Developing the "Other" Literacy: How Visual Arts Have the Potential to Deepen Student Understanding


Published on

Presentation at the Ireland International Conference on Education 2012

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Developing the "Other" Literacy: How Visual Arts Have the Potential to Deepen Student Understanding

  1. 1. Ireland International Conference on Education October 29 – 31, 2012 Susan Pitts Santoli, Ph.D. Paige Vitulli, Ph.D. 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. BY THE NUMBERS: Degrees Awarded: 70,000 Students Enrolled: 15,009 Employees: 5,500 Annual Economic Impact: $2 billion Annual Payroll: $404 million USA has educated 17,800 teachers and school administrators, including 85% of Mobile’s public school teachers 5
  6. 6.  Allied Health Arts & Sciences Business Computer & Information Sciences Continuing Education Education Engineering Medicine Nursing Pharmacy (with Auburn) 6
  7. 7.  The College of Education is organized into three departments: Health, Physical Education and Leisure Studies (HPELS), Leadership and Teacher Education (LTE), and Professional Studies (PS). 7
  8. 8. Paige Vitulli, Paige is an assistant professor in the Department of Leadership and Teacher Education at the University of South Alabama and director for the art education graduate program. She teaches art education courses for elementary and special education majors as well as all art education graduate courses in the college. She is the Visual Arts Coordinator and Assistant Director for the Arts in Education Grant at USA. 8
  9. 9. Susan P. Santoli, Susan is an associate professor in the Department of Leadership and Teacher Education at the University of South Alabama. She teaches undergraduate and graduate secondary social studies methods, foundations of education courses, and graduate research courses. Her research interests are pre-service teacher preparation, collaborative teaching with special education teachers, and the infusion of technology into social studies education. 9
  10. 10.  Time to share:  Name  Where you are from  Education/Work Experience  Personal Anecdote 10
  11. 11.  Interactive session on using visual literacy strategies and visual images to improve comprehension of content. Benefits include developing deeper student writing and thinking, addressing diverse learning styles/levels. Specific Content: During the presentation, participants will be shown numerous examples of how and when to integrate visual images into elementary and secondary content classes. Both technology and non-technology based projects will be demonstrated. Detailed resources will be posted online. This workshop is applicable to both elementary and secondary classrooms and presenters have experience in both levels. 11
  12. 12. Visual literacy is a set of abilities that enables an individual toeffectively find, interpret, evaluate, use, and create images andvisual media. Images and visual media may includephotographs, illustrations, drawings, maps, diagrams, advertisements, and other visual messages and representations, bothstill and moving. Visual literacy skills equip a learner tounderstand and analyze thecontextual, cultural, ethical, aesthetic, and technicalcomponents involved in the construction and use of images andvisual media. A visually literate individual is both a criticalconsumer of visual media and a competent contributor to abody of shared knowledge and culture.~ from the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) 12
  13. 13.  Seeing and interpreting images is a vital part of what it means to learn and know…in order to support teaching multiple literacies, students must be overtly taught to engage in and critically reflect. Crawford, S. Hicks D. and Doherty N., (2009). Worth the WAIT: Engaging Social Studies students with art in a digital age. Social Education, 73(3), 136-139. 13
  14. 14.  Studies done by Lynn O’Brien of Specific Diagnostic Studies – students whose strongest learning channel is auditory comprise less than 15% of the population. On the other hand, students who comprise a visual learning style are about 40% of the population…kinesthetic students form around 45% of the population.” Dickinson, D. (2002). Learning through the arts. Seattle, WA: New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved from Http:// 14
  15. 15. Visible Thinking Pictures of Practice ingInAction/01c_VTPoP.htmlMapping Tools http://www.visual- Literacy slides Mapping learning-and-mind-mapping-2/ 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Creating/ Resources ProducingMaking Questioning &Connections Investigating Exploring Observing & Perspective/ Describing Point of View
  18. 18.  Primary Sources Visual Arts Lesson Ideas Resources 18
  19. 19.  Researcher Card 19
  20. 20.  Materials  Archival Box  Acid and lignin-free letter size document storage box provides convenient, long-term storage for letter size documents, photos, sports cards, newspaper clippings and other collectibles. With reinforced corners, these boxes are solid and secure units that resist dust, dirt, and light infiltration. The board used to make this box is manufactured to United States National Archives and Records Administrations specifications. PROD&ProdID=243 20
  21. 21.  Materials  Cotton Gloves  Discount Art Supplies Gloves.htm  Magnifying Lens  Oriental Trading 21
  22. 22.  Primary Documents & Art 22
  23. 23.  Elements of Art Elements of Art  Line m1EeO88w  Shape The ABCs of Art  Form mTableOfContentsTheABCsOfArt.htm  Space  Color The Artists Toolkit  Value dex.html  Texture 23
  24. 24. Observing &Describing 24
  25. 25. As a group, observe and describe several differentsections of an artwork. One person identifies a specific section of the artwork and describes what he or she sees. Another person elaborates on the first person’s observations by adding more detail about the section. A third person elaborates further by adding yet more detail, and a fourth person adds yet more. Observers: Only describe what you see. Hold off giving your ideas about the art until the last step of the routine. 25
  26. 26. •Daumier- •Orchestral Stalls•Horace Pippin- •Christmas Morning Breakfast 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28.  What details are present in the painting? What do you feel is missing? What would you like to ask the artist about the painting? What social class do the figures represent? What supports your answer? Explain whether or not you feel this was a formally composed painting. Extension: Daumier was in prison several times for his political and social caricatures. He produced nearly 4,000 for Parisian journals. Explain the political events that were occurring in France from the 1830s through the end of the century that might have been subjects of Daumier’s political satire. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30.  Give an approximate date for the time period you think is being depicted in this picture. On what details did you base your decision? What is the economic status of the family shown in the picture? On what details did you base your opinion? What are some things you might smell or hear in this picture? The title of this painting is Christmas Morning Breakfast. What is occurring here that might have been a tradition in this family? What are some traditions that you have in your family that center around holidays? What mood was the artist trying to convey when he painted this picture, which was based on his childhood memories? 30
  31. 31.  Responding to Images  Examples #home #q.b3352.i28616 31
  32. 32.  Language Arts Understanding and Responding to Visual Images Post-it Notes Activity 32
  33. 33.  Describe what is observed in selected works of art. Describe subject matter in works of art. Describe elements of art and principles of design. Observe, describe and identify features, similarities, and differences in artwork. Express feelings generated by a work of art. Identify and describe the historical period/event being represented in the artwork. Compare art associated with various cultures. Discriminate between actual and dramatic or romanticized portrayals of persons or events. Analyze various works of art for clues depicting time periods and places. Use technology to investigate visual images. 33
  34. 34.  Give a title to an artwork. Write why you would call it this. If the artist were in the room, what questions would you ask him/her? Write a letter to an artist, asking questions about the artwork. Describe an abstract work of art in writing. Look at a photograph or painting and write about the “sounds” you might hear in the background. Describe how a work of art reflects and differs from real life. Tell what you think it would be like to live in this painting/drawing. Write a conversation between characters seen in a work of art (or two works of art). Imagine an artist’s show has just opened; Write a press release or review for a newspaper describing his/her artwork. 34
  35. 35.  Look at a painting or poster, and then invent a history. Write something about how the artist was feeling when it was painted, why the curator purchased this painting, or something about the subject. Write about three works of art you would purchase if price were no object. This is the beginning of a personal art collection. Write about the choices. Collect a variety of reproductions from various historical periods (post cards, art memo cards, calendar prints, etc…). Students are provided with a random group of reproductions and assigned a specific historical period. Students trade with one another to obtain works representative of their assigned period. When the collections are complete, students arrange works and as the “curators,” and describe the show for a potential audience. Groups find several works of art that are based on a myth, historical event, or person, and then write about the events or people that inspired the works of art. 35
  36. 36.  Students will provide “many, varied, and unusual” single words to describe selected or assigned works of art. No repetition of words! The words may be dictated and recorded by the teacher on Post-it Notes or written by the students on Post-it Notes. Students will stick Post-it Notes to the laminated artwork to for all to view, respond to, and reflect upon. More than one piece of artwork may be described at a time. Students may be divided into teams for cooperative work and may compete for the quantity and/or quality of responses. 36
  37. 37. Technology Integration Variation: Copy artwork onto an Inspiration diagram as the main idea. Use the Rapid Fire feature to facilitate I and My Village brainstorming of Marc Chagall descriptive words or lpo gal lery.asp?ai d=340651 &item =290966 create a worksheet for group or independent work. 37
  38. 38. Questioning &Investigating 38
  39. 39.  Integrating Social Studies and the Visual Arts  Observation vs. Interpretation  Dividing up the artwork  5 W’s and an H:  Who, What, When, Where, Why, How  Matching Text and an Image  pdf
  40. 40. An Activity to Promote Visual Literacy 40
  41. 41. First, the name. We owe the name "Photography" to Sir John Herschel , who firstused the term in 1839, the year the photographic process became public. The word isderived from the Greek words for light and writing.There are two distinct scientific processes that combine to make photographypossible. It is somewhat surprising that photography was not invented earlier than the1830s, because these processes had been known for quite some time. It was not untilthe two distinct scientific processes had been put together that photography came intobeing.The first of these processes was optical. The Camera Obscura (dark room) had beenin existence for at least four hundred years. There is a drawing, dated 1519, of aCamera Obscura by Leonardo da Vinci; about this same period its use as an aid todrawing was being advocated.The second process was chemical. For hundreds of years before photography wasinvented, people had been aware, for example, that some colors are bleached in thesun, but they had made little distinction between heat, air and light. For more fascinating info: A History of Photography from its beginnings till the 1920s by Dr. Robert Leggat MA M.Ed Ph.D. FRPS FRSA 41
  42. 42. Additional ResourcesHistory of Photography Timeline American Museum of Photography of Photography and the Camera of Photography Analysis Sheet 42
  43. 43.  “Fandex” of Painters  Activities  Responding & Understanding 43
  44. 44. Beginning, Middle, End? ~If this artwork is the beginning of a story, what might happen next? ~If it this artwork is the middle of a story, what might have happened before? What might be about to happen? ~If this artwork is the end of a story, what might the story be? ~Use your imagination 44
  45. 45. MakingConnections 45
  46. 46.
  47. 47. This project is an opportunity for you to express your creativity while researching some aspect of the culture, politics or economy of World War and Its Aftermath. It covers the years 1914-1929. You may make some references to the war, but do not make that the primary focus of your book. Instead focus on the home front and the period of the 1920s. We viewed a primary document titled, ABCs for Baby Patriots, a story book for British children that glorified the British Empire. Your assignment is to produce a similar ABC book focusing on this era. Have fun with this. Let your imagination run wild!Specifics:Your book may be a hard copy or in digital formatYou must select an aspect of European life or a particular country as a focus for the bookYou must have one page per letter of the alphabet.There must be at least one visual on the page for each letter.Your book must have a cover with the title and your name as author.Your book must be attractive and free of spelling and grammar errors.Additional points may be earned for rhyming, original art work, special effects, or especially creative additions to be the basis book format.Your book is due to the T drive if digital, or in hard copy, at the beginning of class on Thursday, April 1, 2010. 47
  48. 48. Student Created ABC Book 48
  49. 49. Terra Cotta Warriors Paige and Peggy’s Excellent Chinese Adventure    49
  50. 50.  The Chinese Art of Calligraphy  5_ArtAndMusic_TheChineseArtOfCalligraphy.pdf 50
  51. 51.  What way did AndyUse Andy Warhol image Warhol decide to show210 Coca-Cola bottles this number of bottles? Questions— Why do you think he  What are some different wanted to show so many ways that you could of the same image? come up with the number 210? What kinds of patterns do you see in this image and arrangement? 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. Use 10 x 2 process Look at image quietly for 30 seconds List 10 words or phrases that come to mind RepeatHeadlines for any work of art or visual image If you were to write a headline that captures the most important aspect that should be remembered, what would the headline be? 53
  54. 54. Geography/Physical Science and Artfrom Project Zero "The Old Grass Road, Kinsale" 1925 Oil, 18 x 24 ins 54
  55. 55. Geography/Physical Science and Artfrom Project Zero Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California - Albert Bierstadt 55
  56. 56. Geography/Physical Science and Artfrom Project Zero Georgia OKeeffe, My Front Yard, Summer, 1941, Oil on canvas, 20 x 30 inches, Gift of the Georgia OKeeffe Foundation, ©Georgia OKeeffe Museum 56
  57. 57. Geography/PhysicalScience and Artfrom Project ZeroWhat landforms can youidentify?What would it be like towalk through this picture?What would you see andhear?What would the weather belike in this picture? 57
  58. 58. Set Induction Activity 58
  59. 59.  Find an image from each of the panels and write what you see. Discuss as a class or in student groups. Tell students that the painting imaginatively depicts a real event and ask if they know what it may be. If they say “Black Death,” ask them some things they know or believe they know about the plague. After studying the Black Death, use the painting again and ask students how the painting relates to what they’ve learned and what questions they still have about the Black Death or the painting. 59
  60. 60. ExploringPerspective/ Point of View 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62.  Symbols Introduction Summer Cartoon Cartoon Analysis Worksheets can guide student analysis  National Archives and Records Administration rtoon_analysis_worksheet.pdf  Editorial Cartoon Analysis ol 62
  63. 63.  It’s No Laughing Matter (LOC) /presentationsandactivities/activities/political- cartoon/ Interpreting Political Cartoons in a History Class materials/teaching-guides/21733 Zoom In Inquiry
  64. 64.  The Political Dr. Seuss Harper’s Weekly American Political Cartoons: an Introduction ns.html
  65. 65.  American Political History Online Political Cartoons in U.S. History als/primarysourcessets/political-cartoons/ British Cartoon Archive Daryl Cagle’s Professional Cartoonists Index
  66. 66. Creating/Producing 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. Tagxedo turns words -- famous speeches, news articles, slogans and even themes, -- into a visuallystunning word cloud, words individually sized appropriately to highlight the frequencies of occurrencewithin the body of text.Wordle: Clouds for Kids! word clouds for kids! A word cloud is graphical representation of words allowing for creativity,expression and imagination beyond that of lists or graphic organizers. This application was designedspecifically for primary grade children. The navigation and controls are simple and easy to learn. Savingand printing a word cloud is only one click away!Neoformix and illustrating patterns in data 69
  70. 70.  The Official Blog of Tagxedo - 101 Ways to Use Tagxedo completed The Whiteboard Blog Word Cloud Makers for Teachers cloud-makers-for-teachers/ 70
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. Required Elements: At least 7 “kernels of knowledge” The artist’s name prominently displayed ~ this may be your title or you may have another title as well as the name Dates of birth & death The content may include, but is not limited to: biographical information, works of art, style, interesting facts, and/or artistic contributions  You may (but are not required to) include student work emulating the artist’s style Student made graphic(s): Do not computer–generate all graphics…be creative! Three-dimensional component(s) Interactive component(s) Sources are cited! 73
  74. 74. CATEGORY 5 4-3 2 1-0 *Required The bulletin board includes all required All required elements are included on All but 1 of the required elements Several required elements were Elements elements as well as additional aspects. the bulletin board. are included on the bulletin board. missing. Content - At least 7 accurate facts are displayed 5-6 accurate facts are displayed on 3-4 accurate facts are displayed Less than 3 accurate facts are Accuracy on the bulletin board. the bulletin board. on the bulletin board. displayed on the bulletin board. Graphics - Several of the graphics used on the One or two of the graphics used on The graphics are made by the No graphics made by the student Originality bulletin board reflect an exceptional the bulletin board reflect student student, but are based on the are included. degree of student creativity in their creativity in their creation and/or designs or ideas of others. creation and/or display. display. Graphics - All graphics are related to the topic and All graphics are related to the topic All graphics relate to the topic. Graphics do not relate to the topic Relevance make it easier to understand. All and most make it easier to Most borrowed graphics have a OR several borrowed graphics do borrowed graphics have a source understand. All borrowed graphics source citation. not have a source citation. citation. have a source citation. Labels All items of importance on the bulletin Almost all items of importance on the Several items of importance on the Labels are too small to view OR no board are clearly labeled with labels bulletin board are clearly labeled with bulletin board are clearly labeled important items were labeled. that can be read from at least 3 ft. labels that can be read from at least 3 with labels that can be read from away. ft. away. at least 3 ft. away. Color Use The colors on the bulletin board work The use of color is coordinated The overall use of color is ok, but Color choice for various items in well together and form a strong across the bulletin board and is is not as strong or coordinated as the bulletin board seems coherent statement. The color choice is appropriate for the items and theme. it could be. Some attempt at inappropriate. appropriate for the theme and objects coordinating colors is evident. represented or are purposely exaggerated in some way to make a point. Balance and Use of positive and negative space Use of positive space is good and the The bulletin board seems to have The bulletin board seems Use of Space creates a feeling appropriate to the bulletin board is relatively balanced, a little too much background or unfinished (too much empty space) theme. Objects are placed for best but negative space could be utilized seems a little too busy. Balance or there is not enough balance effect. Overall, it just feels right. better to create a more cohesive feel. has not been achieved. between foreground and background causing it to seem much too busy and unfocused. Title Title can be read from 6 ft. away and is Title can be read from 6 ft. away and Title can be read from 4 ft. away The title is too small and/or does quite creative. describes content well. and describes the content well. not describe the content of the bulletin board well.Attractiveness The bulletin board is exceptionally The bulletin board is attractive in The bulletin board is acceptably The bulletin board is distractingly attractive in terms of design, layout, and terms of design, layout and neatness. attractive though it may be a bit messy or very poorly designed. It is neatness. messy. not attractive.Time and Effort Class time was used wisely. Much time Class time was used wisely, but it did Class time was not always used Class time was not used wisely and and effort went into the planning and not appear there was much work wisely, but additional work was no additional effort was put in at creation of the bulletin board. It is clear done outside of class. done at home or other times other times or places. the students worked at home as well as during the day. at school. 74
  75. 75. CATEGORY Excellent Good Average PoorContributions I routinely provided useful ideas when I usually provided useful ideas I sometimes provided useful ideas I rarely provided useful ideas participating in the group. I was a definite when participating in the. A strong when participating in the group. A when participating in the group. I leader who contributed a lot of effort. group member who tries hard. satisfactory group member who refused to participate. did what was required.Quality of Work I provided work of the highest quality. I provided high quality work. I provided work that occasionally I provided work that usually needs to be checked/redone by needed to be checked/redone by other group members to ensure others to ensure quality. quality.Problem-solving I actively looked for and suggested I refined solutions suggested by I did not suggest or refine I did not try to solve problems or solutions to problems. others. solutions, but was willing to try out help others solve problems. I let solutions suggested by others. others do the work.Attitude I was never critical of the project or the I was rarely critical of the project I was occasionally critical of the I was often critical of the project work of others. I always had a positive or the work of others. I often had project or the work of other or the work of other members of attitude about the task(s). a positive attitude about the members of the group. I usually the group. I did not have a task(s). had a positive attitude about the positive attitude about the task(s). task(s).Time- I routinely used time well throughout the I usually used time well I tended to procrastinate, but I rarely got things done by the project to ensured things got done on throughout the project, but may always got things done by the deadlines AND the group had tomanagement time. The group did not have to adjust have procrastinated on one thing. deadlines. The group did not have adjust deadlines or work deadlines or work responsibilities The group did not have to adjust to adjust deadlines or work responsibilities because of my because of my procrastination. deadlines or work responsibilities responsibilities because my inadequate time management. because my procrastination. procrastination.Focus on the task I consistently stayed focused on the task I focused on the task and what I focused on the task and what I rarely focused on the task and and what needed to be done. Very self- needed to be done most of the needed to be done some of the what needed to be done. I let directed. time. Other group members could time. Other group members had others do the work. count on me. to sometimes nag, prod, and remind me to keep on-task.Preparedness I brought needed materials to class and I almost always brought needed I almost always brought needed I often forgot needed materials or was always ready to work. materials to class and was ready materials but sometimes needed was rarely ready to get to work. to work. to settle down and get to work I routinely monitored the effectiveness of I routinely monitored the I occasionally monitored the I rarely monitored theMonitors Group the group, and made suggestions to effectiveness of the group and effectiveness of the group and effectiveness of the group and didEffectiveness make it more effective. worked to make the group more worked to make the group more not work to make it more effective. effective. effective.Working with I almost always listened to, shared with, I usually listened to, shared with, I often listened to, shared with, I rarely listened to, shared with, and supported the efforts of others. I tried and supported the efforts of and supported the efforts of and supported the efforts ofOthers to keep people working well together. others. I did not cause "waves" in others, but sometimes I was not a others. I was not a good team the group. good team member. player. 75
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. Masks Face: Masks around the World Masks Art of the African Mask Theme Page Examples at Art Talk 77
  78. 78.  ”It is unclear exactly when humans first starting using masks, but there is evidence of them even in prehistoric cave art. There are numerous styles of masks around the world, and they are used for a variety of purposes. Most began with a religious, ritualistic, and/or social purpose. Some masks are considered to be alive and possess great power, whereas others may mark a rite of passage, such as that from childhood to adulthood. Some funerary masks are used to help the spirit find the correct body, and others are meant to keep the spirit from possessing the body. In contemporary western society, masks are commonly used in role playing for theatrical or holiday festivities. The purposes of masks are numerous, but the human need for them is perhaps universal.” From: University of Missouri-Columbia Museum of Anthropology 78
  79. 79.  Vitulli & Santoli:  Art at the HeART of Eyes on Ireland Social Studies WIKI http://usaeyesonirelan  http://artandsocialstudi 79
  80. 80. 80
  81. 81.  An Artist’s America An Artist’s Alabama 81
  82. 82. Resources 82
  83. 83. 83
  84. 84.  National Archives and Records Administration  Library of Congress  Smithsonian  ducators/index.html 84
  85. 85.  Education Resources edu/education/classr oom/results/ 85
  86. 86.  Picturing America : Resource from National http://picturingamerica.neh.g ov/index.php?sec=home 86
  87. 87.  Calendars Posters Overheads Podcasts Websites Teacher Tube 87
  88. 88.  Image Resources  Google Image:  Google Swirl:  How to Find Images on the Internet: how-to-find-images-on-the-internet/  Images, Clip Art, Pictures, Image Search, News Photo Galleries:  Life Magazine:  Online Image Resources: topics/art-and-other-images/online-image-resources/ 88
  89. 89.  perhighway%3A+State+History 89
  90. 90.  Santoli, S. P., Vitulli, P. (2012). Picture this: The integration of social studies and visual arts. In T. Lintner (Ed.), Integrative strategies for the k-12 social studies classroom. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Santoli, S. P., Vitulli, P. (2012). Examining the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom through primary sources. Black History Bulletin/Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 75(2), 7-15. Vitulli, P., Santoli, S. P. (in press). Visual arts and social studies: Powerful partners in promoting critical thinking skills. To appear in Social Studies Research and Practice. 90
  91. 91. I have aGREAT Idea! 91
  92. 92. 92