COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF Article 2, section 2, clause 1 of the constitution makes the president Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. This gives the president supreme authority over the military in choosing where to send troops as well as assigning the commanders and firing them. Even though the president is in charge of the armed forces, Congress is the only branch with the power to declare war on a foreign nation.
PRESIDENTIAL USES OF THIS POWER Some presidents choose to be involved very closely with the military, helping to choose tactics and staying in close touch with the commanders. Some examples of these types are Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon B. Johnson, who were very involved in the tactics and day-to-day operations of the armed forces. Others, however, choose to remain distant, allowing those they appoint to make decisions and concentrating their power elsewhere. An example of this is Woodrow Wilson during Word War 1, who did not get involved in the actual war very much.
HOW IT IS USED Presidents havefound various usesof their power overthe armed forces. Some choose to use it domestically like George Washington during the Whiskey Rebellion or how Andrew Jackson threatened to use it when South Carolina threatened to secede. Others use it abroad as is demonstrated in wares like World War II and Vietnam.
CURRENT EVENT http://security.blogs.cnn.com/2013/01/03/u-s-likely-to-keep- thousands-of-troops-in-afghanistan-after-nato-forces- leave/?iref=allsearch The link above leads to an article which talks about the amount of troops that will remain in Afghanistan after 2014. Although it talks about the Commander making plans for a certain amount, the decision ultimately rests on the President’s shoulders alone. It is up to the president how much he wants to take his commanders’ opinions on certain matters.
CHIEF OF THE PARTY As Chief of the party, the president is expected to make any necessary actions in order to endorse and properly represent his party.
CHIEF OF THE PARTY The Chief of the Party aids his party members get elected, (i.e. rallying for a part nominee to be elected into the United States Senate). The Chief of the Party is also the head of fundraising for that particular party. The Chief of the Party is expected to represent and provide leadership in the political party as a whole, and support their party’s agenda. The Chief of the Party also stays informed of their nation, especially their reactions to party endorsed programs.
EXAMPLES One example of President Richard Nixon acting as the Chief of the Party was when he appointed Republican Arlin M. Adams as a federal judge to the United States Court of Appeals. This action was President Nixon, as the Chief of Party, endorsing a fellow party member and appointing him to a certain office, the Federal Court. Another example of a President acting as the Chief of the Party would be President Barrack Obama appointing fellow Democrat Thomas J Vilisak to be the Secretary of agriculture. Once again, this is the President, as Chief of the Party, appointing a member of his own party to office.
THE CHIEF OF STATE DEFINED This role is an informal role of the President As Chief of State, the President is expected to: Represent the interests and ideals of the nation international Maintain a public persona domestically Perform symbolic functions on behalf of the nation, such as awarding scholarships This is the “celebrity” role of the President, and of fulfilling this role is the most likely time for the President to be criticized for having too much power or not doing enough.
EXAMPLES FROM HISTORY While the President can do many things to fulfill the Chief of State role, some Presidents establish traditions which their predecessors all follow. Here are two examples of such instances. In 1910, Howard Taft through the symbolic first pitch on Opening Day for the MLB. Every President since Taft has thrown the opening pitch for some major symbolic game, with the exception of Jimmy Carter. In 1947, President Truman received the first live presidential Thanksgiving Turkey. Every President since has received a Turkey, but in 1989 George H.W. Bush became the first President to “pardon” the turkey. Every President since has done so, and the pardoned turkeys are sent to a special farm to live until they die of natural causes.
THE MODERN CHIEF OF STATEPresident Obama has had many opportunitiesto fill the role of Chief of State. In addition tothe usual traditions and events such asscholarship presentation or greeting foreignleaders, Obama has notably fulfilledhis role by visiting thedamage caused byHurricane Sandy.
THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE The President is like the CEO of America He or She must come up with an agenda, and carry it out with the resources available The President has to work with Congress in order to carry out their agenda In order to receive the necessary resources, they must compromise on issues However, the President has some help on running the country, from the Cabinet. The Cabinet is made up of the heads of various government agencies (ex. Departments of Defense, State, Treasury, etc..)
One of the most important and often underrated responsibilities of thePresident is the Chief Diplomat of the United states of AmericaCHIEF DIPLOMAT
FOREIGN RELATIONS AND THE CONSTITUTIONAs he is given this responsibility in the constitution, he is able to Negotiate treaties and, with congresss approval, enter into those negotiated treaties. He is also granted the informal power of entering into less heavily legislated executive agreements, in which he can "promise" or "agree to" certain means of conduct of the American government and other conditions in an attempt to influence foreign affairs in a more immediate and less formal manner.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND THE MILITARYPerhaps the most influential position held by the president is that of Commander in Chief of the United States Army and Navy. As a part of this, he is also responsible for protecting American citizens when they travel abroad, and this is an essential part of his responsibilities as the Chief Diplomat of the United States. He is also responsible for directing the American armed forces abroad, and because of this power he can both use the army and navy to protect Americas allies and alienate Americas foes abroad.
CHIEF LEGISLATOR Definition: the role of the president in influencing the making of laws Presidents now compete with Congress in setting and enacting the country’s legislative agenda Important to keep in mind:1) Congress has actual power to make laws2) Constitution gives the president power to influence Congress in its lawmaking through *urging Congress to pass new laws *veto bills that they do not favor
ENUMERATED POWERS IN CONSTITUTIONArticle 1 Section 71. Every bill passed by House and Senate will be presented to president before it becomes lawA) if approved shall be signedB) if not, returned with objections2. President has power to veto a bill before it becomes lawA) overridden by 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress
SHAPING LEGISLATION The President can take an indirect role in shaping legislation, especially if the president’s political party has a majority in one or both housesEx: president may draft legislation and then ask senators/reps to introduce them into CongressEx: make a State of Union address/Constitutionally mandated, periodic report to Congress (written/oral) to outline legislative proposals for coming yr
HISTORY Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt-drew upon powers in times of national crisis to increase influence over Congress and executive branch 20th Century*nation amidst 2 world wars, major depression and cold war-presidents increased their powers and influence @ cost of Congress*Institutional Presidency has grown-White House Office has surrounded presidents in lawyers to enhance power and influence
CHIEF GUARDIAN OF THE ECONOMY Make sure the federal government’s budget is as profitable as possible by:1. Creating jobs, training people for jobs, and providing them with necessary skills2. Asking Congress to raise or lower federal taxes Monitors*unemployment*high prices*taxes*businesses profits*general prosperity of country
BEHAVIORS President does not control economy but is expected to help it run smoothly Expected to:1) Meet with economic advisors to discuss ways to reduce unemployment2) Meet with business and labor leaders to discuss their needs and problems3) Create economic plan to ensure jobs and work with Congress on fair tax plans for the American people
EMPLOYMENT ACT Requires president to submit annual economic report Created Council of Economic Advisors to advise president on economic matters *serves as basis for president’s annual economic report Requires governmentto promote economicdevelopment
RESPONSIBILITIES-DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY*forefront of President’s efforts to promote the economic prosperity, fiscal stability, and financial security of the US*responsible for promoting economic prosperity and ensuring the soundness and security of US financial systems*operates and maintains systems critical to the nations financial infrastructure such as:1) production of coin and currency2) disbursement of payments to the American public3) collection of taxes4) borrowing of funds necessary to run the federal government*works to raise standards of living and predict/prevent economic and financial crises*implements economic sanctions against foreign threats to