Communication class


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Communication class

  1. 1. Communication  What is communication and why is it important in the context of groups and OB?  One of the factors with high impact on group effectiveness is the presence and/or absence of effective communication  Communication must include transferring and understanding of meaning  Plays four equally important roles and should be recognised as such by managers 1
  2. 2. Communication – 4 functions  Control – Informal and formal control of behavior of members in a group  Motivation – job clarity, expectations, feedback  Emotional expression – groups a source for social interaction and therefore communication plays a role for release of emotions  Information – facilitating decision making by providing information by transmitting data to identify and evaluate alternative choices 2
  3. 3. Communication – Process The most important factor – the ‘purpose’ of communication  Sender, encoding - The sender has a thought which he/she wants to let someone else know. This thought is encoded in the form of a message.  Message - The thought thus acquires a body, a shape and a structure.  Channel - The message is transmitted using some channel to reach the receiver; could be formal and informal channels 3
  4. 4. Communication – Process  Receiver, Decoding - The receiver „decodes‟ the message to understand its meaning.  Noise - The process of decoding may not generate the same „thought‟ that the sender wanted to transmit. The distortions are the „noise‟.  Feedback – Check on how successfully the original intended message has reached the receiver. Direction of communication can be downward, upward and lateral 4
  5. 5. Communication Types Interpersonal  Oral – speed and feedback; opportunities for messages to become distorted  Written – Usually more carefully done, therefore more likely to be well thought out, logical and clear  Non-verbal – body movements, tone and emphasis given to words, facial expressions, distance between sender and receiver 5
  6. 6. Change your tone and you change your meaning: Placement of the emphasis What it means Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I was going to take someone else. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of the guy you were going with. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I’m trying to find a reason why I shouldn’t take you. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Do you have a problem with me? Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of going on your own. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of lunch tomorrow. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Not tomorrow night. Source: Based on M. Kiely, “When „No‟ Means „Yes,‟ ” Marketing, October 1993, pp. 7–9. Reproduced in A. Huczynski and D. Buchanan, Organizational Behaviour, 4th ed. (Essex, England: Pearson Education, 2001), p. 194. 6
  7. 7. Communication Types - Organizational  Formal, small-group networks – chain, wheel, all-channel The chain rigidly follows the formal chain of command The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. The wheel relies on the leader to act as the central conduit for all the group’s communication 7
  8. 8. Communication Types - Organizational  Grapevine  75% of employees hear of matters first through rumors  Rumors emerge as a response to situations that are important, when there is ambiguity, under conditions that arouse anxiety  Computer aided  E-mail – nearly 1 trillion e-mails sent daily worldwide. Upto 70% e-mail comes in the form of spam or phishing e-mails 8
  9. 9. Communication Types - Organizational     Internet messaging (IM) – Many organizations are concerned about security Intranet and extranet links Video conferencing – this will be seen as an alternative to travel So?  In the electronic age, employees can theoretically be „on call‟ 24/7  Boundaries between organizations becoming blurred – possible clouding of employment distinction 9
  10. 10. Communication Types – Organizational  Knowledge Management – Process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so that right information gets to the right people at the right time  Why important?  Intellectual assets as important as physical or financial assets  Baby boomers leaving work places – taking away their experience and learning  Reduce redundancy and make organization more efficient  How?  Creating databases that can be readily accessed  Creating culture of sharing  Creating mechanisms for people to share insights 10
  11. 11. Communication Types – Organizational Low channel richness High channel richness Source: Based on R.H. Lengel and D.L. Daft, “The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill,” Academy of Management Executive, August 1988, pp. 225–32; and R.L. Daft and R.H. Lengel, “Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness, and Structural Design,” Managerial Science, May 1996, pp. 554–72. Reproduced from R.L. Daft and R.A. Noe, Organizational Behavior (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt, 2001), p. 311. 11
  12. 12. Communication – Barriers  Filtering – purposefully manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver  Selective perception – Receiver projecting their interests and expectations into the communication while decoding messages  Information overload – Individuals having more information than they can sort out and use 12
  13. 13. Communication – Barriers  Emotions – how receiver is „feeling‟ impacts interpretation of message  Language – Same words mean different things to different people  Communication apprehension – 5% to 20% suffer from communication apprehension  High oral communication apprehensives distort communication demands of their jobs in order to minimize need for communication 13
  14. 14. Communication – Current Issues barriers between men and Communication  women Men talk to:  Women talk to:  Emphasize status, power, and independence.  Establish connection and intimacy.  Complain that women talk on and on.  Criticize men for not listening.  Offer solutions.   To boast about their accomplishments. Speak of problems to promote closeness.  Express regret and restore balance to a conversation. 14
  15. 15. Communication – Current Issues  “Silence” as Communication  Is a critical element of groupthink  Way for employees and/or managers to express dissatisfaction  Sign that someone is upset  Crucial element of group decision making  “Politically correct” communication  Handicapped, blind, elderly – physically challenged, visually impaired, senior  Garbage, quotas, women – post consumer waste materials, educational equity, people of gender 15
  16. 16. Communication – Current Issues  Cross cultural communication  Gestures having different meanings across cultures  Barriers – semantics, word connotations, tone differences, perception differences  High context cultures ○ What is not said may be more important than what is said ○ Implies more trust ○ Oral agreements imply strong commitment  Low context cultures ○ Rely essentially on words to convey meaning ○ Agreements will tend to be in writing, precisely worded, highly legalistic 16
  17. 17. Communication – Current Issues  Cultural guide  Assume differences until similarity proven  Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation  Practice empathy  Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis 17
  18. 18. Managerial Implications  Employee satisfaction – less uncertainty, ambiguity - more satisfaction  Group performance – use of vertical, lateral information channels will reduce uncertainty, increase flow, improve group performance and satisfaction  Motivation – Expectancy theory – clarity of goals, rewards, performance and links between the same  Turnover – Almost 29% higher turnover where either there are no job previews or only positive job information is presented. Conveying honest and accurate information during recruiting and selection process. 18
  19. 19. Think… Consider the way in which this man is communicating. What channel is he using? How rich is it? For what kinds of message would it be appropriate? Not appropriate? 19