of about 20 Medical Assistant students along with my colleague that was a Nurse Practitioner.  She taught the theory portion of the class and I taught the clinical portions including check-off of skills.  I taught skills such as suturing, intubations, medication administration, basic nursing assisting and back office positioning, etc.  The easiest part for me was that I had expert power when talking with these student about something I knew best and that is medicine. When it comes to speaking on a subject that I hardly know about, I am shaking, stumbling over words, second guess, it is just a disaster.
  • 9. COMMUNICATION  These is a book that truly blessed my socks off.  The book located on the right describes through analogies the process of communication.  I am working on being a speaker but very shy. The author talks about the process of nervous stomach and how we can prevent nerves.  The flat brain, the stomach, and the heart are all within the process that our body uses to respond to outside influences.  I believe that if I learn to breath a little better I might become aware of the stomach and release the heart to share the information that I am blessed to teach.  The author has a interesting name for butterflies or nerves (stomach-overload (pg 23).
  • 10. EFFECTIVE LISTENING  Listening can come as a shock when we miss important pertinent information such as a answer for a test, directions to a place of business, or symptoms that a patient my tell you.  Effective listening can save time and effort in times of arrest (code blue), listening to other practitioners, and reassurance of important information.  I personally do not have a in this area unless I am muti-tasking. I personally tend to focus more on something that I am most interested first. Then tune in the secondary after.  For example, I would rather listen to the speaker that is talking about that latest research finding in cancer research rather than the employee that is talking about financial digest.
  • 11. BEHAVIOR BLENDS  Behavior blends are several personality types that demonstrate a persons behavior (pg 7).  Each personality describes why a person do what they do?  Type “D” - Directive, Driven, Demanding, Dominating, Determine, Decisive  Type “C” – Cautious, Competent, Calculating, Compliant, Careful, Contemplative.  Type “I” – Inspiring, Influencing, inducing, impressing, interactive, interesting  Type “S” – Steady, Stable, Shy, Security-oriented, servant, submissive, specialist
  • 12. BEHAVIOR BLENDS  There are many test that can determine your personality type. For example, there are personality test, attitude test, management style test, and even love test but the real test is within you.  The book entitled “How to solve the people puzzle” engages personality and communication into one. I took a personality test that was suggested on the website unqiueyou.com. The results of the test were not as shocking as I thought it would be.  I am a pretty laid back person and it did not surprise me that I am an I/S blended person. The books stated that I am an encourager and supporter of others. My leadership style is more geared towards emotions rather than factual.  What I like was the conflict style of handling issues. The book stated that I tend to prefer healthier environments (pg 63). I said bingo, that was the nail that hit the coffin. This is truly me. I don’t like to fight anyone. It takes to much valuable energy to argue, fuss, and fight.
  • 13. BEHAVIOR BLENDS  There are downsides to every good side and the bad exchange for me was the stubbornness and the stability. When my medical judgment is questioned I get very defensive. I want to know why and how. Medicine/Nursing is a practice that I truly come to love. I am learning daily how to improve my communication, listening skills, and new procedures.  As a naturopathic practitioner, when my views or theories are questioned, I have to take in account who’s asking? Second, why, and third, is it a true question or is it an insult? I tend to stand my ground and do not give up unless proven wrong. I will admit if I am wrong and learn from the situation at hand.  My saying is that “clarification is totally different from accusation.”  I would suggest that anyone take this test on the uniqueyou.com website. It may open the eyes of those that seek to become better listeners and communicators.
  • 14. POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION  The book describes several view points or terms that describe listening and communication.  Perception-Reception-Attention – Perception is the key to reception and the attention span. We listen to the message for a while until the key word is said then we respond to it. I tend to listen a the message but filter words that don’t promote my views. I'm working on that.  Hearing what you want to hear – We tend to do this ever time we ask for advice. I am a give it to me straight person. I ask you a question, I expect the answer weather good or bad.  Biased listening - We tend to tune out thing that we do not want to hear. I tend to do this with some people. I need to look at everyone as important and not as a bothersome person. I am working on that one too. Its not an overnight process but I tend to switch shoes and learn to treat people as I would like to be treated.
  • 15. POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION  Green Flag Words – This is all new to me in terms but not actions. I have been told before to go on and it was not the right time. Just as the book says “salesman are a prime example” (pg 58) Salesman will tell you that the time is right and it is not.  He Effects of Emotions on Listening – There are guest preachers that tend to “work the room”. These preachers give ministry a bad name. The ministers will tell people to give and God told them personally to give $1000.00 right now and God will open doors. I have been in the situation where I gave money and nothing happen. When the minister said good things would happen I rushed to make it come through. It was terrible that it happen but it taught me a valuable lesson.  Styles of listening – This is very interesting to me because it really gets me think of how I relate messages to others and how I'm paying them back by my listening styles.
  • 16. POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION  The faker – This is when someone looks at you and is really not paying attention. This is just rude. I cant look at someone and not be listening to them. It is just best to say I'm not listening right now. At least it was up front.  Dependant listener – This is a person that is worried about their listening skills that they miss out on the whole conversation. I'm sure we all have a little of this in us. We want to give all our attention to someone that is in need and forsake our own feelings. In turn, we miss what the main idea of the conversation.  The interpreter – I would say this is a mirroring affect, it is when a person lets you know that you are hearing them but instead the person is repeating all the time. I tend to repeat to refocus a person back on task or switch the subject when it is not therapeutic.  The Self-Conscious Listener – I use to have a friend that will go on and on about herself. I would listen and then when I have issues myself she will switch it back to her.  The Intellectual or Logical Listener – I didn’t even know there was a such thing. I tend to do this a lot. When friend or family tell me something I will analyze it and sum it up. I will use book theories to relate the message. I got to do better and listen to people along the way.  Physical barriers – fatigue is a major factor in physical barriers. I was really thinking deafness or physical disability but fatigue wow. I can see that because
  • 17. POTENTIAL BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION  Semantic Barriers – This is more of a cultural, education, personal knowledge experience (pg 65)  External Distractions – This is outer actions of the speaker that can become distracting.  Internal Distraction – Is the things people do inwardly to become distracted. It can be ignoring someone, thinking about other things.  Discrepancies – This is where you verbal communication conflict with your non-verbal communication. Wow this is a real blessing because most don’t know that they are displaying bad behavior through postures and gestures.  The terms promote good communication by asking for clarification as I stated before. The book also had it listed as well on page 75 in the text.
  • 18. COMMUNICATION EXAMPLE  I have always had a problems speaking in front of groups of people. When I am called to recite any speech I always rehearse it to the point of remembering it by heart.  I can deliver a medical message in no time due to my expertise in the field of study. I have learned the secrete to effective communication, the secrete is be yourself.  Most audience members know the background of he speaker and came to hear them speak on an interesting topic.  In the medical community, it is what you know that gets you the speaking jobs. The questions are what did you research, what was the outcomes, how can it apply to my patients, and how many people did it kill?  There was a time I was not so confident in myself. I went to Sanford Brown to apply for a teaching gig as faculty. I had no degree but I wanted to see if I could get it as a medical assistant. I got up there in front of the panel and begin to give them my presentation regarding herbs and treatments. I bummed so bad in my book. I got questions from the panel, applauds from the panel, and a invitation to come back. I felt great even though I didn’t get the job but I stuck it out to the very end. The moral is that effective communication is important when teaching, in casual conversation, and in careers.
  • 19. COMMUNICATION GOALS FOR SUCCESS  Remain humble to God and to the patients that I serve. I need to use effective communication with patients, staff , and passengers at the airport.  Break down technical terms and relate them to the situation that will make it easier for the patient to understand.  Open the ear gates and listen to the patients and family members. I don’t have a problem doing this is just rude people I do selective hearing. I don’t like to fight “either do it or don’t”  Learn to relax when someone challenge my medical authority. Again, clarification is different from accusations.  I am going to reward myself when I begin to accomplish one goal at a time.
  • 20. REFERENCES  Stewart, J (2012), Bridges Not Walls, A Book About Interpersonal Communication 7th (edition), University of Dubuque, New York, NY, McGraw-Hill Publishers  Allen, M (1995), Listening: The Forgotten Skill, A Self-Teaching Guide, 2 (edition), Canada, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.  Carbonell, M (2008), How To Solve The People Puzzle, Blue Ridge, GA, Uniquely you publishers

Editor's Notes

  1. The four temperaments can be found on page 14 in the text.
  2. All terms are sites on slide 14 footnotes.