Principled design of game-based
 auditory learning environments:
    Examples of ADT for Tinnitus
                        ...
The Context
• Aim: Combine auditory perceptual learning,
  technology-enhanced learning and game
  theories to create audi...
Intrinsic Integration
• How do we design effective learning games?

• Learning material
• Motivational factors: challenge,...
Challenge           People are best motivated when they are working
                    toward personally meaningful goals...
Intrinsic Integration (Habgood 2007)
• Motivational effects of challenge, control, etc. are
  realized through the core me...
Design-based Research (DBR)

• to address theoretical
  questions about the
  nature of learning in
  context
• to conside...
A practical case: ADT for Tinnitus
• Collaboration with NBRUH tinnitus group
• Evolutionary framework for testing differen...
Auditory Submarine: Intrinsic
     Integration
     Fq




df




                                     Time

          s  ...
Auditory Submarine: Intrinsic
     Integration
     Vs                Sx
     Si                                   •   Map...
Improving the Gameplay
• Adaptive methods
• Introducing levels and difficulty
  – Challenge, competition, recognition
• Si...
Auditory Treasure Hunter:
introducing control
• Still on the drawing board
• Analogy of metal detector for
  mapping ADT
•...
Study overview
• Cross-over design
   – Comparison of treatments
     (training phase 1)
   – Comparison of game experienc...
Technical considerations
• Aims: deployment on personal computer desktop, laptop,
  (potentially) mobile/UMPC
• Silverligh...
Thanks
• NBRUH Software      • NBRUH Tinnitus
  Dev. Group            Group
 – Mike Sharples        – Deb Hall
 – Stuart W...
Principled design of game-based auditory learning environments: Examples of ADT for Tinnitus
Principled design of game-based auditory learning environments: Examples of ADT for Tinnitus
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Principled design of game-based auditory learning environments: Examples of ADT for Tinnitus

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Principled design of game-based auditory learning environments: Examples of ADT for Tinnitus

  1. 1. Principled design of game-based auditory learning environments: Examples of ADT for Tinnitus Nicolas Van Labeke National Biomedical Research Unit in Hearing Learning Sciences Research Institute – University of Nottingham www.lsri.nottingham.ac.uk/nvl/ http://hearing.nihr.ac.uk/
  2. 2. The Context • Aim: Combine auditory perceptual learning, technology-enhanced learning and game theories to create auditory learning games suitable for use outside the lab – Design games that are intrinsically motivating – Wide range of age- and disability-related factors of people with hearing loss favours a casual game approach – Principles of auditory learning suggest the use of intrinsic integration (Habgood 2007) – training for learning  testing of learning
  3. 3. Intrinsic Integration • How do we design effective learning games? • Learning material • Motivational factors: challenge, fantasy, curiosity, control, cooperation, competition, recognition (Malone & Lepper 1987) • Core mechanics – Rules of the game – Essential interactions required to create gaming experience – Explain individual preferences to games – Define different game genre & flow experience
  4. 4. Challenge People are best motivated when they are working toward personally meaningful goals whose Set personally meaningful goals. Make attainment of goals probable but uncertain. attainment requires activity at a continuously Give en-route performance feedback. optimal (intermediate) level of difficulty. Relate goals to learners' self esteem. Curiosity Something in the physical environment attracts the learner's attention or there is an optimal level of Stimulate sensory curiosity by making abrupt changes that will be perceived by the senses. discrepancy between present knowledge or skills Stimulate cognitive curiosity by making a person wonder and what these could be if the learner engaged in about something (i.e., stimulate the learner's interest). some activity. Control People have a basic tendency to want to control what happens to them. Make clear the cause-and-effect relationships between what students are doing and things that happen in real life. Enable the learners to believe that their work will lead to powerful effects. Allow learners to freely choose what they want to learn and how they will learn it. Fantasy Learners use mental images of things and Make a game out of learning. situations that are not actually present to stimulate Help learners imagine themselves using the learned their behaviour. information in real- life settings. Make the fantasies intrinsic rather than extrinsic. Competition Learners feel satisfaction by comparing their performance favourably to that of others. Competition is more important for some people than for others. People who lose at competition often suffer more than the winners profit. Competition sometimes reduces the urge to be helpful to other learners. Cooperation Learners feel satisfaction by helping others achieve Cooperation their goals. Cooperation occurs naturally as well as artificially. is more important for some people than for others. Cooperation is a useful real-life skill. Cooperation requires and develops interpersonal skills. Recognition Learners feel satisfaction when others recognize and appreciate their accomplishments. Recognition requires that the process or product or some other result of the learning activity be visible. Recognition differs from competition in that it does not involve a comparison with the performance of someone else. Vockell, E. (2004). Educational Psychology: a practical approach. Online Workbook, last retrieved September 2009, http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/Vockell/EdPsyBook/.
  5. 5. Intrinsic Integration (Habgood 2007) • Motivational effects of challenge, control, etc. are realized through the core mechanics • Integrate the learning material with the core mechanics and NOT the fantasy “Deliver learning material through the parts of the game that are the most fun to play, riding on the back of the flow experience produced by the game, and not interrupting or diminishing its impact” “Embody the learning material within the structure of the gaming world and the player’s interactions with it, providing an external representation of the learning content that is explored through the core mechanics of the gameplay”
  6. 6. Design-based Research (DBR) • to address theoretical questions about the nature of learning in context • to consider approaches to the study of learning phenomena in the real world rather than the laboratory • to go beyond narrow measures of learning • to derive research findings from formative evaluation adapted from Y. Mor 2008
  7. 7. A practical case: ADT for Tinnitus • Collaboration with NBRUH tinnitus group • Evolutionary framework for testing different motivators (fantasy, control, challenge) and gameplays • Evaluating different game-based paradigms – STARv2 (baseline) • Active listening, trial-based tasks – Auditory Submarine • Interactive listening (sonar analogy) • system-induced gameplay (steering controlled pace) – Auditory Treasure Hunter • Interactive listening (metal detector analogy) • listener-induced gameplay (listener's selection, activation, and execution of ADT) • Impact of visual representation in gameplay and task performance – Distractor vs. scaffolding – Effectiveness of auditory learning games
  8. 8. Auditory Submarine: Intrinsic Integration Fq df Time s s i dt
  9. 9. Auditory Submarine: Intrinsic Integration Vs Sx Si • Mapping core mechanics & learning materials • Adaptive model Sy Gt • Design Decisions – impact on learning – impact on gameplay Fq • Iterative design • Incremental prototyping df Time s s i dt
  10. 10. Improving the Gameplay • Adaptive methods • Introducing levels and difficulty – Challenge, competition, recognition • Side-scrolling game approach?
  11. 11. Auditory Treasure Hunter: introducing control • Still on the drawing board • Analogy of metal detector for mapping ADT • Ground filled with different objects of different values (e.g. golden and silver nuggets, metal trash, etc.). • Trade-off between difficult/valuable and easy/cheap • External constraints (e.g. time limit, charges in metal detector) • Levels and decision-making by “treasure map” exploration & clearing
  12. 12. Study overview • Cross-over design – Comparison of treatments (training phase 1) – Comparison of game experience (training phases 1-3) • Evaluation based on tinnitus- related outcomes measures AND desirability & flow experience • Iterative Design process – Prototype development at NBRUH (SDG) – Usability testing with STARv2 NBRUH/LSRI members (mostly normal hearing) Auditory – Piloting and in-depth testing with participants to previous Submarine Tinnitus Study Auditory Treasure Hunter
  13. 13. Technical considerations • Aims: deployment on personal computer desktop, laptop, (potentially) mobile/UMPC • Silverlight – Microsoft competitor to Adobe Flash – Subset of high-level framework .Net (i.e. shared libraries & common API) – Browser and off-browser execution modes – Off-line/online data management • BUT … – Audio manipulation supported with basic APIs – Lack of robust and reusable libraries • requirements for ADT are ground-breaking! • Current prototypes based on a proof-of-concept synthesizer! – Accumulation of layers on top of (generic) audio management • IT IS A PROTOTYPE-BASED APPROACH! • TECHNOLOGY IS IMPROVING FAST
  14. 14. Thanks • NBRUH Software • NBRUH Tinnitus Dev. Group Group – Mike Sharples – Deb Hall – Stuart Whitehead – Derek Hoare – Martin Morrison – Victoria Kowalkovski

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