<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Geography of Cebu </li></ul><ul><li>An Outline of </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine History </li></ul><ul><li>4.Cebu History </li></ul>
Physical Geography: 9°25'N and 11°15'N latitude and between 123°13'E and 124°5'E 600 kilometers south of Manila Boundaries: East---Camotes Sea West---Tanon Strait North--Visayan Sea Southeast--Bohol Strait
L - 250 kilometers from North to South W - 45 kilometers across at its widest point 5,088 sq. kms. (508,839 has.) 1.7% of the total land area of the country
<ul><li>Ringed by about 166 smaller islands & islets of which Mactan, Bantayan and Camotes are considered the largest. </li></ul><ul><li>1,000 meters highest elevation (Mt. Manunggal) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow coastlines, limestone plateaus, coastal plains, rolling hills and rugged mountain ranges. </li></ul><ul><li>Lowland areas are more extensive in Carmen, Mandaue, Cebu City, Talisay, Carcar, Argao, Barili, Toledo, Asturias, Balamban. Bogo, San Remigio, Medellin and Daan Bantayan </li></ul>
<ul><li>Average Annual Rainfall: 1,638.20 mm Minimum Monthly Rainfall: 50.40 mm Maximum Monthly Rainfall: 206.50 mm Mean Temperature Range: 26.49 C-28.79 C Minimum Temperature: 22.69 C Maximum Temperature: 33.19 C </li></ul><ul><li>No major river systems or large lakes </li></ul><ul><li>30% arable land </li></ul><ul><li>Soil composition is mainly porous calcareous materials that do not hold much water. </li></ul><ul><li>Cebuanos most likely have always been part time farmers and part time fishermen. </li></ul>
Probably formed 350 million years ago with large marshes and abundant vegetation. A million years BP, during the Pleistocene period (with four Ice Ages) Cebu was nothing more than a series of coralline-topped islets which eventually joined together to form one island.
Cebu is a separate biogeographic and distinctive zone, thus the existence of endemic species of flora and fauna .
Table 1. Total Population of Top 10 by Sex: Cebu, 2000 Municipality Total Population Percent Male Female Cebu 2,377,588 100.00 1,194,700 1,182,888 Lapu lapu City (Opon) 217,019 9.13 106,099 110,920 Talisay City 148,110 6.23 71,309 76,801 Toledo City 141,174 5.94 71,719 69,455 Danao City 98,781 4.15 49,423 49,358 Carcar 89,199 3.75 45,276 43,923 Naga 80,189 3.37 40,332 39,857 Minglanilla 77,268 3.25 39,898 37,370 Daanbantayan 69,336 2.92 34,738 34,598 Bantayan 68,125 2.87 34,542 33,583 Liloan 64,970 2.73 32,619 32,351 Other Municipalities 1,303,417 55.66 668,745 654,672
Population: * 2.8 million people of whom 700 thousand live in Cebu City Rank City Population in 2000 1. Metro Manila 9,932,560 2. * Metro Cebu * 1,195,568 3. Davao City 1,147,116 4. Zamboanga City 601,794 5. Antipolo City 470,866 6. Cagayan de Oro City 461,877 7. Bacolod City 429,076 8. General Santos City 411,822 9. Iloilo City 365,820 10. Iligan City 285,061
Alcantara Alcoy Alegría Aloguinsan Argao Asturias Badian Balamban Bantayan Barili Boljoon Borbon Carcar Carmen Catmon Compostela Consolación Cordova Daanbantayan Dalaguete Dumanjug Ginatilan Liloan Madridejos Malabuyoc Medellin Minglanilla Moalboal Oslob Pilar Pinamungahan Poro Ronda Samboan San Fernando San Francisco San Remigio Santa Fe Santander Sibonga Sogod Tabogon Tabuelan Tuburan Tudela Cebu City Danao City Lapu-Lapu City Mandaue City Talisay City Toledo City
Dialect : Cebuano is the dialect in the province, . . . widely spoken in the Visayas and Mindanao. Cebuano is the indigenous language of Cebu. . . spoken in most parts of Central and Southern Philippine Islands, including Bohol, Western Leyte, Negros Oriental, the northern and eastern coasts of Mindanao, and parts of Bukidnon, Agusan, Surigao, Davao, Cotabato, and Zamboanga del Sur. In the Camotes Islands, Porohanon is a language related to Waray-Waray . What distinguishes it from Cebuano is that what is normally "y" in Cebuano is "z" in Porohanon. In Bantayan Island , Bantayan Visayan ... is closer to Hiligaynon than it is to Cebuano. Spanish is spoken by its mestizo and Spanish communities. Chinese (Fookien & Mandarin) are spoken by the Chinese Cebuanos. English is also used in education, media, commerce, and the government. Usual Question: Why Cebuanos and most Filipinos do not speak Spanish?
The Cebuano speaking world Number of native speakers: Approximately a little more than 20 million…
400,000 BC People belonging to the species Homo Erectus were the first to set foot in the Philippines 50,000 BCE The Tabon Man made Stone tools in the Tabon Cave in Palawan 40,000 BCE Negritos started to settle 4500-300 BCE Multiple Austronesian migrations 100 - 900 CE Emergence of several settlements in different parts of the Archipelago like the Sulu Archipelago, Maguindanao, Surigao, Butuan, Misamis, Zamboanga, Negros, Panay, Cebu, Manila 1240 CE Tuan Mash`ika, a Muslim, traveled and introduced Islam to Sulu
1521 Arrival of the Spaniards 1565 Start of Spanish Colonization of the Philippines with Miguel Lopez de Legazpi 1570 Conquest of Manila & transfer of the Spanish Capital to Manila 1570-1770 Continuing process of conquest, colonization, & Christianization of the Philippines and the Filipinos despite threats from the Portuguese, Dutch and British to oust them from the Islands. Threats also came from several insurrections and rebellions from various parts of the Islands. The continued resistance of the people from the Muslim, Cordillera and other interior parts of the archipelago mostly failed.
1770 – 1898 <ul><li>Gradual incorporation of the Philippines to the expanding global trade network. </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Crops were introduced for cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization of the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of the Philippines to World Trade (1834) – The Rise of the Middle Class </li></ul><ul><li>Opening of Schools and a University to the Filipinos - Rise of the Ilustrados </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Philippine Nationalism – Propaganda Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Revolution – Declaration of Philippine Independence </li></ul>1898 – 1946 <ul><li>American Period of Philippine History </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Self Rule by the Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Popular Education, Health and Sanitation Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific War in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Granting of Philippine Independence </li></ul>
What was the state of Cebu before 1521? When and where did Spanish Rule Begin in the Philippines? Why did Legazpi move the Capital of the Spanish Colonization from Cebu to Manila and what happened to Cebu after the Spaniards transferred their capital to Manila? When did Cebu finally re-emerge as a major city in the Philippines? What was Cebu’s involvement during the Philippine Revolution? What was the state of Cebu during the American Period? How did Cebu survive the ravages of WWII? How did Cebu emerge as the Queen City of the South? Where to Cebu?
Butuan Cebu Negros Panay Sulu Maitum Earliest Known Settlements
We do not exactly know when Cebu was populated but some evidence point to the early metal age as the earliest. We are definite that it was through migration. Settlers from nearby islands. Fishing villages that eventually also became cultivators. Promontory ( Ilihan ) dwellers As to when the Cebuanos became seaport traders, that is not clear but definitely in the 9 th and 10 th centuries Cebu was already actively engaged in trade.
TRADE LINKS BETWEEN EUROPE, AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST AND ASIA
Trade Items Gold Metal works Cotton Food Supplies Marine Products Slaves Pottery (Cebu Red) Cultivated Products Rice Millet Sugar Cane Porcelain Musical Instruments Beads Religious Icons Silk and other embroidered cloth One way or another, inhabitants in the Philippines were able to participate in the trade network.
Based on archaeological finds from the Magallanes and Lapulapu Street area: <ul><li>This area may have been the oldest section of the city </li></ul><ul><li>2 meters section: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three burials were found &together with the bones, an iron dagger, beads and gold were found. Possibly iron age. </li></ul></ul>1.3 to 1.2 section 9 burials; 6 of them had Asiatic potteries (Yuan, early Ming, Siamese and Annamese pottery.) Habitation areas with an array of artifacts. Middens with fishbone, shells, fowl, pig, sinkers, worked bone antlers, ornaments, earthenwares, iron slags, native pottery, cloth, post holes…
<ul><li>Dwellings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectangular to square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooden stilts made of heavy round timber (probably mangrove, therefore water resistant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably like typical coastal dwellings where the front of the house faces dry land and the back part towards the sea (convenient for docking vessels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishbones ( small and large fish) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow and deep sea shells </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>OTHER CRAFTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red clay Pottery with blackened bottoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Back strap horizontal loom ( lompot ), most likely used with the evidence of cloth and nets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(also based on Pigafetta’s accounts and others) </li></ul></ul></ul>
LUTAWS? Semi-nomadic boat people drawn to the island because of its rich marine resources Peterson claims though that Cebuanos at the start of the contact period had already become promontory dwellers.
<ul><li>Ancestor Worship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropomorphism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magic and Spells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spirit world actively involved in daily life </li></ul></ul></ul>WORLD VIEW AND RELIGION
PERMEATES EVERY ASPECT OF DAILY LIFE, CULTURE AND SOCIETY PHYSICAL REALM SPIRITUAL REALM PHYSICAL REALM SPIRITUAL REALM WORLD VIEW AND RELIGION SACRED GROVES TRADITIONAL LAWS PREMIUM IN BEING ELDERLY DIWATA, LAON BABAYLAN, BAILAN
1521 was when the first contact between the Spanish forces and the inhabitants of Cebu happened
First Philippine Mass ni Carlos V. Francisco, undated http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Tagalog_Default_files/Philippine_Culture/spread_of_roman_catholicism_and_.htm Nag unsa man na sila diay? Unsa ni?
Biraaah…bug-at bayaaa niiii! Unsa man diay na?
From Villa San Miguel to Ciudad del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus Spanish Fort City in Cebu was established on May 8, 1565 and named Villa San Miguel in honor of Sr. San Miguel June 4, 1565 Treaty between Spaniards and Cebuanos Periodic acts of hostility on both sides Occasional Portuguese attacks and food shortage Cebuanos were subsistence farmers 1569 Legazpi moved to the island of Panay 1570 Returned with 50 Spanish couples to settle in Cebu and renamed the settlement after the Holy Child 1571 Legazpi moved to Manila
Cebu in the Economic Backwaters for 200 years (+ -) Cebu’s role as regional trade center was undermined by the Galleon Trade based in Manila. The Galleon trade also did not carry much of Philippine products (only 10%) and the only product that were from Cebu were the lampotes (cotton gauze) Its traditional trade linkages with other Asian and SEAn traders was disrupted as traders began to by-pass the port of Cebu. 1594 Decree allowed Spanish citizens in Cebu to build and send one Galleon to New Mexico but the trade items that could be loaded were limited to products that did not necessarily have a high demand in New Mexico 1604 the Cebu based Galleon Trade closed…
Cebu in the Economic Backwaters for 200 years (+ -) 1611 the Spaniards tried to revive the Galleon Trade but were turned down. Spanish population declined as well as that of the Cebuanos in the port area. Cebu was reduced to being an outpost of Spanish Colonial Administration Inter-island trade also was disrupted by Moro raids and whatever little domestic trade activities existed, the Alcalde-Mayor monopolized this…
Rene B. Javellana’s Fortress of Empire , 1997 James Warren Ilanun & Balangingi 2002
Cebu in the Economic Backwaters for 200 years (+ -) <ul><li>Introduction of the concept of land ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In theory, the crown owned all of the lands… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in the landholding patterns. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banilad Estate in Banilad and the Talisay-Minglanilla Estate of the Augustinians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandaue Estate of the Jesuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese and Chinese mestizos also began acquiring land holdings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction of New Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- corn - tobacco - cacao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took a while before the Cebuanos were able to adjust to these new crops… </li></ul></ul>
Conversions and Colonization in Cebu Beginnings of Missionary Work in Cebu 1565 Augustians and 2 Secular Priests 1592 Jesuits 1622 Recollects Became a diocese in 1592 that included all of the Visayas, Christian Mindanao, Palawan, the Carolines, Marianas and Palau islands until 1865 But Cebu was basically Augustinian territory as they owned the Banilad Estate, Talisay-Minglanilla Estate and the guardians of the Holy Cross and the Image of the Sto. Nino Jesuits also had a small estate in the North (Mandaue Estate) …
Conversions and Colonization in Cebu <ul><li>CONVERSION ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>Not sweeping as we sometimes would like to believe </li></ul><ul><li>scarcity of missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>the few who where in Cebu concentrated their work in Cebu port area </li></ul><ul><li>visitas were rarely visited </li></ul><ul><li>accounts point to the widespread practice of pre-hispanic customs and beliefs and practices even after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>reducciones were not immediately successful as very few chose to live in the cabecera </li></ul><ul><li>accounts of some missionaries who wrote about their second thoughts as to whether they will ever succeed in their missionary endeavors… </li></ul>
1860 CEBU WAS OPENED TO WORLD TRADE When did Cebu finally re-emerge as a major city in the Philippines?
Along with the opening of Philippine ports to world and global demand for agricultural products, large plantations surfaced in the region, especially in the Visayas –Filipinos would come to call them "haciendas”
Other cities in the Visayas and Mindanao opened to world trade: Ilo-ilo (1855) – sugar and rice from plantations in Panay and Negros and textiles from Europe Tacloban – agricultural products, mainly abaca, from Samar and Leyte abaca (closed in 1884) Zamboanga - also agricultural products, mother of pearl, pearls, coffee,
Population Increase and Distribution by Region: Cebu, 1818-1840 <ul><li>Region 1818 1834 1840 </li></ul><ul><li>Cebu City & environs 29,808 (40%) 48,854 (38%) 66,032 (40%) </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Coast 20,565 (28%) 37,526 (29%) 43,002 (26%) </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast Coast 6,231 (8%) 10,727 (8%) 14,283 (9%) </li></ul><ul><li>Southwest Coast 12,150 (16%) 22,318 (17%) 28,677 (17%) </li></ul><ul><li>Bantayan & Northwest 5,235 (7%) 10,777 (8%) 12,952 (8%) </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL 73,989 (99%) 130,202 (100%) 164,946 (100%) </li></ul>Source: Michael Cullinane’s, “The Growth of population in Cebu during the Spanish Era: Constructing a Regional Demography from Local Sources. ” In Population and Demography, eds. Doeppers and Xenos , p. 105
“… a time between times” <ul><li>1898-1906 - A highly disturbed period : </li></ul><ul><li>Health crisis, agricultural collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Period of relative stability, 1906-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in infrastructure, public education, health, sanitation and public order </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of modern commercial farming, 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Backdrop of agricultural products, 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>American colonialism strengthened economic forces already at work in the Spanish period… </li></ul>
CEBU OVERTAKES ILO-ILO CITY AS PREMIERE COMMERCIAL AND TRADING CENTER SOUTH OF MANILA
Cebu becomes the main base for the Philippines’ shipping industry .
Urban Center Population Metro Manila 11,553,427 Metro Cebu 2,314,897 Davao City 1,650,337 Zamboanga City 774,407 Cagayan de Oro 553,966 Bacolod 499,497 Iloilo City 418,710
The three living Negrito groups today (solid red dots) and a much larger area with many still living or only recently extinct possible Negrito relatives. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter25/text25.htm#homeground