Instructional Methods


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Instructional Methods

  1. 1. Learning Perspectives Review a change in the a change in ...learning probability of a knowledge stored constructed from behavior occurring in memory experience Instructional Methods Constructivist Cognitive Behavioral 70’s 80’s 90’s Guide for Using Theories Question HIGH Learner’s Task Knowledge How do we improve learning? LOW Level of Cognitive Processing Required HIGH Construct Cognitive Behavioral Question Instructional Methods The procedures selected to help learners achieve instructional How will you teach a objectives Methods to teach preschooler about colors? 1
  2. 2. Question Instructional Methods Cooperative Discussion Learning Drill and Practice What are the Discovery Tutorial instructional methods Problem Solving Demonstration Games Presentation that you are familiar Simulation with? Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Involves small groups of students Promotes positive interactions & working together interdependences among group of Collaborative & social skills students Common academic goal Active Learning Divided tasks Examples Group Thesis Group Work Discovery Discovery Students find “answers” for Teacher sets an environment where themselves “discovery” can occur Learning by doing Inductive or Inquiry Approach • Deeper understanding of content through active involvement with it Trial and Error 2
  3. 3. Discovery Problem Solving Higher level of thinking Students use past experience & prior Analysis and Synthesis of information content and skills rather than memorize facts Based on Scientific Method of Intrinsic Motivation inquiry Participation is rewarding Define problem Example Formulate Hypothesis Collect & Analyze data Lab Experiments Derive Conclusions or Solutions Field Trips Verify Conclusions or Solutions Problem Solving Games Work with everyday problems A competitive activity that involves Example certain skills & played under a set of Word Problems rules Case Studies Teaches competition strategies, cooperation & teamwork, and conflict resolution Games Simulation Encourages social interaction and Students confront real life approximations of real life situations increases student motivation Allows practice without the risk Requires learners to use Promotes decision making Problem solving Provides practice and experimentation Demonstrate mastery of with skills content Examples Sim City Examples Monopoly Jeopardy Vehicle Simulations Trivia games and contests 3
  4. 4. Drill and Practice Tutorial Provides repetitive practice in basic Tutor – form of a skills to enhance learning, build person, computer, or special print competency & attain mastery material Examples Most often one to one Flash cards Highest degree of student participation Repetition Tutorial Demonstration Types Shows students how to Instructor – Student (interactive dialogue) do a task, skill or procedure Student – Student (tutoring) May be used to set Computer – Student (CAI software) performance standards Can be used to introduce new How to properly content or material in a perform, criteria to be met sequenced or interactive way Imitate physical performance Demonstration Presentation Utilizes several senses Disseminate information to learners Hear, see or experience an event Good for large content Example Makes use of verbal or visual symbols Cooking class Students see and hear the same Sports (swinging a tennis racket or golf information club) 4
  5. 5. Presentation One way communication method controlled by the source Limited interaction from the audience 5