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Technical report on food


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food dyes

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Technical report on food

  1. 1. TECHNICAL REPORT ONSYNTHETIC FOOD COLORS TEXTILE LABORATORY APPLIED CHEMISTRY RESEARCH CENTERPakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories. Complex Karachi. 1
  2. 2. TECHNICAL REPORT ON SYNTHETIC FOOD COLORSCompiled by:________________ ___________Mrs. Munazza Sohail Mansoor IqbalScientific Officer Scientific OfficerReviewed and Approved by:______________________Muhammad Aleem AhmedPrincipal Scientific OfficerEmail: TEXTILE LABORATORY APPLIED CHEMISTRY RESEARCH CENTER Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories. Complex Karachi.Table of Contents: 2
  3. 3. S. No Contents Page Nos 1. Title of Project 1 2. Affiliated personnel and organization 2 3. Table of Contents 3 4. Introduction and uses of Food Colors 4 5. List of Approved food colors with details 5---7 6. Background and Classification 8 7. Advantages and Adverse Effects due to heavy metals 9 in Food colors 8. Permissible Limits of Heavy Metals 10 9. Schematic Diagram for the synthesis of Food colors 11 1 Some Details for the Synthesized product “Acid Red 12 0. 33” 1 Some details for Mono Azo Food Colorants 13 1. Introduction: Food colors are known as certified colors. A colorant which may either be obtained from natural or synthetic route, permissible for use in food, drugs or cosmetics by FDA. All must satisfy strict regulations as to toxicity. The Natural color extracts, which were used for centuries for coloring food, have been extensively replaced by synthetic dyes. These synthetic dyes are colored organic substances that can be applied in solution or dispersion to the food as substrate, thus giving it a colored appearance. Usually the dyes have an affinity for food stuff and are readily absorbed from solution. 3
  4. 4. The synthetic organic colors are superior to the natural dye extract in tinctorial power, consistency of strength, range and brilliance of shade, stability, ease of application and cost effectiveness. Many of synthetic coloring material thus selected for use in foods however the manner in which it is applied is much important from health point of view. A color additive is any dye, pigment or substance which when added or applied to a food, drug or cosmetic, or to the human body, is capable (alone or through reactions with other substances) of imparting color. FDA is responsible for regulating all color additives to ensure that foods containing color additives are safe to eat contain only approved ingredients and are accurately labeled. Uses of Food Colors: Color additives are used in foods for many reasons: 1) To offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions; 2) To correct natural variations in color; 3) To enhance colors that occur naturally; and 4) To provide color to colorless and "fun" foods. Without color additives, colas wouldnt be brown, margarine wouldnt be yellow and mint ice cream wouldnt be green. Color additives are now recognized as an important part of practically all processed foods we eat.List of dyes which are called certified Food Dyes:• FD& C Blue No. 1 – Brilliant Blue FCF, E133 (blue shade)• FD&C Blue No. 2 – Indigo tine, E132 (indigo shade)• FD&C Green No. 3 – Fast Green FCF, E143 (turquoise shade)• FD&C Red No. 40 – Allura Red AC, E129 (red shade)• FD&C Red No. 3 – Erythrosine, E127 (pink shade, commonly used in glacé cherries)• FD&C Yellow No. 5 – Tartrazine, E102 (yellow shade)• FD&C Yellow No. 6 – Sunset Yellow FCF, E110(orange shade)List of Approved Natural and Synthetic colors for Food items by their E-Numbers: 4
  5. 5. 100–109 Yellows 110–119 Orange 120–129 Reds 100–199 130–139 Blues & Violets Colors 140–149 Greens 150–159 Browns & Blacks 160–199 Gold and others Some Mono Azo dyes used in Food with their EN Numbers and Structures: :E102 :TartrazineE107 : Yellow2GE110 : SunsetYellow 5
  6. 6. E122 :AzorubineE123 :AmaranthE124 : Ponceau4RE129 : AlluraRed 6
  7. 7. E151 : BrilliantBlackE155 : BrownHTBackground Information for Synthetic Food Colors:Artificial food colorings were first introduced after World War II when the chemical industrymet with the food industry regarding using chemical-based colors since they were lower incost than natural colors and had a longer shelf life. The safety of the colors was determinedprimarily from using LD-50 tests, and the amount was then extrapolated to humans. At thetime of approval, behavioral toxicology testing was not required by the Food and DrugAdministration (FDA) and therefore was not done on the artificial food colors. 7
  8. 8. Classification of Synthetic Food Colors: Synthetic Food colors have been grouped into following classes. • Mono azo • Diazo • Triazo • Triarylmethane • Xanthene • Quinoline • Indigoid Azo Food colors: In azo group of colors the chromopheric system consists of essentially of the azo group on association with one or more aromatic system. N=N Azo GroupThere may be one or more than one azo group are present in color molecule therefore themono azo, diazo, triazo, tetra azo or poly azo dyes are being synthesized. Also the position ofazo groups may differentiate their characteristics. The range of the shades covered by the azogroup in food colors is very wide and including Red, Orange, Yellow, blue, Violet, Brownand Black.In most of the countries of world the coloration of food is regulated by FDA and governmentstatus. This is usually achieved by the publication of permitted lists and purity specificationfor each colorant and sometimes by the limitation of permitted colorant level in certain foodcolors. Advantages of synthetic Food colors: 1. Safe 2. Uniform Quality 3. Readily available in adequate quantity 4. Good Stability 5. High tinctorial power makes them economically advantages 6. good stability in water and alcohol 7. tasteless and odor less 8. Available in several forms 9. Freedom from bacteriological problem 8
  9. 9. 10. Compatible in all food and beverages 11. Help to hold down the cost of food since the normal appearance of wholesome colorful tool can be retained or can be restored if color is lost during processing. 12. promote good health by making nutritious food attractive to the consumer.The Adverse effects of Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic:Lead:Lead is associated with lower IQ and it could also responsible for some cavities in teeth. Leadexposure has been linked to developmental delays, peripheral neuropathy, alters thyroidhormones and reduces fertility. In elderly adults level over 4 mcg can have neuro behavioraleffects.Mercury: Mercury has been implicated in autism, ADHD, learning disabilities, endocrine problems,allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and a host of other disorders. According to the FDA, "The toxicity of mercury compounds is extensively documented inscientific literature. It is well-known that mercury compounds are readily absorbed throughunbroken skin as well as through the lungs by inhalation and by intestinal absorption afteringestion. Mercury is absorbed from topical application and is accumulated in the body,giving rise to numerous adverse effects.Arsenic:Arsenic poisoning has been associated with respiratory, neurological, developmental, andcardiovascular issues. It has also been associated with cancer. In fact, an increased risk ofskin cancer in humans is associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in medication,contaminated water, and the workplace.Permissible Limits for Some Heavy metal content in Food Colors:In the US, FDA specification for food, drug and cosmetics colorants are supported bypublished methods, many of which are acknowledge as official methods and reported as suchby the association of official analytical chemist. FDA color additive specifications tend todiffer from their European counterparts by placing lower limit on a smaller number of heavymetals usually including (Lead, Mercury and Arsenic) and by limiting a smaller number oforganic contaminants .Moisture and diluents limit are usually included and minimum purecolor content is required. 9
  10. 10. So the General limits of heavy metals in ppm regulated by FDA on which bases a dye can be accepted as certified food color are as follows: S .No Name of Metal Limit in ppm 1. Lead ≤10 2. Arsenic ≤3 3. Mercury ≤1 4. Cadmium ≤1 5. Chromium ≤50 6. Manganese ≤100 7. Total heavy Metals ≤40 Schematic diagram for the Manufacture of an Azo Food color Amine HCl Coupling NaNO2 Components Water Alkali Water Coupling solution vesselDiazoVessel NaCl Ice Course Grinder Water Course Sieve Pump Screening Press Fine Grinder Coupling vessel Wash Tank Fine Sieve NaCl Air Standardizing Mixer Filtrate to effluent Plant Primary color stores Heating and cooling coils Filter press Blending Mixer Isolation vessel Dryer Packing 10
  11. 11. Some Detail about the synthesized product Acid Red 33: C.I No. 17200• CAS Number:3567-66-6• Name:2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonicacid, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-, sodium salt (1:2)• Synonyms:2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonicacid, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)-, disodium salt (9CI);C.I. Acid Red 33(6CI,7CI); C.I. Acid Red 33, disodium salt (8CI); 11427 Red; 1424 Red;Acetyl Red B; Acid Fuchsin Fast B; Acid Fuchsine 38013; Acid Fuchsine 90120;AcidFuchsine D; Acid Red 2A; Acid Red 33; Acid Red B; Amacid Fuchsine 4B;AzoFuchsine; Azo Grenadine; Azo Magenta G; Azofuchsin; Azofuchsin (biologicalstain);Brasilan Fuchsine D; C.I. 17200; C.I. Food Red 12; Certicol Red B;Colacid Red 2A;Cosmetic Red 17000; D & C Red 33; D and C Red No. 33;D&C Red No. 33; D&C RedNo. 33-307002; D&C Red No. 33-38013;D&C Red No. 33-90120; Disodium1-hydroxy-2-phenylazo-8-aminonaphthalene-3,6-disulfonate; Edicol Supra Red 10B;EdicolSupra Red 10BS; Eniacid Fuchsine BN; Fabracid Fuchsine S-B; Fast AcidMagenta; FastAcid Magenta B; Food Red 12; Hexacol Red 10B; Hexalan Red B;Hispacid Fuchsin B;Japan Red 227; Japan Red No. 227; Naphthalene Red B;Puricolor Red ARE 33; Red10B; Red 10B307042; Red 33; Red No. 227; Romexal Red2A• Molecular Formula: C16H13 N3 O7 S2 . 2 Na• Molecular Weight:469.42 11
  12. 12. • Density:g/cm3 • Melting Point: decomposes below the melting point • Boiling Point:°Cat760mmHg • Flash Point: °C Analytical Comparison of the synthesized product with standard Acid Red 33: S. No Limits for Standard Product Report of Lab Synthesized product 1. Lead not more than 20 ppm Not detected 2. Arsenic not more than 20 ppm 1.1 ppm 3. Mercury not more than 20 ppm Not detectedSome Mono Azo Food Colors with their Numbers and Intermediates: S.No Color Name C.I No C.I Food EEC No FD & C No Intermediates No Naphthionic Acid, 2- Naphthol-6- Sulphonic acid, 1- Amaranth 16185 Red 9 E123 Red No 2 2- Naphthol-3,6- diSulphonic acid, 2- Naphthol-6,8- diSulphonic acid, 2- Naphthol-3,6,8- diSulphonic acid 2 Allura Red 16035 Red 17 E129 Red No 40 5-Amino-4- - Methyoxytoulene-2-Sulphonic acid, 2- Naphthol-6-Sulphonic acid, 6,6-Oxybis (naphthalene-2- sulphonic acid), 2,2- Di methoxy-5,5-dimethyl- diazo amino-benzene-4,4- di sulphonic acid. 1. Sun Set Yellow 15985 Yellow 3 E110 Yellow No 6 Sulphanilic acid,2- 12
  13. 13. FCF Naphthol-6-Sulphonic acid, 6,6-oxybis(Naphthalene-2- sulphonic acid),4,4- Diazoaminodi(benzene Sulphonic acid), 2-Naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid.2. Tartrazine 19140 Yellow 4 E102 Yellow No 5 Sulphanilic acid,4 Hydrazino benzene sulphonic acid,3 Carboxy-1-(4- Sulphophenyl)-5-pyrazone,4,4- Diazoaminodi (Benzene Sulphonic acid) 13