PM DeepDiveProject Time Management     - Niraj Agarwal                          May 2011                            Slide 1
Project Time ManagementDefinitionProject Time Management includes the processes required toaccomplish timely completion of...
Project Time ManagementDefinition• Activity Duration Estimating – estimating the number of workperiods that will be needed...
Activity Definition• Activity Definition is the process of breaking down the work packagesfrom the WBS into individual act...
Activity DefinitionITTO                      May 2011                        Slide 5
Activity SequencingDefinition• Activity Sequencing involves identifying and documentinginteractivity dependencies (Logical...
Activity SequencingDependency - Categories• Mandatory dependency (Hard Logic) is defined by the type of workbeing performe...
Activity SequencingDependency - Logical Relationships• A predecessor activity is one that comes before another activity• A...
Activity SequencingDependency - Logical Relationships• Finish-to-Start (FS) : The initiation of the successor activity dep...
Activity SequencingNetwork DiagramIt depicts the project activities and the interrelationships among theseactivities. Show...
Activity SequencingNetwork Diagram - PDM• A method of constructing network diagram using nodes to representactivities and ...
Activity SequencingNetwork Diagram - ADM• A method of constructing a project network diagram using arrows torepresent the ...
Activity SequencingITTO                      May 2011                       Slide 13
Activity Resource EstimatingDefinition• Resource is “any factor, except time, required or consumed toaccomplish an activit...
Activity Resource EstimatingITTO                               May 2011                                Slide 15
Activity Duration EstimatingDefinition• Activity Duration is the process of estimating the time to completeeach item on th...
Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - Analogous estimating• Using the actual duration of a previous, similar schedule a...
Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - Parametric estimating• A quantitatively based estimating method that multiplies t...
Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - PERT• Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a method thatthe U.S. Nav...
Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques – Bottom up estimating• Involves estimating the durations of individual work items,...
Activity Duration EstimatingITTO                               May 2011                                Slide 21
Activity Duration EstimatingITTO                               May 2011                                Slide 22
Schedule DevelopmentDefinition• Project schedule development, an iterative process, determinesplanned start and finish dat...
Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• The Critical Path Method (CPM) calculates the theoretical early sta...
Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• Free Slack (Float): The amount of time a task can be delayed withou...
Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• Forward pass - The first step in determining your critical path is ...
Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method               Network diagram with task durationTask      ES        ...
Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Duration Compression : Crashing• Crashing is a technique that looks at cost and schedule ...
Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Duration Compression : Fast tracking• Fast tracking is performing two tasks in parallel t...
Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleThe project schedule includes at least a planned start date and plannedfinish date for...
Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleMilestone chart                       May 2011                        Slide 31
Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleGantt charts are probably one of the most commonly used methods todisplay the project ...
Schedule DevelopmentITTO                       May 2011                        Slide 33
Schedule DevelopmentITTO                       May 2011                        Slide 34
Schedule ControlDefinition• Schedule control is concerned with:  - Determining the current status of the project schedule ...
Schedule ControlITTO                   May 2011                    Slide 36
Schedule ControlITTO                   May 2011                    Slide 37
Pop QuizQuestion 1Which of the following is not true for the critical path?A. It has zero float.B. It ’ s the shortest act...
Pop QuizQuestion 2You are a project manager for a major movie studio. Youneed to schedule a shoot in Kashmir during ski se...
Pop QuizQuestion 3What is analogous estimating also referred to as?A. Bottom - up estimatingB. Expert judgmentC. Parametri...
Pop QuizQuestion 4You are working on your network diagram. Activity A is apredecessor to Activity B. Activity B cannot beg...
Pop QuizQuestion 5What is the most commonly used form of networkdiagramming?A. ADMB. Precedence diagrammingC. CPMD. PERT  ...
Pop QuizQuestion 6What are the crashing and fast track techniques used for?A. Duration compressionB. Activity sequencingC....
Pop QuizQuestion 7Which of the following is true for float or slack time?A. It ’ s calculated by adding the durations of a...
Pop QuizQuestion 8Which of the following is not a tool used to determine aproject ’s critical path?A. Forward passB. Manda...
Pop QuizQuestion 9Activity B on your network diagram has a most likely estimateof 8 days, a pessimistic estimate of 11 day...
Pop QuizQuestion 10Which of the following is not true for critical path activities?A. The early start is always less than ...
Pop QuizQuestion 11You are working on a project in which the time to completethe project has been heavily restricted and f...
Pop QuizQuestion 12Your task requires 4 miles of paving, and it will take 30 hoursto complete a mile. On a past project si...
Pop QuizQuestion 13You are in the process of developing a project schedule for anew project for which you have just comple...
Pop QuizQuestion 14You have defined a task in a project schedule in which yourteam members will develop an XML application...
Pop QuizQuestion 15How long is the critical path in days in the graphic shownhere?A. 13 daysB. 20 daysC. 27 daysD. 30 days...
Pop QuizQuestion 16Which path represents the critical path?A.    A-E-F-GB.    A-C-D-GC.    A-B-D-GD.    A-B-D-F-G         ...
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Pm deep dive time management

  1. 1. PM DeepDiveProject Time Management - Niraj Agarwal May 2011 Slide 1
  2. 2. Project Time ManagementDefinitionProject Time Management includes the processes required toaccomplish timely completion of the project. The Project TimeManagement processes include the following:• Activity Definition – identifying and documenting specific scheduleactivities that need to be performed to produce the various projectdeliverables identified in the WBS. Definition should be directedtowards fulfilling project objectives• Activity Sequencing – identifying and documenting dependenciesamong schedule activities.• Activity Resource Estimating – estimating the type and quantities ofresources required to perform each schedule activity. May 2011 Slide 2
  3. 3. Project Time ManagementDefinition• Activity Duration Estimating – estimating the number of workperiods that will be needed to complete individual schedule activities.• Schedule Development – analyzing activity sequences, durations,resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the projectschedule.• Schedule Control – controlling changes to the project schedule. May 2011 Slide 3
  4. 4. Activity Definition• Activity Definition is the process of breaking down the work packagesfrom the WBS into individual activities that make up all the work of thework package.• It is part of the iterative process of further decomposing the WBS to amanageable level.• The key to Activity Definition is to identify all the tasks required toproduce the work packages (and ultimately the deliverables)• Activity list should include every activity needed to complete thework of the project, along with an identifier or code so that you cantrack each activity independently.• Milestone is a significant point or event in the project. May 2011 Slide 4
  5. 5. Activity DefinitionITTO May 2011 Slide 5
  6. 6. Activity SequencingDefinition• Activity Sequencing involves identifying and documentinginteractivity dependencies (Logical Relationships).• Activities must be sequenced accurately in order to support laterdevelopment of a realistic and achievable schedule.• Sequencing can be performed by using project management softwareor by using manual techniques. Manual and automated techniques canalso be used in combination.• First you need to identify the type of dependency, and then you needto determine the specific relationship between the activities. May 2011 Slide 6
  7. 7. Activity SequencingDependency - Categories• Mandatory dependency (Hard Logic) is defined by the type of workbeing performed, and one activity is dependent on another activity. Forexample, a utility crew can ’t lay the cable for a new housing area until atrench has been dug.• Discretionary dependency (Preferred Logic, Preferential Logic, SoftLogic) is usually process - or procedure - driven and may include best -practice techniques. An example is a decision to require sign - off oncertain types of activities to conform to an established corporatepractice.• External dependency is a relationship between a project task andsome factor outside the project that drives the scheduling of that task.Installation of a new server depends on when the vendor can deliver theequipment. May 2011 Slide 7
  8. 8. Activity SequencingDependency - Logical Relationships• A predecessor activity is one that comes before another activity• A successor activity is one that comes after the activity in question• Identifying the correct relationship between dependent activities iscritical to developing an accurate schedule. May 2011 Slide 8
  9. 9. Activity SequencingDependency - Logical Relationships• Finish-to-Start (FS) : The initiation of the successor activity dependsupon the completion of the predecessor activity.• Finish-to-Finish (FF) : The completion of the successor activitydepends upon the completion of the predecessor activity.• Start-to-Start (SS) : The initiation of the successor activity dependsupon the initiation of the predecessor activity.• Start-to-Finish (SF) : The completion of the successor activitydepends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity. May 2011 Slide 9
  10. 10. Activity SequencingNetwork DiagramIt depicts the project activities and the interrelationships among theseactivities. Shows how the project tasks will flow from beginning to end.• Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)• Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)• Conditional Diagramming Methods (GERT) May 2011 Slide 10
  11. 11. Activity SequencingNetwork Diagram - PDM• A method of constructing network diagram using nodes to representactivities and arrows to indicate dependencies• Also called Activity On Node (AON) May 2011 Slide 11
  12. 12. Activity SequencingNetwork Diagram - ADM• A method of constructing a project network diagram using arrows torepresent the activities and connecting them at nodes to show thedependencies.• Also known as Activity-On-Arrow (AOA).• ADM uses only finish-to-start dependencies and can require the useof “dummy” relationships called dummy activities, which are shown asdashed lines, to define other logical relationships correctly.• Since dummy activities are not actual schedule activities they aregiven a zero value duration. Event Activity Event May 2011 Slide 12
  13. 13. Activity SequencingITTO May 2011 Slide 13
  14. 14. Activity Resource EstimatingDefinition• Resource is “any factor, except time, required or consumed toaccomplish an activity. Any substantive requirement of an activity thatcan be quantified and defined.”• Estimating schedule activity resources involves determining whatresources (Persons, equipment, or materiel) and what quantities of eachresource will be used, and when each resource will be available toperform project activities.• The Activity Resource Estimating process is closely coordinated withthe Cost Estimating process May 2011 Slide 14
  15. 15. Activity Resource EstimatingITTO May 2011 Slide 15
  16. 16. Activity Duration EstimatingDefinition• Activity Duration is the process of estimating the time to completeeach item on the activity list.• This process requires that the amount of work effort required tocomplete the schedule activity is estimated and the assumed amount ofresources to be applied to complete the schedule activity is estimated.Then the number of work periods needed to complete the scheduleactivity can be determined. May 2011 Slide 16
  17. 17. Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - Analogous estimating• Using the actual duration of a previous, similar schedule activity asthe basis for estimating the duration of a future schedule activity.• It is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is alimited amount of detailed information about the project.• In the early phases of a project it uses historical information andexpert judgment.• It is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact andnot just in appearance, and the project team members preparing theestimates have the needed expertise.• Also known as top-down estimating, it is typically the least accuratemeans of obtaining an estimate. May 2011 Slide 17
  18. 18. Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - Parametric estimating• A quantitatively based estimating method that multiplies the quantityof work by the rate.• To apply quantitatively based durations, you must know theproductivity rate of the resource performing the task or have a companyor industry standard that can be applied to the task in question.For example, if a typical cable crew can bury 5 miles of cable in a day, itshould take 10 days to bury 50 miles of cable. May 2011 Slide 18
  19. 19. Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - PERT• Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a method thatthe U.S. Navy developed in the 1950s for the Polaris Missile Program.• Three point estimates used: - Most likely(M) : Most likely duration of the schedule activity - Optimistic(O) : Activity duration is based on a best-case scenario - Pessimistic(P) : Activity duration is based on a worst-case scenario• Estimating based on 3 formulas: i. PERT Duration: T = (P + 4M + O)/6 ii. Standard Task Deviation: S = (P – O)/6 iii.Variance : V = S ² = [(P – O)/6]² May 2011 Slide 19
  20. 20. Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques – Bottom up estimating• Involves estimating the durations of individual work items, thensummarizing or rolling-up the individual estimates to get a projecttotal.• The accuracy of bottom-up estimating is driven by the size of theindividual work items: smaller work items increase accuracy.• This is called definitive estimate May 2011 Slide 20
  21. 21. Activity Duration EstimatingITTO May 2011 Slide 21
  22. 22. Activity Duration EstimatingITTO May 2011 Slide 22
  23. 23. Schedule DevelopmentDefinition• Project schedule development, an iterative process, determinesplanned start and finish dates for project activities. The planned datesfor performing activities and the planned dates for meeting milestones.• Schedule development can require that duration estimates andresource estimates are reviewed and revised to create an approvedproject schedule that can serve as a baseline against which progress canbe tracked.• Schedule development continues throughout the project as workprogresses, the project management plan changes, and anticipated riskevents occur or disappear as new risks are identified. May 2011 Slide 23
  24. 24. Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• The Critical Path Method (CPM) calculates the theoretical early startand finish dates, and late start and finish dates, for all scheduleactivities without regard for any resource limitations. - Early start (ES) is the earliest date an activity can begin, as logically constrained by the network. - Early finish (EF) is the earliest date an activity can finish, as logically constrained by the network. - Late finish (LF) is the latest date an activity can complete without impacting the project end date. - Late start (LS) is the latest date you can start an activity without impacting the project end date.• The critical path is the longest full path on the project anddetermines the shortest time to complete the project. May 2011 Slide 24
  25. 25. Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• Free Slack (Float): The amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor• Total Slack (Float): the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project completion date. This is the key type of float.• Float Formula = LS- ES or LF – EF• Tasks on critical path have no slack or float• Lead: A modification of a logical relationship which allows an acceleration of the successor task. For Example, in a FS relationship with a 10 day lead, the successor can start 10 days prior to the completion of the predecessor.• Lag: A modification of a logical relationship which allows a delay in starting of the successor task. For Example, in a FS relationship with a 4 day lag, the successor can start 4 days after the completion of the predecessor. May 2011 Slide 25
  26. 26. Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• Forward pass - The first step in determining your critical path is tocomplete a forward pass through the network diagram. This means thatyou are working from the left to the right of your network diagram tocalculate early start (ES) and early finish (EF)• Backward pass - The next step to complete the critical path is tocomplete a backward pass . This means you start at the finish of yournetwork diagram and work back though each path until you reach thestart. This gives you two calculations, late finish (LF) and late start (LS) May 2011 Slide 26
  27. 27. Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method Network diagram with task durationTask ES EF LS LF FloatA 0 3 0 3 0B 3 5 3 5 0C 3 13 7 17 4D 5 20 5 20 0E 13 16 17 20 4 May 2011 Slide 27
  28. 28. Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Duration Compression : Crashing• Crashing is a technique that looks at cost and schedule trade-offs.• Crashing is typically implemented by adding more resources to thecritical path tasks in order to complete the project more quickly.• Crashing could also be accomplished by requiring mandatoryovertime for critical path tasks, by speeding up delivery times fromvendors, and so on.• Crashing can produce the desired results if used wisely, but youshould be aware that crashing the schedule may increase risks and/orimpact your budget. May 2011 Slide 28
  29. 29. Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Duration Compression : Fast tracking• Fast tracking is performing two tasks in parallel that were previouslyscheduled to start sequentially.• There is a great deal of risk in fast tracking because there could bereasons why one task must be completed before another.• It often results in rework, increases risk & requires more attention tocommunications. May 2011 Slide 29
  30. 30. Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleThe project schedule includes at least a planned start date and plannedfinish date for each schedule activity. Common methods are:• Project schedule network diagrams. These diagrams, with activitydate information, usually show both the project network logic and theproject’s critical path schedule activities.• Bar charts. These charts, with bars representing activities, showactivity start and end dates, as well as expected durations. Bar chartsare relatively easy to read, and are frequently used in managementpresentations.• Milestone charts. These charts are similar to bar charts, but onlyidentify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and keyexternal interfaces. May 2011 Slide 30
  31. 31. Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleMilestone chart May 2011 Slide 31
  32. 32. Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleGantt charts are probably one of the most commonly used methods todisplay the project schedule. They can show milestones, deliverables,subdeliverables, or all the activities of the project, if needed. Ganttcharts typically display the tasks using a horizontal bar chart formatacross a timeline. Gantt charts are easy to read and can show the activitysequences, start and end dates, resource assignment, dependencies, andcritical path. May 2011 Slide 32
  33. 33. Schedule DevelopmentITTO May 2011 Slide 33
  34. 34. Schedule DevelopmentITTO May 2011 Slide 34
  35. 35. Schedule ControlDefinition• Schedule control is concerned with: - Determining the current status of the project schedule - Influencing the factors that create schedule changes - Determining that the project schedule has changed - Managing the actual changes as they occur• Schedule control is a portion of the Integrated Change Control process May 2011 Slide 35
  36. 36. Schedule ControlITTO May 2011 Slide 36
  37. 37. Schedule ControlITTO May 2011 Slide 37
  38. 38. Pop QuizQuestion 1Which of the following is not true for the critical path?A. It has zero float.B. It ’ s the shortest activity sequence in the network.C. You can determine which tasks can start late without impacting theproject end date.D. It controls the project finish date. May 2011 Slide 38
  39. 39. Pop QuizQuestion 2You are a project manager for a major movie studio. Youneed to schedule a shoot in Kashmir during ski season. Thisis an example of which of the following?A. External dependencyB. Finish - to - start relationshipC. Mandatory dependencyD. Discretionary dependency May 2011 Slide 39
  40. 40. Pop QuizQuestion 3What is analogous estimating also referred to as?A. Bottom - up estimatingB. Expert judgmentC. Parametric estimatingD. Top - down estimating May 2011 Slide 40
  41. 41. Pop QuizQuestion 4You are working on your network diagram. Activity A is apredecessor to Activity B. Activity B cannot begin untilActivity A is completed. What is this telling you?A. There is a mandatory dependency between Activity A and Activity B.B. There is a finish - to - start dependency relationship between ActivityA and Activity B.C. Activity A and Activity B are both on the critical path.D. Activity B is a successor to multiple tasks. May 2011 Slide 41
  42. 42. Pop QuizQuestion 5What is the most commonly used form of networkdiagramming?A. ADMB. Precedence diagrammingC. CPMD. PERT May 2011 Slide 42
  43. 43. Pop QuizQuestion 6What are the crashing and fast track techniques used for?A. Duration compressionB. Activity sequencingC. Precedence diagrammingD. Activity Definition May 2011 Slide 43
  44. 44. Pop QuizQuestion 7Which of the following is true for float or slack time?A. It ’ s calculated by adding the durations of all activities and dividingby the number of activities.B. It ’ s time that you add to the project schedule to provide a buffer orcontingency.C. It’s the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delayingthe project completion.D. It is only calculated on the longest path of the network diagram. May 2011 Slide 44
  45. 45. Pop QuizQuestion 8Which of the following is not a tool used to determine aproject ’s critical path?A. Forward passB. Mandatory dependencyC. Float calculationD. Backward pass May 2011 Slide 45
  46. 46. Pop QuizQuestion 9Activity B on your network diagram has a most likely estimateof 8 days, a pessimistic estimate of 11 days, and an optimisticestimate of 6 days. What is the three – point PERT estimatefor this task rounded to the nearest whole number?A. 11 daysB. 25 daysC. 8 daysD. 6 days May 2011 Slide 46
  47. 47. Pop QuizQuestion 10Which of the following is not true for critical path activities?A. The early start is always less than the late start.B. These activities are on the longest path on the network diagram.C. The float is zero.D. The late finish is always the same as the early finish. May 2011 Slide 47
  48. 48. Pop QuizQuestion 11You are working on a project in which the time to completethe project has been heavily restricted and funds are short.You have one resource working on preparing six servers foruse in a balanced web array. The servers will all look basicallyalike. What technique can you use to slim down some of thetime required to perform this task in the project?A. Fast trackingB. CrashingC. Reducing the number of serversD. Purchasing a server that runs a number of virtual machinessimultaneously May 2011 Slide 48
  49. 49. Pop QuizQuestion 12Your task requires 4 miles of paving, and it will take 30 hoursto complete a mile. On a past project similar to this one, ittook 150 hours to complete. Which of the following is trueregarding this estimate?A. The total estimate for this task is 120 hours, which was derived usingexpert judgment.B. The total estimate for this task is 120 hours, which was derived usingparametric estimating.C. The total estimate for this task is 150 hours, which was derived usinganalogous estimating.D. The total estimate for this task is 150 hours, which was derived usingexpert judgment. May 2011 Slide 49
  50. 50. Pop QuizQuestion 13You are in the process of developing a project schedule for anew project for which you have just completed the WBS.What would be the smart next step in figuring out what tasksgo into the project schedule?A. Develop an activity list.B. Determine the critical path tasks.C. Develop a network diagram.D. Estimate activity duration. May 2011 Slide 50
  51. 51. Pop QuizQuestion 14You have defined a task in a project schedule in which yourteam members will develop an XML application that uses aMySQL back end. Although the data base administrator(DBA) has plenty of experience with Oracle and MicrosoftSQL Server, he has never been exposed to MySQL. Which ofthe following elements will most likely be affected?A. Resource allocationB. Task estimationC. Activity definitionsD. Determining critical path tasks May 2011 Slide 51
  52. 52. Pop QuizQuestion 15How long is the critical path in days in the graphic shownhere?A. 13 daysB. 20 daysC. 27 daysD. 30 days May 2011 Slide 52
  53. 53. Pop QuizQuestion 16Which path represents the critical path?A. A-E-F-GB. A-C-D-GC. A-B-D-GD. A-B-D-F-G May 2011 Slide 53
  54. 54. Thank You!

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