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Sheriff kubeka

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Sheriff kubeka

  1. 1. Sheriff Kubeka 201201410 Cellular respiration
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration  When we eat, we get energy (glucose and other sugars)  Food energy is broken down into usable energy  Energy used to bond phosphate groups to ADP to make ATP
  3. 3. Cellular Respiration  What is cell respiration???  Respiration: the process of breaking down food molecules into usable energy  THE GOAL:  Create ATP for cells to use  Free up electrons—have high energy
  4. 4. Cellular Respiration 2
  5. 5. Cellular Respiration
  6. 6. Cellular Respiration  Types of cell respiration  Aerobic Processes:  REQUIRE oxygen to take place  A lot of energy available (efficient)  Anaerobic Processes:  DO NOT require oxygen to take place  Get energy quickly (inefficient)
  7. 7. Glycolysis  Involves breaking down 6-carbon sugars  Break sugars into pyruvic acid molecules  3-Carbon molecules  This process is ANAEROBIC  No oxygen necessary  Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells
  8. 8. Glycolysis  You will need to know this…
  9. 9. Glycolysis Just Kidding… 
  10. 10. Glycolysis  Glycolysis also creates hydrogen ions and free electrons  The whole point of respiration = high energy  H + ions bond with NAD+ to form NADH + H +  NADH carries electrons and H + ions  This process uses 2ATP molecules and creates 4 ATP molecules
  11. 11. Glycolysis  TOTAL ATP PRODUCTION:  Glycolysis Step 1 uses 2 ATP molecules  Glycolysis Step 2 converts 4 ADP molecules into 4 ATP molecules  Net ATP production = 2 ATP for every glucose molecule
  12. 12. Glycolysis
  13. 13. Glycolysis  Oxygen is our friend…  When oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs  Happens in the mitochondria
  14. 14. Glycolysis  Breaking down Pyruvic Acid…  Occurs in the mitochondria  Pyruvic Acid = 3-carbon compound  Broken down into…  2-Carbon compound—acetic acid  Carbon Dioxide
  15. 15. Glycolysis  Intermediate Step in Glycolysis  2-Carbon Compound—Acetic Acid  Combined with coenzyme A (CoA)  Forms compound called acetyl-CoA  This is only an intermediate step—have to move pyruvic acid into Krebs Cycle
  16. 16. Glycolysis Glycolysis = 2 ATP
  17. 17. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle  Produces more ATP and releases more electrons  Electrons picked up by NAD + and FAD  Organic carrier molecules  Occurs inside mitochondria  Mitochondrial Matrix
  18. 18. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle  Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule  Citric Acid  Citric Acid broken down into a 5-carbon compound  NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H +)  CO2 released
  19. 19. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle  5-carbon compound broken down into a 4-carbon compound  ATP created  NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H +)  CO2 released  4-carbon compound (oxaloacetic acid) is created  Used to bond with acetyl- CoA to restart cycle
  20. 20. Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle
  21. 21. Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP Cellular respiration
  22. 22. Electron Transport Chain  What is the ETC???  A series of molecules along which electrons are transferred, releasing energy  Occurs in the mitochondria— wall of mitochondria  Aerobic process  Oxygen is involved  Acts as the electron acceptor
  23. 23. Electron Transport Chain  As the electrons are passed between carrier proteins, energy is released  ATP is created  Electrons are given up by the carrier molecules  NADH and FADH2 ------- NAD + and FAD
  24. 24. Electron Transport Chain
  25. 25. Electron Transport Chain  As the electrons (H + ions) travel down the chain, they bond with oxygen  2 H + + 1 O = water (H2O)  Electron acceptor  Carbon is given off as carbon dioxide
  26. 26. Electron Transport Chain
  27. 27. Glycolysis ETC = 34 ATP
  28. 28. Electron Transport Chain  A problem exists if there is no oxygen  Anaerobic process  When oxygen is used up, electrons cannot be removed  Traffic jam in the mitochondria  KEY POINT —Electron Transport Chain cannot run without oxygen
  29. 29. Anaerobic Respiration  If no oxygen present after glycolysis, pyruvic acid can still be broken down  Fermentation 2 ATP made during fermentation  Uses electrons carried by NADH + H + so that NAD+ can regenerate for glycolysis
  30. 30. Anaerobic Respiration  Two types of fermentation  Lactic Acid Fermentation  Alcoholic Fermentation Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Lactic Acid Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Ethanol + 2 CO2
  31. 31. Anaerobic Respiration  Lactic Acid Fermentation NADH produce during glycolysis transfers H atoms to pyruvate reducing it to lactate.  Muscle fatigue  When your muscle cells require more energy than can be produced  Lack of oxygen  Lactic acid build up = muscle fatigue  When oxygen is present, lactic acid breaks down
  32. 32. Anaerobic Respiration
  33. 33. Anaerobic Respiration  Alcohol Fermentation  Occurs in bacteria, plants and most animals  Can you think of a bacteria that is used for fermentation???  Pyruvic Acid is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide
  34. 34.  Dacrboxylate pyruvate , releasing CO2 and forming 2-C compound called acetaldehyde.  NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to acetaldehyde, reducing it to ethyl alcohol.  Basis for the production of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages.
  35. 35. Electron Transport chain  Occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.  Energized electrons are carried by NADH and FADH2 to the top of the chain.  The electrons are passed from protein to protein within the membrane, slowly releasing their energy in steps. Some of that energy is used directly to form ATP.
  36. 36. Anaerobic Respiration
  37. 37. Cellular Respiration General Formula C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
  38. 38. Reference list o Durana. Y . (2011) . Cellular respiration. http://www.slideshare.net/yang286/cellula r-respiration-9394052

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