: andrikosThe PLEX Cards and its Techniques as Sources of   Inspiration When Designing for Playfulness                    ...
Experience    Description                                                                         Captivation   Forgetting...
PLEX CARDSPLEX Design Sprints•   3 design sprints using PLEX to guide design exploration•   What is the best way to commun...
RELATED WORKDesign Cards•   Provide inspiration in user-centered design (UCD) activities      IDEO Cards•   Inspiration Ca...
CARD DESIGNFirst Iteration•   Squared (9x9 cm) cardboard cards (red)•   Known limitation of cards: orientation•   Textual ...
CARD DESIGNSecond Iteration•   Similar shape and size (blue), category name•   14 circular definitions rewritten•   Image c...
CARD DESIGNThird Iteration•   Rectangular format (9x12 cm), color orange•   Introduced a second image to play with the    ...
CARD DESIGNFourth Iteration•   Maintained the shape and size (cyan)•   Modified some images that were “stereotypical and   ...
FINAL DESIGNFifth and Final Iteration•   Same shape and size (magenta)•   Top Half: Human emotions in an abstract way, in ...
FINDINGSQuantitative                                                                                                      ...
PLEX CARDS TECHNIQUES
PLEX TECHNIQUE 1PLEX Brainstorming•   Aimed at rapidly generating several ideas•   Participants split in pairs, each pair ...
PLEX TECHNIQUE 2PLEX Scenario•   Aimed at generating more elaborate ideas•   Participants split in pairs, each pair takes ...
EVALUATIONGoal•   Investigate the usefulness of the two proposed techniquesParticipants•   The same 14 Mobile Life and Nok...
FINDINGSQuantitative                                               Qualitative•   Participants were positive about both te...
QUESTIONS?Andrés Lucero - Nokia Research Center, Tampere, Finlandandres.lucero@nokia.com        : andrikos
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Playful Experiences

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Playfulness can be observed in all areas of human activity. It is an attitude of making activities more enjoyable. Designing for playfulness involves creating objects that elicit a playful approach and provide enjoyable experiences. We have designed and evaluated a set of cards called the PLEX Cards and its two related idea generation techniques. The cards were created to communicate the 22 categories of a Playful Experiences framework to designers and other stakeholders who wish to design for playfulness. We have evaluated the practical use of the cards by applying them in several design cases. In this talk I will present an overview of the design rationale of the PLEX Cards together with a couple design cases where the PLEX Cards were used and evaluated.

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Playful Experiences

  1. 1. : andrikosThe PLEX Cards and its Techniques as Sources of Inspiration When Designing for Playfulness Andrés Lucero Nokia Research, Tampere, Finland Warsaw, October 25, 2012
  2. 2. Experience Description Captivation Forgetting one’s surroundingsPLAYFULNESS Challenge Competition Completion Testing abilities in a demanding task Contest with oneself or an opponent Finishing a major task, closure Control Dominating, commanding, regulating Cruelty Causing mental or physical pain Discovery Finding something new or unknown Eroticism A sexually arousing experience• Understanding the role of playfulness in the overall user experience of a product or service Exploration Investigating an object or situation Expression Manifesting oneself creativelyPleasure Framework [Costello et al.] Fantasy An imagined experience Fellowship Friendship, communality or intimacy• Comprehensive framework of 13 categories, which assembles Humor Fun, joy, amusement, jokes, gags views of philosophers, researchers and game researchers Nurture Taking care of oneself or others• Evaluating pleasurable playful interfaces in interactive artworks Relaxation Relief from bodily or mental work Sensation Excitement by stimulating sensesPlayful Experiences Framework [Korhonen et al.] Simulation An imitation of everyday life• Expanded the framework by adding the work of other authors Submission Being part of a larger structure Subversion Breaking social rules and norms• Covers experiences, pleasures, emotions, elements of play and Suffering Experience of loss, frustration, anger reason why people play Sympathy Sharing emotional feelings• Question: can the 22 categories serve as a starting point and Thrill Excitement derived from risk, danger provide inspiration to design for playfulness?
  3. 3. PLEX CARDSPLEX Design Sprints• 3 design sprints using PLEX to guide design exploration• What is the best way to communicate the PLEX categories?• Tried different strategies: • Powerpoint slides with definitions briefly displayed • Printed A0 poster with the definitions • Handouts with the definitions plus concrete examples• PLEX framework difficult to grasp for the participants who only got an overview of the frameworkPLEX Cards• Physical cards designed to bring PLEX closer to people and communicate its categories
  4. 4. RELATED WORKDesign Cards• Provide inspiration in user-centered design (UCD) activities IDEO Cards• Inspiration Cards [Halskov & Dalsgaard], Video Cards [Buur & Soendergaard], Moment-Video-Trace Cards [Brandt & Messeter]• Ideo Cards: 51 cards showing methods used by IDEO to keep people at the center of their design processes. Invitation for designers to to try and develop different design approaches.• PLEX Cards: inspiration source for UCD, communicate PLEXDesign-Game Cards ThinkCube Cards• Design games to support idea generation activities• Commercial: Thinkpak [Michalko] and ThinkCube [Sampanthar]• VNA and GameSeekers Cards: card decks to generate ideas for mobile multiplayer games.• PLEX Cards: we incorporate simple game rules to structure the innovation process, turn-taking and game dynamics. VNA Cards
  5. 5. CARD DESIGNFirst Iteration• Squared (9x9 cm) cardboard cards (red)• Known limitation of cards: orientation• Textual definition• One image to illustrate the main idea, mostly stock images• Game-related content: GTAIV, SIMS, Guitar HeroEvaluation• Social and Spatial Interactions workshop• 8 participants used the cards in pairs• Problems with cards that contained contents people could not relate to: specific games, applications or TV series• Examples: fog of war (‘exploration’), Sports Tracker (‘challenge’), 24 (‘captivation’)
  6. 6. CARD DESIGNSecond Iteration• Similar shape and size (blue), category name• 14 circular definitions rewritten• Image content changed so people would be able to relate to the content• Introduced images that could suggest interactions• Example: Rubik cube to suggest twisting or rotatingEvaluation• Preparation EmoListen workshop (HIIT researchers)• 14 participants discussed the cards in two groups• Problems with images that have strong connotations (Usain Bolt for ‘challenge’)• Suggestions: don’t limit the content to games, rely on people’s experiences / avoid images that over- specify the design / try a booklet or using the flip side of the card
  7. 7. CARD DESIGNThird Iteration• Rectangular format (9x12 cm), color orange• Introduced a second image to play with the abstraction level of the images and the contents• Image content changed so people would be able to relate to the content• 27 new images, most depicting human emotions or activitiesEvaluation• EmoListen workshop (HIIT researchers)• 11 participants, cards used individually and in pairs• Positive, two images provides more possibilities to connect to the content• Problems with some definitions and images (‘Humor’)
  8. 8. CARD DESIGNFourth Iteration• Maintained the shape and size (cyan)• Modified some images that were “stereotypical and uninspiring”• Stock images: they contain a polished set of presuppositions and prejudices• More natural images from Flickr under a Creative Commons license Lucero, A., and Arrasvuori, J. 2010. PLEX Cards: a source ofinspiration when designing for playfulness. In Proc. of Fun andGames 2010. ACM Press, 28-37.
  9. 9. FINAL DESIGNFifth and Final Iteration• Same shape and size (magenta)• Top Half: Human emotions in an abstract way, in black and white to help focus on the emotion• Bottom Half: Concrete everyday life examples, color pictures of hands to suggest possible interactions• 22 PLEX Cards: 2 extra cards explaining the PLEX Brainstorming and PLEX Scenario techniquesEvaluation• Social and Spatial Interactions project: 14 Mobile Life and Nokia researchers with mixed background• Emokeitai workshop: 13 participants from HIIT, Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki and Aalto U. • Structured use of the cards in pairs, using both the PLEX Brainstorming and Scenario techniques• Participants rated the cards on 7-point Likert scale (-3 to +3) on general impression and helpfulness
  10. 10. FINDINGSQuantitative Qualitative• Jointly calculated the mean ratings and standard • Positive comments on the cards role in supporting deviations for both sessions (n=27) idea generation and guiding thinking about playfulness:• General impression of the cards: was clearly positive • "The cards did kind of focus my usually chaotic (mean=1.37, SD=1.04) brainstorming." (P24)• Helpfulness of the cards: ranged between 0.67 and • Controversial cards helped participants think in 1.88, except Competition, Eroticism, Relaxation, Simulation unconventional ways about playfulness:• Some categories are good at triggering people but can • "The cards helped trigger ideas that may not have come otherwise. E.g. on otherwise sensitive topics such as in other cases block participants eroticism, suffering..." (P3) 3  Helpfulness of the PLEX Cards  2  1  Mean Ra$ngs  0  pr n  Hu     n  e  n  n    n    l      Cr l    Nu r  bm n    o$     Di lty  y  ip on on Re ure on Su sion Sy ing m y Fe asy ril ro o ng er $o o sio $o sio th o sh cis m a$ a$ $$ e$ a$ Th ue nt r ov rt nt pa le ‐1  ffe va xa w is es er Co or ns pl ul pe al Fa sc m llo bv la p$ Su m m Ch Er pl Se m Ex Su Ca Co Si Ex Co ‐2  ‐3  Mean  1.63    1.13    ‐1.00    1.10    1.20    1.50    1.88    0.67    1.53    1.14    1.18    1.71    1.70    1.38    0.75    0.89    1.00    0.90    1.07    1.21    1.29    1.50      SD  1.41    1.64       0        1.52    1.14      .71      .99    2.07    1.46    1.35    1.47    1.05      .82    1.19    1.91    1.05    1.58    1.45    1.33    1.42       .91    1.24      N     8         8          4         10       10         2         17        6        15        14       17        17       10        8          8          9         5         10       14        14        14       12    22 PLEX Categories 
  11. 11. PLEX CARDS TECHNIQUES
  12. 12. PLEX TECHNIQUE 1PLEX Brainstorming• Aimed at rapidly generating several ideas• Participants split in pairs, each pair takes a deck of cards• 1 card randomly drawn per pair and put face up: seed card• Both players take 3 extra cards each from the deck. Do not show the cards to each other.Rules• Player 1: start exploring an idea using the seed card and explain the idea to Player 2• Player 2: listen and consider the cards in your hand. Elaborate on the idea by placing one new card from your hand on the table. • Player 1: develop the idea further by placing a new card from your hand on the table
  13. 13. PLEX TECHNIQUE 2PLEX Scenario• Aimed at generating more elaborate ideas• Participants split in pairs, each pair takes a deck of cards• 3 cards randomly drawn per pair from the deck and put face up on the table• Using an A3 template participants create a scenario• The order of the cards can be alteredRules• Card 1: use card to trigger a use story or action• Card 2: steer the story in a new direction Card 1: Card 2: Card 3: Beginning Continuation The End• Card 3: bring the story to a close Who are the people in the How does this category How does this category• Alternative: randomly draw seven cards and use three of story? How does this category launch the story? cause the story to continue in a new direction? bring the story to a close? them for the scenario
  14. 14. EVALUATIONGoal• Investigate the usefulness of the two proposed techniquesParticipants• The same 14 Mobile Life and Nokia researchers from the Social and Spatial Interactions projectProcedure• Participants split in pairs• Four pairs started with PLEX Brainstorming and spent 30 minutes on two rounds of idea generation, while the other three pairs started with PLEX Scenario, then switched• Participants asked to fill-in a questionnaire on their general impression after using each on a 7-point Likert scale (where -3 is very negative and +3 is very positive)
  15. 15. FINDINGSQuantitative Qualitative• Participants were positive about both techniques with • Those who preferred Scenario often mentioned the a slight preference for PLEX Scenario (mean=1.43, structured approach better suited their way of thinking: SD=1.45) over PLEX Brainstorming (mean=1.36 • "Scenario adds a twist to the thinking. Playfulness derives SD=1.15) mostly (from) the combinations and arrangements. The• Only two participants rated the techniques negatively structure is very important." (P8) by giving them -1 or -2 • Those who preferred Brainstorming felt the technique was faster and more flexible: • "In Scenario, the first card formed most of the idea. We used (the technique) pretty linearly, I think it would be useful to jump back and forth (between the picked PLEX categories) a bit more." (P10)
  16. 16. QUESTIONS?Andrés Lucero - Nokia Research Center, Tampere, Finlandandres.lucero@nokia.com : andrikos

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