Provide examples of this and refer to research examples.
Interactive technology: computer with 2 input devices or 2 headsets or share earpieces (one per student)What’s cool is that one adult facilitation can snowball into several student interactions.
Example of fictional task: You notice a peer watching the student and looking like she might want to help him. You say, “I’ll be right back, I need to grab something out of my bag.” Go and pretend to grab something out of your bag. This allows an opportunity for the peer to interact.Seat student next to non-disabled peers, introduce them, then walk away. Prepare student ahead of time “Hey today during science I’m going to introduce you to Max and Shane. I’m going to hang back for a bit so try to hang out with them as much as you can.”If student speaks to peers too quietly, discreetly say, “say it louder” to prompt more successful engagementPurposeful error – forgetting a pencil or paper or leaving a book in the library can result in students lending materials or walking together to retrieve something.
Plan to leave the room for 2 minutes, then reinforce for still working or staying in seat or whatever, then 5 minutes, then 10 minutes. Or similarly work with other students for 2 minutes, 5 minutes, etc.
Think of specific ways to increase social interactions and independence. Work with others and share with whole group.
How could you encourage & increase social interactions?
Agenda Introductions The importance of independence, relationships, and self- advocacy Strategies to increase these factors Practice & Problem Solving
Discuss Why are social interactions and relationships important? Why is independence important? Why is self-advocacy important?
Envisioning Friendships It’s important to recognize that students with disabilities want and need friends It’s also important to recognize that students with disabilities can be good friends to othersImagine a solid mutual friendship between astudent with and without a disability. Picture it.Describe it to someone next to you. Share withthe group. Rossetti & Goessling (2010)
Barriers to Making Friends What are some barriers that students with disabilities might experience in making friends?
How Might We At Times Hinder SocialInteractions & Independence? Adults can inadvertently create a physical barrier between peers reduce social interaction by providing too much 1:1 assistance establish overdependence and learned- helplessness stigmatize a student take away opportunities for choice-making Causton-Theoharis & Malmgren (2005a, 2005b), Giangreco et al. (1997), Rosetti & Goessling (2010)
Strategies to Promote SocialInteraction Redirect peers to converse with the student Teach others how to interact with the student Systematically fade adult proximity and prompting Increase student’s physical proximity to peers Partner student with peers during academic tasks Verbally highlight similarities between student and peers Use interactive technology Causton-Theoharis & Malmgren (2005a, 2005b)
Using Social BehavioralSupports Shoot baskets with a peer Invite a friend to sit with you at lunch Select 2 peers to have lunch with the teacher Play a math game with other students Play computer games with friends Pop popcorn with a peer and deliver it to the class Read with a friend in the library Play a board game with the principal From Causton-Theoharis & Malmgren (2005b)
Assigning Socially-BasedResponsibilities Return books to the library with a friend Straighten books in the library with a friend Stuff mailboxes in the office with a friend Water plants with a friend Pass out papers with a partner Collect homework with a partner Sharpen pencils with a partner Causton-Theorharis & Malmgren (2005b)
Tricky Tricks for IncreasingSocial Interactions Create a “fictional task” Pull in non-disabled peers Look for any and all social opportunities Prompt the student to engage successfully Highlight similarities between student & peers Make a “purposeful error” Rossetti & Goessling (2010)
Strategies to IncreaseIndependence Thinkfirst: “When MUST the student have help?” Then ask: “Are there times when the student could do some things without help?”
Increasing Independence(cont.) Systematically fade support Give more space Leave room for short periods of time and gradually increase time apart Reinforce for working independently Work together to create activities and tasks that student can complete independently Use self-monitoring behavioral supports
What is Self-Advocacy? According to www.self- advocate.org, self-advocacy is: speaking up for yourself. asking for what you need. negotiating for yourself. knowing your rights and responsibilities. using the resources that are available to you.
Strategies to Promote Self-Advocacy Making choices Timing – of when to get up, when to go to bed, when to eat dinner, when to get a haircut Personal choices – choosing what to wear, what shampoo to buy, what kind of drink to get in the lunch line, which group to join
Brainstorm What else can we do to facilitate Social interaction? Independence? Self-Advocacy?
Problem Solving Vignette #1: Cassie is a 2nd grader with Down syndrome. She is at the developmental level of a 3 year old. She has a 1:1 paraeducator in a general education classroom. She sits in the back at a large desk that she shares with her para. They work together on a separate curriculum for most of the day, and she has very little interaction with peers except at P.E. At lunch, she sits at the end of a table next to her para. She wanders alone on the playground and occasionally plays with students from the special education class.
Problem Solving Vignette #2: Joseph is a high school student with autism. His behavior is good overall in that he follows the rules and doesn’t get into trouble. However, he keeps to himself and sort of falls “under the radar” because he’s so quiet. He is in a special education setting most of the day, but has two electives, P.E., and lunch/break with non-disabled peers.