CHAPTER 7 :RESPIRATION              1
2
   State that all living processes require energy   Identify the main substrate for producing energy   State the two ty...
   All organisms require energy to carry out all    living processes  growth (cell division),    reproduction (meiosis),...
   Occurs in two stage :       External respiration – a mechanical process that        maintains a continuous exchange o...
TYPES OF RESPIRATION  AEROBICRESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION                          6
AEROBIC RESPIRATION   The breaking down of glucose in the    presence of oxygen to release chemical    energy   Oxygen i...
   The energy is released in stages & in small    amounts   Some chemical energy released in changed to    heat energy w...
   When body cells need energy, ATP    molecules will be hydrolysed to yield    energy, a molecule energy & an inorganic ...
A N A E R O B IC           R E S P IR A T IO N   A type of cell respiration which occurs in    the absence of oxygen to r...
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN HUMAN                MUSCLES   Occurs during vigorous exercise @ vigorous activities    (100m sp...
   Lactic acid accumulates in the muscles    causing muscular ache (cramp)   An OXYGEN DEBT incurred because the    maxi...
ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST   Yeast carries out both aerobic & anaerobic respiration   Anaerobic respiration in yeast...
COMPARISON BETWEEN AEROBICRESPIRATION & ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION AEROBIC RESPIRATION                 ANAEROBIC               ...
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7[1].1 the respiratory process in energy production

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7[1].1 the respiratory process in energy production

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7 :RESPIRATION 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3.  State that all living processes require energy Identify the main substrate for producing energy State the two types of respiration Explain what cell respiration is Explain the energy production from glucose during the process of aerobic respiration State the conditions leading to anaerobic respiration in cells Explain the process of anaerobic respiration in human muscles Write the chemical equations for aerobic & anaerobic respiration Compare & contrast aerobic respiration with anaerobic respiration 3
  4. 4.  All organisms require energy to carry out all living processes  growth (cell division), reproduction (meiosis), response (transmitting impulses), movement (contraction of muscle), breathing, digestion & excretion (synthesis of proteins, hormones, lipids & enzymes) RESPIRATION : the metabolic process in which organic molecules broken down to simpler products with the release of chemical energy for other living processes. 4
  5. 5.  Occurs in two stage :  External respiration – a mechanical process that maintains a continuous exchange of gases between the respiratory surfaces of an organisms & its environment  Internal respiration (cellular respiration) – the biochemical process in which energy is made available to all living cells  The main substrate : glucose (obtain from digestion of carbohydrates & photosynthesis)  Occurs in mitochondria & cytoplasm of cells  Involves a series of reactions controlled by enzymes 5
  6. 6. TYPES OF RESPIRATION  AEROBICRESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION 6
  7. 7. AEROBIC RESPIRATION The breaking down of glucose in the presence of oxygen to release chemical energy Oxygen is required to oxidise the glucose to produce CO2, H2O & energy The glucose is completely oxidised to release all the chemical energy in the glucose Occurs in mitochondria & cytoplasm of cells Slowly occurs & in stages controlled by enzymes. 7
  8. 8.  The energy is released in stages & in small amounts Some chemical energy released in changed to heat energy while the rest of the chemical energy released is stored in a form of ATP, a carrier of chemical energy ATP can e regenerated by combining inorganic phosphate (P) to ADP using the chemical energy obtained from the oxidation of food ATP ↔ ADP + P + energy 8
  9. 9.  When body cells need energy, ATP molecules will be hydrolysed to yield energy, a molecule energy & an inorganic phosphate Energy from ATP can be used to carry out biological processGlucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energyC6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H20 + 38 ATP (2898 kJ) 9
  10. 10. A N A E R O B IC R E S P IR A T IO N A type of cell respiration which occurs in the absence of oxygen to release energy Glucose is not completely broken down  not all energy in glucose is released Some of the energy in glucose is stored in the product of anaerobic respiration  2 ATP is released Occurs in cytoplasm 10
  11. 11. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN HUMAN MUSCLES Occurs during vigorous exercise @ vigorous activities (100m sprint). Oxygen need to be transported fast enough to the muscles for rapid cell respiration. Will enable the release of sufficient energy for the vigorous muscle activity. The breathing rate & heart rate are increased to supply more oxygen quickly to the muscles for rapid muscular contraction Still insufficient  have to carry out anaerobic respiration to release energy C6H12O6 2C3 H6O3 + 2 ATP (150 kJ) Glucose Lactic acid Energy 11
  12. 12.  Lactic acid accumulates in the muscles causing muscular ache (cramp) An OXYGEN DEBT incurred because the maximum rate of oxygen used is less than the oxygen supplied Oxygen is pay off by rapid breathing continues after the vigorous activity to obtain sufficient oxygen The oxygen will break down the lactic acid to carbon dioxide, water & energy oxygenLactic acid carbon dioxide + water + energy 12
  13. 13. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST Yeast carries out both aerobic & anaerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration in yeast cells called fermentation. Yeast secretes the enzyme zymase which hydrolyses glucose in the absence of oxygen to form ethanol, carbon dioxide & energy C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210 kJ Glucose Ethanol carbon dioxide energy The enzyme zymase secreted by the yeast speeds up the fermentation process The product of fermentation as CO2 is used as a raising agent in aking bread while ethanol is used to produce alcoholic drinks such as wine. 13
  14. 14. COMPARISON BETWEEN AEROBICRESPIRATION & ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION AEROBIC RESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIONPresence of oxygen Absence of oxygenLarge amount of energy (38 Less energy (2 ATP @ 150ATP @ 2898 kJ) kJ/210 kJProduce CO2 & water Produce lactic acid or ethanolCompletely broken down of Glucose not completely brokenglucose down 14

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