Latino Rates in Pennsylvania’s Uninsured


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Slides that were presented at the 2012 Annual Latin American Social and Public Policy Conference

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Latino Rates in Pennsylvania’s Uninsured

  1. 1. Paul Ricci, MS MA PhD(c)HealthCare for All Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh
  2. 2. Congressman Joseph Wilson R-SC exclaimed “you lie” when PresidentObama stated that the law would not cover illegal immigrants.
  3. 3.  In 2006, Hazleton, PA (pop. 25,340) passed an ordinance which fined and denied permits to businesses and landlords who hired and/or rented out to illegal immigrants and made English the official language of the town. ◦ Law was declared unconstitutional but it inspired similar measures in states such as Arizona. ◦ According to the Census, the city was 4.9% Latino in 2000 and 37.3% in 2010 (661% increase). The city total pop. increased 8.6% from 2000-2010. ◦ Reasons cited for this, with little evidence given, was that immigrants drain the healthcare and other resources of the town.
  4. 4. ◦ Luzerne County, where Hazelton, PA is located, had an uninsured rate of 8.2% (Margin of Error (MOE) +/- 1.9%) in 2000 and 9.9% (MOE +/-1.6%) in 2007. The change is within the margin of errors for both years so no conclusions can be drawn.◦ According to the Census, the county had a population of 320,918 in 2010, a 0.5% change from 2000. The Latino population increased 440% over the same period.
  5. 5.  The Census Bureau provides county and state level for the uninsured in the annual Small Area Health Insurance Estimates or SAHIE At the state level the numbers are broken down by ethnicity and gender but only by gender at the county level for 2008 and 2009. These data were correlated with other county level data such as Latino population to provide an indication of county level patterns for PA’s 67 counties.
  6. 6. Year % State % White % African % Latino American2008 10.6 9.10 15.10 21.502009 11.7 10.10 16.20 22.60 Political pundits often blame minorities for draining government services however according to the Kaiser Foundation in Pennsylvania 63% of Medicaid recipients were white while 19% were black and 14% were Hispanic in 2010. Nationally 43% are white, 21% are black, and 28% are Hispanic. 5.7% of PA residents are Latino while they are 16.3% of the nations population. In 2002, 2% of all PA Medicaid recipients were immigrants of any nationality.
  7. 7.  Other County level health and demographic variables were collected from sources such as websites like County Health Rankings. They were correlated with the % uninsured and % Latino populations. They were also studied together in an exploratory factor analysis to identify latent variables among the counties and to see where the percents Latino and uninsured would load.
  8. 8.  35 county level variables were entered into the model. Four factors were extracted accounting for a total of 71% of the variability in the county data. The top loadings for each factor are presented in the table on the next slide.
  9. 9. Factor 1 – Factor 2 – Factor 3 – Factor 4 – Mortality Uninsured Ethnic Clustering Infrastructure 35.9% of Variance 19.7% of Variance 9.6% of Variance 5.7% of Variance Variable Loading Variable Loading Variable Loading Variable Loading1 Male Life Expectancy -0.916 % Unins 2009 0.900 % No English 0.920 Physical 0.912 Environ.2 Years Behind Male 0.897 % Unins 2008 0.876 % African- 0.806 Built 0.591 American Environ.3 Female Life Expectancy -0.876 % Illiterate 0.789 % Asian 0.7574 0.873 Education 0.758 % Latino 0.726 Years Behind Female5 Years Poten. Life Lost 0.861 % in 200% of 0.625 Community 0.722 Poverty Safety
  10. 10.  The county level correlation was compared to that of Texas because ◦ Texas has the highest overall uninsured rate in the US at 26.3% (Margin of Error +/- 0.2%). ◦ As a border state it has a large Latino population. 39.3% of Texas Latino population is uninsured. ◦ According to the Kaiser Foundation, 62% of it’s Medicaid recipients are Hispanic/Latino. ◦ It has 254 counties which is a good sample size.
  11. 11. Texas PennsylvaniaA fairly strong association was found for Texas accounting for23.4% of the variance (p<0.001). For Pennsylvania it wasweak accounting for almost 0.006%.
  12. 12.  First Factor (26.2% of variability) Mortality variables loaded. Second Factor (22.5% of Var) % Latino loaded strongly but % Uninsured weakly. Third Factor (11% of Var) % Uninsured loaded more strongly with income.
  13. 13.  Although there is a large percentage of the Latino population without health insurance in Pennsylvania there does not appear to be an association at the county level between uninsured rates and county Latino population. The real issue is a lack of a national health insurance program. ◦ The Affordable Care Act (ACA) does not guarantee universal coverage and excludes illegal immigrants.