Pm deep dive hr - comm - procurement - pr


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Pm deep dive hr - comm - procurement - pr

  1. 1. PMP DeepDiveHuman ResourcesCommunicationsProcurementProfessional Responsibility - Niraj Agarwal May 2011 Slide 1
  2. 2. Human ResourcesProcesses May 2011 Slide 2
  3. 3. Human ResourcesRoles & Responsibilities• Project Manger – plan estimate and schedule of project plan, project. Communicate.• Team – help prepare the WBS, Network Diagrams, and estimate time for tasks, complete tasks tasks• Senior Management – approve Overall project plan, budget and schedule and to approve any changes that are made to those figures• The person experiencing the problem must try to solve it themselves as long as means are in their control May 2011 Slide 3
  4. 4. Human ResourcesPowers of PM Formal (legitimate) Reward Penalty (coercive) Expert (earned) Referent – authority of a higher position• Best are Expert and Reward; Penalty is the worst - Formal Reward and Penalty derived from PM’s position within the Formal, PM s company. May 2011 Slide 4
  5. 5. Human ResourcesConflict• Inevitable consequence of organizational interactions• Can be beneficial• Resolved by identifying the causes and problem solving by peoplethat are involved & their immediate manager• Nature of project• Limited power of the project manager• Necessity for obtaining resources from functional managers May 2011 Slide 5
  6. 6. Human ResourcesConflict• Avoid conflict - Informing the team - Clearly assigning tasks without ambiguity - Challenging and interesting work assignments• Conflict Sources (in order of frequency) - Schedules - P j Project Priorities P i ii - Resources - Technical opinions - Administrative Procedures - Cost - Personality May 2011 Slide 6
  7. 7. Human ResourcesConflict ResolutionWithdrawal: Retreating from actual or potential disagreements and conflictsituations. Appropriate only in certain situations such as when a cooling-offperiod is needed. A temporary tactic: does not resolve the conflict, only delays it. p y y ySmoothing: De-emphasizes differences and emphasizes commonalities. Keeps the atmosphere friendly. A temporary tactic: does not resolve the conflict, only delays it. Should be used in conjunction with another methods May 2011 Slide 7
  8. 8. Human ResourcesConflict ResolutionCompromising: Considers various issues and searches for solutions which bring somedegree of satisfaction to the conflicting parties. This method is considered to be a lose-lose. Both parties must give upsomething that is important to them; however, this method usuallyprovides some acceptable form of resolution.Forcing: Exerts one’s viewpoint at the potential expense of another party. This method provides resolution but is considered to be a win lose win-lose. May 2011 Slide 8
  9. 9. Human ResourcesConflict ResolutionProblem Solving: (Confrontation) Directly addresses disagreements. Conflict is treated as a problem. The problem is defined; informationis collected; alternatives are identified and analyzed, and the mostappropriate alternative is selected. Theoretically considered the best because both parties can besatisfied if they work together to solve the problem. Both parties must want to solve the problem and be willing to worktogether. Time-consuming method, considered to be a win-win. May 2011 Slide 9
  10. 10. Human ResourcesFour stages of team development1.1 Forming: The beginning stage where the team is being formed formed, members are being introduced to each other and are explained their roles and responsibilities2. Storming: Team members start getting confrontational and vie for the position of maximum power3. Norming: Team members start confronting project problems instead of people problems4. Performing: The team is most productive at this stage May 2011 Slide 10
  11. 11. Human ResourcesMotivational Theories• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – people work to g a chance to y p p get contribute and use their skills - ‘self-actualization’• McGregor’s Theory of X and Y - X – people need to be watched every minute - Y – people willing to work without supervision• Herzberg’s Theory – poor hygiene factors destroy motivation but g y p yg y improving them will not improve motivation - Motivating Agents ◦ Responsibility ◦ Self-actualization ◦ Professional growth ◦ Recognition May 2011 Slide 11
  12. 12. Communication ManagementProcesses May 2011 Slide 12
  13. 13. Communication ManagementInterpersonal Communication• To ensure messages are received and understood two way understood, two-way communication is necessary.• Three basic elements of interpersonal communication: - The sender (or encoder) of the message. - The signal or the message. - The receiver (or decoder) of the message message. May 2011 Slide 13
  14. 14. Communication ManagementMethods of Communication - Verbal• Advantages - Timely exchange of information - Rapid feedback - Immediate synthesis of message - Timely closure• Disadvantages i d - Technical jargon especially in complex projects may make verbal communication difficult for non-technical people and other stakeholders. May 2011 Slide 14
  15. 15. Communication ManagementMethods of Communication – Non Verbal• Encoding a message without using words words.• Usually done through body language.• Total Message Impact : - Words (7%) - Vocal tones (38%) - Facial expressions ( %) i l i (55%)• PM’s may combine vocal and nonverbal factors but must be careful that the two do not present contradictory messages. May 2011 Slide 15
  16. 16. Communication ManagementMethods of Communication – Written• The main aim of business writing is that it should be understood clearly when read quickly. The message should be well planned, simple, clear, and direct.• Major steps to writing - Establish the basic purpose of the message. - Collect and organize material. g - Prepare draft. - Check the overall structure. - Send the message. May 2011 Slide 16
  17. 17. Procurement ManagementProcesses May 2011 Slide 17
  18. 18. Procurement ManagementContract Type Selection• Reasonable risk sharing between the buyer and seller• Greatest initiative for seller’s efficient and economic performance• Depends on - Scope – well defined? - Amount or frequency of changes expected after start date - A Amount of effort and expertise the b f ff d i h buyer can d devote to manage the h seller - Industry standards May 2011 Slide 18
  19. 19. Procurement ManagementContract Type - Cost Reimbursable• Seller’s cost are reimbursed Seller s• Buyer bears highest risk (cost increases)• CPFF – cost plus fixed fee, buyer pays all costs – fee (profit) established• CPPC – cost plus percentage of costs; bad for buyers (seller not motivated to control costs)• CPIF – cost plus Incentive Fee; seller costs + fee + bonus for meeting/exceeding target (incentive clause) May 2011 Slide 19
  20. 20. Procurement ManagementContract Type - Time and Materials• Priced on per hour basis elements of fixed price contract and cost basis, reimbursable contracts• Buyer has medium risk. May 2011 Slide 20
  21. 21. Procurement ManagementContract Type - Fixed Price• Lump sum or firm fixed price - most common (1 price for all work) sum,• Risk of costs is upon seller• FPIF – Fixed Price Incentive Fee• FPEPA – Fixed Price Economic Price Adjustment – long duration projects• Incentives – help bring seller’s objectives in line with buyer s seller s buyer’s May 2011 Slide 21
  22. 22. Professional ResponsibilityIntegrity and Professionalism• Understand the legal requirements surrounding the practice ofprojects• Know ethical standards that should govern the behavior of projectmanagers• Comprehend the values of the community and the various projectstakeholders• Practice proper judgment in the pursuit of successful project work• Compliance with all organizational rules and policies• Upon a reasonable and clear factual basis report violations• Responsibility to disclose circumstances that could be construed as aconflict of interest or appearance of impropriety May 2011 Slide 22
  23. 23. Professional ResponsibilityIntegrity and Professionalism• Provide accurate and truthful representation to the public• Maintain and satisfy the scope and objectives of professional services• Maintain the confidentiality of sensitive information• Ensure a conflict of interest does not compromise legitimate interestsof client/customer or interfere with professional judgment• Refrain from accepting gifts, inappropriate payments, compensation gifts paymentsfor personal gain unless in conformity with applicable laws or customs May 2011 Slide 23
  24. 24. Professional ResponsibilityAdvancing the project management profession• Overall understanding of project management principles• Understand the community and media surrounding projects• Knowledge of research strategies available and propercommunication techniques• Learn to communicate and transfer knowledge effectively as a coach gand mentor and to use available research strategies• Respect and recognize intellectual property May 2011 Slide 24
  25. 25. Professional ResponsibilityEnhance Individual Competence• Understand the project manager’s strengths and weaknesses and manager slearning style – become aware of instructional processes and tools• Know the useful competencies for project managers and possibletraining• Be able to perform self-assessment and competencies developmentplan• Ability to apply lessons learned May 2011 Slide 25
  26. 26. Professional ResponsibilityStakeholder & Team• Understand the various competing stakeholders’ interests and needs stakeholders• Comprehend the conflict resolution techniques useful in handlingdiffering objectives• Be able to resolve conflicts in a fair manner• Exercise negotiation skills based on proper information• Understand cultural diversity norms and stakeholders’ diversity, stakeholderscommunication styles• Show flexibility towards diversity, tolerance and self control• Becoming empathetic to differences May 2011 Slide 26
  27. 27. Pop QuizQuestion 1This person is responsible for understanding the informationcorrectly and making certain they have received all theinformation.A.A SenderB. MessengerC. Project manager j gD. Receiver May 2011 Slide 27
  28. 28. Pop QuizQuestion 2There are four participants in your upcoming meeting. Howmany lines of communication are there?A. 6B. 4C. 8D.D 16 May 2011 Slide 28
  29. 29. Pop QuizQuestion 3What is the technique of looking at the trade - offs betweenproducing goods or services internally vs. procuring it fromoutside the organization?A.A Cost estimatingB. Vendor selection criteria gC. Staff augmentationD. Make - or - buy analysis May 2011 Slide 29
  30. 30. Pop QuizQuestion 4You have been assigned as project manager for a major software g p j g jdevelopment project. Andy is the functional manager who will beproviding the resources for your development team. Andy is being askedto supply resources to several projects concurrently. You have a list ofthe people you want assigned to your team, but you fear other projectmanagers may want these same people. How should you approach Andyregarding the assignment of his people to the project?A. Schedule a meeting with Andy to discuss resources. Explain your projectde e ab es and the skill sets you need. Negotiate with Andy for you most c t cadeliverables a d t e s eed. egot ate t dy o your ost criticalresources first.B. Send Andy a memo listing the resources you need and the start date for eachresource.C. Catch up with Andy just before a meeting both of you need to attend so that hewill not have time to think up reasons to turn down part of your request.D. Meet with Andy ’ s boss to let her know that your project is critical, and provideher with the list of resources you need from Andy. May 2011 Slide 30
  31. 31. Pop QuizQuestion 5This type of contract is the riskiest for the buyer.A. Time and materialsB. Fixed priceC. Fixed price plus incentiveD. Cost reimbursable May 2011 Slide 31
  32. 32. Pop QuizQuestion 6This type of contract assigns a unit rate for work or goods, butthe total cost is unknown.A. Time and materialsB. Fixed priceC. Fixed price plus incentiveD.D Cost reimbursable May 2011 Slide 32
  33. 33. Thank You!