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  1. 1. RAHUL MODASIYA  EN:130210125069  PRODUCTION-B
  2. 2. Minorities and the Criminal Justice System Cross Cultural Communication
  3. 3. What is Culture  “Beliefs, values, patterns of thinking, behavior and everyday customs that have been passed on from generation to generation” (Shusta, p. 19)  Or a group or community with which we share common experiences that shape the way we understand the world.
  4. 4. What is Culture  It includes groups that we are born into, such as gender, race, or national origin. It also includes groups we join or become part of:  For example, we can acquire a new culture by moving to a new region, by a change in our economic status, or by becoming disabled.
  5. 5. Communication  Process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior  Means to share, not "to speak" or "to write"
  6. 6. Communications Model Sender The Person who sends the message
  7. 7. Communications Model Sender Encode To select symbols with which to compose a message
  8. 8. Communications Model Sender Encode Channel The carrier or form of communication
  9. 9. Communications Model Sender Encode Channel Decode Decoding or translating the message sent is the task of the receiver!
  10. 10. Communications Model Sender Encode Channel Decode Receiver The Person who receives the message
  11. 11. Communications Model Sender Encode Transmit Decode Receiver Feedback A response by the receiver to the sender’s communication
  12. 12. But, Wait, there’s more! Sender Encode Transmit Decode Receiver Feedback A response by the receiver to the sender’s communication Encode Transmit Decode
  13. 13. And More Sender Encode Transmit Decode Receiver Encode Transmit Decode Noise Any barrier to communication
  14. 14. Culture and Communications  Messages are constructed from culture, or “beliefs, values, patterns of thinking, behavior and everyday customs that have been passed on from generation to generation” (Shusta, P. 97)  Both the sender and the receiver use their cultural perceptions of encode and decode messages.
  15. 15. A little more about perception  Perception = Process used to sort out the environment  Perceptual selectivity = objects/stimuli are screened in or out and then selected - Certain stimuli catch our attention - We tend to see what we want to see.
  16. 16. Perception and Communication  Cultural organization = Categorizing according to our Cultural frame of reference  Stereotyping is the most common form of perceptual organization  Words can mean different things to different people.
  17. 17. Nonverbal Communication  Facial expression  Voice  Mannerisms  Posture  Dress  Sometimes more believable and forceful  Defined as actions, behaviors and intonation rather than words
  18. 18. What is Cross Cultural Communications?
  19. 19. High-context and Low-context Communication  The degree to which senders and receivers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages
  20. 20. Context  “all the factors which systematically determine the form, meaning, appropriateness or translation of linguistic expressions. One can distinguish between linguistic context (provided by the preceding utterances or text) and non- linguistic context (including shared assumptions and information).” (Arnold, D).
  21. 21. Understanding the Difference  Low-context communication:  “My words speak for themselves,"  Prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by the communication.  High-context communication  Prefer indirect messages from others  Verbal and nonverbal cues help me understand the meaning
  22. 22. Different Context – Different Meaning  I’m sorry.  What did you say?  I’m fine. Others?
  23. 23. Low Context communicating with High Context  “nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said;  status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement;  face-saving and tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly;  building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time; and  indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. “ (LeBarron, M.)
  24. 24. High Context communicating with Low Context  “things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning;  roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity;  efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks;  direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and  indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention” (LeBarron, M.)