9.2 HSC Core 2: Factors Affecting PerformanceFocus questions• How does training affect performance?• How does the body respond to aerobic training?• How can psychology affect performance?• How can nutrition affect performance?• How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?OutcomesA student:H7 explains the relationship between physiology and movement potentialH8 explains how a variety of training approaches and other interventions enhance performance and safety in physical activityH9 explains how movement skill is acquired and appraisedH10 designs and implements training plans to improve performanceH11 designs psychological strategies and nutritional plans in response to individual performance needsH16 devises methods of gathering, interpreting and communicating information about health and physical activity conceptsH17 selects appropriate options and formulates strategies based on a critical analysis of the factors that affect performance and safe participation.Suggested resource list• Browne, S., et al. (2000). PDHPE Application and Inquiry, HSC Course. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.• Parker, R., et al. (2000). Health Moves 2 HSC Course, Second edition. Port Melbourne: Heinemann.• Fitzgibbon, L. & Ruskin, R. (1996). Outcomes 2, The HSC Course. Milton, Qld: Jacaranda Press.• Kershaw, A. et al. (1995). Senior Personal Development, Health and Physical Education. Roseville: McGraw-Hill.• McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.L. and Katch, V.L. (1996). Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. 4th edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.• Burke, L. (1995). The Complete Guide to Food for Sports Performance. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.• Fitness testing facilities e.g. Sydney University Healthworks PDHPE program. Modules: 1. Fitness testing 2. Resistance training methods 3. Flexibility and CV training methods 4. Practical application of exercise physiology. Ph: 02 9351 8106. Contact person: Jillian Chandler. Cost: $12.50 per module. Usually two modules are completed per day.• Australian Institute of Sport at http://www.ausport.gov.au, sport topics on http://www.ausport.gov.au/topicmen.html• HSC On-line at http://hsc.csu.edu.au
How does training affect performance?Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategiesH7 H8 • energy systems • analyse energy systems • Participate in a variety of physical activities and - alactacid system in terms of identify the dominant energy system used. (ATP/PC) - source of fuel e.g. Discus/shotput - ATP/PC system ;100m - lactic acid system - efficiency of ATP swim and 400m run - lactic acid system; 1.6m run - aerobic system production or an aerobics lesson - aerobic system. - duration that the − Which energy systems are dominant for each system can operate activity? Give explanations. - cause of fatigue − What did you feel like during each activity that - by-products of energy may assist you in identifying the energy production system used? - process and rate of − Is there an interplay between the energy recovery systems during the activity? Give an explanation and provide examples. • Check your understanding of characteristics of each of the energy systems on the PDHPE HSC On-line web site at http://hsc.csu.edu.au • Explore lactic acid build up and the meaning of oxygen debt. Identify these factors by participating in practical laboratories. • Analyse playing positions in different sports e.g. cricket, netball, volleyball. Explore and describe the interplay of the energy systems for different players. Consider how this may influence the training needs of players.H8 H10 • principles of training • identify how the principles • Explore basic understandings about eachH16 - progressive overload of training relate to each principle of training and apply this to specific - specificity type of training, eg how physical activities or sports. Working in groups, - reversibility overload applies to a choose a sport and apply the principles of - variety flexibility program training to maximise performance e.g. soccer. - training thresholds Present your findings to the class. Analyse and
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies - warm-up/cool down discuss the appropriateness of the applications. • Construct a chart that identifies the types of training and examine how the principles of training could affect each type. • Visit a team training session of an athlete at an elite level. Critically analyse the application of training principles in the training session. Interview the coach or trainer about the way in which the principles of training were applied. • Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line for supplementary activities on the principles of training.H8 H10 • types of training • analyse two different • Examine the types of training. Choose a type ofH16 H17 − aerobic training programs, e.g. training and apply basic principles to a specific − strength backstroke swimming and sport or activity in conjunction with the principles − flexibility (static, road cycling and discuss of training. ballistic, PNF) how they relate to the • Participate in an aerobic laboratory in which principles of training. training methods such as interval training, fartlek and continuous training are explored. Discuss the effects on the body and their relationship to the principles of training. • Perform a laboratory experiment over a number of weeks to examine the effects of different types of flexibility training. Use a flexibility test, e.g. sit and reach test. Select three groups: a control group who do no stretches; a static stretching group, and a PNF stretching group. Design a program focussing on a specific stretch for each group. Perform a pre- and post-test for flexibility. Analyse the results to decide on the effectiveness of the training types. Discuss how the principles of training may effect results. • Use the Internet or other sources of information
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies to find elite training programs. Divide the class into groups and get each group to focus on one principle, i.e. overload or specificity etc. Identify the application of the principle of training in the program and report back to class. Note: Programs may be found on HSC On-line web site at http://hsc.csu.edu.au or at http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/plan.htm • Examine programs and evaluate the use of the principles of training and types of training, i.e. aerobic, strength and flexibility. Ask students to speculate about the body’s response to training. • Conduct an excursion to a fitness centre, e.g. Sydney University, and participate in laboratories on resistance training, CV training etc.
How does the body respond to aerobic training?Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategiesH8 H10 • the basis of aerobic • explain the purpose of • Ask students to complete a pre-screening training pre-screening. questionnaire. For examples of questionnaires see − pre-screening eg age, PDHPE HSC On-line at http://hsc.csu.edu.au health status Suggest reasons why particular questions are − application of FITT included in a pre-screening questionnaire. principle − How might the answers to questions in the pre- screening questionnaire affect the design of a fitness program? OR • Visit a fitness centre. Interview staff about their pre- screening methods. If possible watch the pre- screening process. Critically analyse the process and fitness centre practices. • design an aerobic training • Explore the elements of the FITT principle using a session based on the cooperative learning strategy, e.g. expert groups or FITT principle. study buddies. • Design an aerobic training session for individuals with a range of needs using the FITT principle, e.g. 50 year old heart transplant recipient; 20 year old obese person; 25 year old serious athlete or a mother of five children etc. • Discuss the factors that may affect the design of an exercise or training program, e.g. age, illness, recovery, rehabilitation, time constraints and history. Investigate how programs accommodate these factors by manipulating the FITT principle.H7 H8 • immediate physiological • determine the pattern of • Use pulse rate monitors to determine changes inH16 response to training respiration and heart rate the response of the heart to exercise in a variety of − heart rate before, during and after settings. Graph and discuss results e.g. sitting, − ventilation rate submaximal exercise walking on the flat, walking up steps.
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies − stroke volume through participation in a • Conduct a fitness laboratory using submaximal − cardiac output step test VO2 tests, e.g. ergometer tests or field tests such − lactate levels as Coopers 12 minute run. Analyse heart rate and ventilation levels before, during and after the test. Estimate stroke volume and cardiac output pre- exercise, during and post-exercise as well as recovery rates. Analyse factors that may have affected the results of students in the class, e.g. body size, gender and fitness level. • Examine graphs demonstrating the body’s response to training, e.g. the PDHPE HSC On-line web site in Core 2, Immediate response to training. Form opinions or give explanations about why the body has particular immediate physiological responses to training e.g. to increase blood supply, to meet oxygen demand or for waste removal. • Conduct a field trip to a fitness laboratory to participate in stress testing or a VO2 max test. Analyse and discuss the results.H7 H8 • physiological adaptations • interpret graphs and • Explore graphs and tables depicting a range ofH16 H17 in response to aerobic tables representing factors affecting trained and untrained athletes, e.g. training physiological adaptations changes in resting HR, stroke volume and cardiac - resting heart rate to training. output. Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line web site, - stroke volume and Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic cardiac output training in Core 2, for examples of graphs and - oxygen uptake activities. - lung capacity • Investigate the physiological adaptations an athlete - haemoglobin level may experience in response to aerobic training. - blood pressure. Design tests that measure these adaptations. • Predict the differences in the physiological adaptations that may occur for the aerobic and anaerobic athlete.
How can psychology affect performance?Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategiesH8 H16 • motivation • research case studies of • Play a word game using prizes as incentives to - positive and negative a number of athletes to demonstrate different types of motivation, e.g. - intrinsic and extrinsic ascertain the nature of a merit certificate, a food item from the canteen, or - social, material and their motivation and the a get out of trouble free card. internal reinforcement psychological strategies • Explore the factors that may affect motivation e.g. they employ self-esteem, environment, ability of the coach etc. The PDHPE HSC On-line explores motivational factors for a junior elite athlete. • In pairs, interview athletes or research case studies to determine motivational factors and psychological strategies used to improve performance. Try to use both individual and team sport athletes involved in sports that use fine, gross, open and closed skills. • Conduct a survey of junior students who participate in sport. Address all the motivational types in the survey to discover the most common categories of motivation. • Compare and contrast motivational factors of students involved in school sport to that of an elite athlete. • Debate the types of motivation that yield the greatest success. Discuss factors that influence the type of motivation used. • Investigate strategies used by athletes to remain motivated in training programs.H10 H11 • anxiety • discern the difference • Define trait and state anxiety and characteristics ofH16 - trait and state anxiety between anxiety and each. - sources of stress arousal in terms of the • Use group work to research anxiety and arousal - optimum arousal effects on performance and their possible effects on performance. Report back to the class using an “around the room”
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies discussion (every student contributes one relevant sentence). Suggest reasons why the level of arousal affects performance. • Examine the relationship between anxiety and arousal in optimising performance in sport, i.e. the inverted “U” hypothesis. Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line web site for activities on this area. • Design an experiment that can measure anxiety and arousal levels. Discuss the impact on performance for different individuals and aim to discover the point at which performance is optimal. For example, ask the students to perform a fine motor skill e.g. “putting” a golf ball, with different sources of stress such as lots of people watching, relaxing music, quietness, loud noises, class yelling abuse, rewards offered etc. Analyse the effects on performance. • Discuss the notion of “choking” and give examples where individuals have been accused of “choking’ in major sporting events. Show video footage of these events, if available. • Examine the role of sports psychologists. What do they actually do? Give examples of their work. • Debate the following statements; - “Psychology is a critical factor in elite performance.” - “’Psyching-up’ to get ‘over-excited’ are two different things in sport.” - “Winning or losing an Olympic 100metre final takes more than physical ability.” - “Psychology is one of our most powerful tools for improving performance.”
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategiesH8 H11 • managing anxiety • apply a range of • Brainstorm ways that athletes manage or reduceH16 H17 − concentration/ psychological strategies their anxiety levels. attentional skills to practical laboratories • Explore the Internet or other sources of information (focusing) eg mental rehearsal related to managing anxiety, e.g. the PDHPE HSC − mental rehearsal before long jump On-line site or other sites such as − visualisation http://brianmac.demon.co.uk/psych.htm − relaxation • Conduct relaxation and visualisation exercises with − goal-setting the class, e.g. meditation, tai chi, relaxation tapes and music, to explore different ways to manage anxiety. • Interview an elite athlete about how they manage anxiety. Discuss the use of mental rehearsal, visualisation, relaxation and goal-setting as strategies to mange anxiety. For example: − Do they use mental rehearsal? When and how? − What type of strategies do they use to relax? − Are different relaxation techniques used at different times in the training calender, e.g. out of competition training, during competition training, pre-event and post-event? − Do they set short-term, intermediate and long- term goals? Give examples of these. − Do they set behavioural and psychological goals as well as performance goals? Give examples. • Conduct an experiment on the benefits of mental rehearsal. Divide the class into four groups. Identify a new skill to learn. For example, a reverse dribble in hockey or the overhead serve in volleyball. Initially, give the class ten minutes of instruction and practice time. Perform a pre-test and record results. Then, each group does the following: − Group 1: Has 10 minutes of physical practice only.
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies − Group 2: Has 10 minutes of physical practice and 10 minutes of mental rehearsal. − Group 3: Has 10 minutes of mental rehearsal only. − Group 4: Has no practice at all. Predict the outcomes. Conduct a post-test and analyse the results and the effect of mental rehearsal on the skill level of each group. Draw conclusions about mental rehearsal. • Explore questions such as: − Do some sports rely on psychological more than others? Give explanations. − Does the level of participation influence the role of psychology? Why? − What role will psychology have in sport in the future? • Identify a range of psychological strategies that can be used in sport and discuss factors that influence their use. Justify the use of the strategies.
How can nutrition affect performance?Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategiesH7 H10 • balanced diet • design a pre-event and • View video material related to diet andH11 - is it adequate for recovery nutritional plan performance. performance needs? for an athlete that • Research the Internet for information regarding includes the principles of nutrition e.g. http://www.ausport.gov.au/nut.html. carbohydrate loading • Critique articles about diet and performance from sports magazines. • Determine the specific dietary requirements for specialist sports such as: − a marathon runner − a sprinter − a hockey player. Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line site for specific information relating to nutrition and programs. • Suggest reasons for variations in dietary requirements depending on the nature of the activity or sport. • Explore the meaning of carbohydrate loading. − Is carbohydrate loading as beneficial as some would lead us to believe? Why? − Can similar benefits be gained in other ways? How? − Investigate the potential dangers for an athlete who is carbohydrate loading. • Design, prepare and eat a meal appropriate for carbohydrate loading.H7 H10 • supplementation • compare the pre- • Design a meal to be consumed either pre- or post- - vitamins performance diets of event that meets the following criteria: - minerals several athletes, − low fat - carbohydrate loading considering: − high complex carbohydrates - use of diet − low salt/sugar. supplements • Allocate one nutritional supplement or issue related
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies - fluid intake levels to supplements (e.g. minerals needs and women - foods consumed athletes) to a group of 3-4 students. Research the issue and present the findings to the class. Use the PDHPE HSC On-line site to help students research sport supplementation. • Evaluate the need for the following in both endurance and anaerobic events: − supplements − fluid intake − sports drinks − fat, protein, carbohydrate in foods consumed. • Discuss the following questions: “ If I had a poor diet could I still: − run fast? − run long distance? − throw a shot put?” Explore reasons for your answers. • Analyse the contents of various sports drinks. What are the common elements? Research the benefits, if any, of these drinks.H11 H16 • hydration • Investigate the effect of dehydration on bodyH17 - principles of body temperature regulation. temperature regulation • Challenge current attitudes and beliefs about nutritional needs including the use of sports drinks and the type of fluid intake. Examine why it may be essential or detrimental to performance. Refer to web sites such as http://www.monash.edu.au/pubs/montage/Montage _96-05/Sportdrink.html and the gatorade site at www.gssiweb.com • guidelines for fluid • examine the relationship • Monitor fluid loss in an athlete by measuring body replacement between body weight, before, during and after exercise. Graph
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies temperature regulation the results. Calculate the fluid replacement and fluid intake requirements of the athlete. • Analyse the factors that determine fluid replacement needs for a variety of events. e.g. the Marathon or swimming. • Do swimmers need to replace fluid? Why? • Develop a set of guidelines for adequate hydration and fluid replacement in athletes. Include recommendations for pre-competition, during competition and post-competition. For further information refer to pp 176-177 of the Teaching and learning resources found on the Aspire CD ROM,
Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategiesH8 H9 • the learning process • plan and implement skill • Choose a skill. Some students learn the skill using - a cyclic process development sessions cyclic learning; others practice without feedback/ (perceiving, deciding, that show an evaluation etc. Compare the results and the acting, feedback) understanding of the progression of learning. learning process • Examine factors that may affect the learning of a new sport. Suggest reasons why people learn at • characteristics of the different rates. learner, e.g. personality, • Analyse a video of a sporting activity, e.g. rugby heredity, confidence, league. Select a talented player and a beginner. prior, experience, ability Discuss the traits/ characteristics of each athlete. How do these characteristics affect one’s ability to learn a skill?H10 H16 • the learning environment • Conduct a lab on the types of practice, e.g.H17 - physical environment juggling. Divide class into groups and allocate each - nature of skill (open, group a type of practice. closed, gross, fine, Encourage the use of different types of practice for discrete, serial, each group such as: continuous, self-paced, − Group 1: Learn to juggle using distributed externally-paced) practice. - practice method − Group 2: Learn to juggle using massed practice. (massed, distributed − Group 3: Learn to juggle using part-method, whole, part) followed by whole-method. - feedback (internal, − Group 4: Learn to juggle using whole-method external, concurrent, only. delayed, knowledge of Predict the results and give reasons for the results, knowledge of predictions. Discuss the final results of each performance) method. Draw conclusions about the most appropriate practice method when learning to juggle.
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies Variation: Provide external and concurrent feedback whilst learning to juggle. Draw conclusions about the most appropriate types of feedback for different stages of skill acquisition. • Explore how the 3 aspects of the learning environment interact to affect the learning of a skill i.e. the nature of the skill, the practice method and type of feedback. • Conduct a lab focussing on the learning environment. Working in groups, select a student to perform a skill e.g. putting a golfball, shooting a basketball or kicking a goal in soccer. Ask students to determine the best learning environment for the individual to improve their skill level. Provide this environment and record results. Change the learning environment. Get the students to keep statistics and graph these as appropriate. Examine the effect on learning. Changes could include: − physical environment (e.g. weather, surface) − nature of skill (e.g. open, closed, discrete) − practice method (e.g. massed, distributed) feedback (e.g. internal, delayed, K of P, K of R)H9 H10 • stages of skill acquisition • examine the stages of • Select a gross-motor skill e.g. a kick, throw or pass.H16 - cognitive skill acquisition by Discuss and list the 3 stages of learning for the - associative participating in the skill. Teach these skills to a small group of Year 7 - autonomous learning of a new skill, eg. students over a period of time. Provide a variety of juggling, throwing with feedback and practice methods. Observe and note non dominant hand rates of learning and transition through the stages. Identify factors affecting skill acquisition. • rates of skill acquisition • design a suitable plan for − Was the rate of skill acquisition affected by the − learning curves and teaching beginners to nature of the skill? How? plateaus acquire a skill through to − What was the role of feedback in progressing
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies − implications of rate of mastery. The plan should through the stages of skill acquisition? learning reflect: • Debate the role of feedback in skill acquisition. − appropriate practice Identify the most appropriate use of feedback for methods for the each stage of skill acquisition. learners • Create imaginary statistics that provide students − an awareness of how with an opportunity to graph and interpret the rate instruction may vary of learning and stages of skill acquisition. according to • Evaluate the ability of younger students to learn characteristics of the using different types of feedback. Compare these learner types and their effectiveness. e.g. Appropriate use − how feedback will be of feedback where both knowledge of results used as learners (K of R) and knowledge of performance (K of P) progress through the are provided. stages of skill OR acquisition Explore in-appropriate use of feedback where K of R is not provided and K of P is provided, or no external feedback is provided.H11 H16 • skilled performers versus • analyse video of various • Observe video or actual performance of athletes unskilled performers standard performers to participating in sport, e.g. beginner, school sport, − kinaesthetic sense ascertain the qualities of area representative, state or national level. Discuss − anticipation and timing skilled as compared to the characteristics of athletes at each level. − mental approach unskilled performers − What allows an athlete to be identified as skilled − consistency or unskilled? − Can this be represented as a continuum? Give reasons. Identify the characteristics of the performer at each stage of skill acquisition. • Define each of the characteristics of a skilled performer and describe what it might look like in different sports. • Explore the reasons why athletes who are in the autonomous stage of skill acquisition are not equally skilled.
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategiesH9 H16 • objective measurement of • identify skill-related tests • Conduct a laboratory on skill-related tests. AskH17 skill that are valid and reliable students to participate in the Sports Search − skill-related tests Program. Discuss the role of validity and reliability − validity and reliability in these testing procedures. of tests • Identify two commonly used skill-related tests. Discuss two protocols used in these tests. Devise methods to improve their reliability and validity. • Draw conclusions about how tests can be made more objective. • Ask students to design, administer and evaluate their own test. e.g. an objective test on a free throw or jump shot in basketball. Compare and contrast the two tests and results.H9 H16 • judging the quality of • think critically about • View video footage or attend a sports competitionH17 performance performance by to explore the nature of judging. Decide on the − characteristics of investigating questions, focus of the judging e.g. best team performer or skilled performance such as: most outstanding performer. Ask the students to − outcomes of skilled − who creates standards construct their own personal criteria. Use this to performance of performance? make a judgement and draw conclusions about the − personal versus − what is quality of use of personal criteria. Discuss the criteria upon prescribed judging performance? which they made their judgement and share criteria. − what are the conclusions. Discuss issues such as consistency of outcomes of skilled judgement and determining the criteria for judging. performance? • As a class, develop prescribed criteria for judging and use the criteria to judge a sporting event. Share findings. Explore the following questions: − Did this create consistency of judgement? Why? − What are factors that still influence people’s judgement? − How could the criteria be developed more explicitly to lessen the subjectivity of people’s judgement? − How are “standards” for judgement determined
Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies by sporting bodies and performing arts groups? • Discuss the differences between personal and prescribed criteria. Evaluate each type.