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9.2 HSC Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance

Focus questions
•  How does training affect performance?
•  How does the body respond to aerobic training?
•  How can psychology affect performance?
•  How can nutrition affect performance?
•  How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?

Outcomes
A student:
H7 explains the relationship between physiology and movement potential
H8 explains how a variety of training approaches and other interventions enhance performance and safety in physical activity
H9 explains how movement skill is acquired and appraised
H10 designs and implements training plans to improve performance
H11 designs psychological strategies and nutritional plans in response to individual performance needs
H16 devises methods of gathering, interpreting and communicating information about health and physical activity concepts
H17 selects appropriate options and formulates strategies based on a critical analysis of the factors that affect performance and safe
     participation.

Suggested resource list
• Browne, S., et al. (2000). PDHPE Application and Inquiry, HSC Course. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
• Parker, R., et al. (2000). Health Moves 2 HSC Course, Second edition. Port Melbourne: Heinemann.
•   Fitzgibbon, L. & Ruskin, R. (1996). Outcomes 2, The HSC Course. Milton, Qld: Jacaranda Press.
•   Kershaw, A. et al. (1995). Senior Personal Development, Health and Physical Education. Roseville: McGraw-Hill.
•   McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.L. and Katch, V.L. (1996). Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. 4th edition.
    Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
•   Burke, L. (1995). The Complete Guide to Food for Sports Performance. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
•   Fitness testing facilities e.g. Sydney University Healthworks PDHPE program. Modules: 1. Fitness testing 2. Resistance training
    methods 3. Flexibility and CV training methods 4. Practical application of exercise physiology. Ph: 02 9351 8106. Contact person:
    Jillian Chandler. Cost: $12.50 per module. Usually two modules are completed per day.
•   Australian Institute of Sport at http://www.ausport.gov.au, sport topics on http://www.ausport.gov.au/topicmen.html
•   HSC On-line at http://hsc.csu.edu.au
How does training affect performance?

Outcomes   Students learn about:              Students learn to:                                 Suggested strategies
H7 H8      •    energy systems                •    analyse energy systems       •   Participate in a variety of physical activities and
               - alactacid system                  in terms of                      identify the dominant energy system used.
                  (ATP/PC)                        - source of fuel                  e.g. Discus/shotput - ATP/PC system ;100m
               - lactic acid system               - efficiency of ATP               swim and 400m run - lactic acid system; 1.6m run
               - aerobic system                       production                    or an aerobics lesson - aerobic system.
                                                  - duration that the               − Which energy systems are dominant for each
                                                      system can operate                activity? Give explanations.
                                                  - cause of fatigue                − What did you feel like during each activity that
                                                  - by-products of energy               may assist you in identifying the energy
                                                      production                        system used?
                                                  - process and rate of             − Is there an interplay between the energy
                                                      recovery                          systems during the activity? Give an
                                                                                        explanation and provide examples.
                                                                                •   Check your understanding of characteristics of
                                                                                    each of the energy systems on the PDHPE HSC
                                                                                    On-line web site at http://hsc.csu.edu.au
                                                                                •   Explore lactic acid build up and the meaning of
                                                                                    oxygen debt. Identify these factors by
                                                                                    participating in practical laboratories.
                                                                                •   Analyse playing positions in different sports e.g.
                                                                                    cricket, netball, volleyball. Explore and describe
                                                                                    the interplay of the energy systems for different
                                                                                    players. Consider how this may influence the
                                                                                    training needs of players.

H8 H10     •       principles of training     •   identify how the principles   •   Explore basic understandings about each
H16            -     progressive overload         of training relate to each        principle of training and apply this to specific
               -     specificity                  type of training, eg how          physical activities or sports. Working in groups,
               -     reversibility                overload applies to a             choose a sport and apply the principles of
               -     variety                      flexibility program               training to maximise performance e.g. soccer.
               -     training thresholds                                            Present your findings to the class. Analyse and
Outcomes   Students learn about:        Students learn to:                               Suggested strategies
               - warm-up/cool down                                         discuss the appropriateness of the applications.
                                                                       •   Construct a chart that identifies the types of
                                                                           training and examine how the principles of
                                                                           training could affect each type.
                                                                       •   Visit a team training session of an athlete at an
                                                                           elite level. Critically analyse the application of
                                                                           training principles in the training session.
                                                                           Interview the coach or trainer about the way in
                                                                           which the principles of training were applied.
                                                                       •   Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line for
                                                                           supplementary activities on the principles of
                                                                           training.

H8 H10     •   types of training        •   analyse two different      •   Examine the types of training. Choose a type of
H16 H17        − aerobic                    training programs, e.g.        training and apply basic principles to a specific
               − strength                   backstroke swimming and        sport or activity in conjunction with the principles
               − flexibility (static,       road cycling and discuss       of training.
                  ballistic, PNF)           how they relate to the     •   Participate in an aerobic laboratory in which
                                            principles of training.        training methods such as interval training, fartlek
                                                                           and continuous training are explored. Discuss
                                                                           the effects on the body and their relationship to
                                                                           the principles of training.
                                                                       •   Perform a laboratory experiment over a number
                                                                           of weeks to examine the effects of different types
                                                                           of flexibility training. Use a flexibility test, e.g. sit
                                                                           and reach test. Select three groups: a control
                                                                           group who do no stretches; a static stretching
                                                                           group, and a PNF stretching group. Design a
                                                                           program focussing on a specific stretch for each
                                                                           group. Perform a pre- and post-test for flexibility.
                                                                           Analyse the results to decide on the
                                                                           effectiveness of the training types. Discuss how
                                                                           the principles of training may effect results.
                                                                       •   Use the Internet or other sources of information
Outcomes   Students learn about:   Students learn to:                    Suggested strategies
                                                            to find elite training programs. Divide the class
                                                            into groups and get each group to focus on one
                                                            principle, i.e. overload or specificity etc. Identify
                                                            the application of the principle of training in the
                                                            program and report back to class. Note:
                                                            Programs may be found on HSC On-line web
                                                            site at http://hsc.csu.edu.au or at
                                                            http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/plan.htm
                                                        •   Examine programs and evaluate the use of the
                                                            principles of training and types of training, i.e.
                                                            aerobic, strength and flexibility. Ask students to
                                                            speculate about the body’s response to training.
                                                        •   Conduct an excursion to a fitness centre, e.g.
                                                            Sydney University, and participate in laboratories
                                                            on resistance training, CV training etc.
How does the body respond to aerobic training?

Outcomes   Students learn about:         Students learn to:                                 Suggested strategies
H8 H10     •   the basis of aerobic      •   explain the purpose of       •   Ask students to complete a pre-screening
               training                      pre-screening.                   questionnaire. For examples of questionnaires see
               − pre-screening eg age,                                        PDHPE HSC On-line at http://hsc.csu.edu.au
                   health status                                              Suggest reasons why particular questions are
               − application of FITT                                          included in a pre-screening questionnaire.
                   principle                                                  − How might the answers to questions in the pre-
                                                                                  screening questionnaire affect the design of a
                                                                                  fitness program?
                                                                          OR
                                                                          • Visit a fitness centre. Interview staff about their pre-
                                                                             screening methods. If possible watch the pre-
                                                                             screening process. Critically analyse the process
                                                                             and fitness centre practices.

                                         •   design an aerobic training   •   Explore the elements of the FITT principle using a
                                             session based on the             cooperative learning strategy, e.g. expert groups or
                                             FITT principle.                  study buddies.
                                                                          •   Design an aerobic training session for individuals
                                                                              with a range of needs using the FITT principle, e.g.
                                                                              50 year old heart transplant recipient; 20 year old
                                                                              obese person; 25 year old serious athlete or a
                                                                              mother of five children etc.
                                                                          •   Discuss the factors that may affect the design of an
                                                                              exercise or training program, e.g. age, illness,
                                                                              recovery, rehabilitation, time constraints and
                                                                              history. Investigate how programs accommodate
                                                                              these factors by manipulating the FITT principle.

H7 H8      •   immediate physiological   •   determine the pattern of     •   Use pulse rate monitors to determine changes in
H16            response to training          respiration and heart rate       the response of the heart to exercise in a variety of
               − heart rate                  before, during and after         settings. Graph and discuss results e.g. sitting,
               − ventilation rate            submaximal exercise              walking on the flat, walking up steps.
Outcomes   Students learn about:            Students learn to:                                 Suggested strategies
               −   stroke volume                through participation in a   •   Conduct a fitness laboratory using submaximal
               −   cardiac output               step test                        VO2 tests, e.g. ergometer tests or field tests such
               −   lactate levels                                                as Coopers 12 minute run. Analyse heart rate and
                                                                                 ventilation levels before, during and after the test.
                                                                                 Estimate stroke volume and cardiac output pre-
                                                                                 exercise, during and post-exercise as well as
                                                                                 recovery rates. Analyse factors that may have
                                                                                 affected the results of students in the class, e.g.
                                                                                 body size, gender and fitness level.
                                                                             •   Examine graphs demonstrating the body’s
                                                                                 response to training, e.g. the PDHPE HSC On-line
                                                                                 web site in Core 2, Immediate response to training.
                                                                                 Form opinions or give explanations about why the
                                                                                 body has particular immediate physiological
                                                                                 responses to training e.g. to increase blood supply,
                                                                                 to meet oxygen demand or for waste removal.
                                                                             •   Conduct a field trip to a fitness laboratory to
                                                                                 participate in stress testing or a VO2 max test.
                                                                                 Analyse and discuss the results.

H7 H8      •    physiological adaptations   •   interpret graphs and         •   Explore graphs and tables depicting a range of
H16 H17         in response to aerobic          tables representing              factors affecting trained and untrained athletes, e.g.
                training                        physiological adaptations        changes in resting HR, stroke volume and cardiac
               - resting heart rate             to training.                     output. Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line web site,
               - stroke volume and                                               Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic
                   cardiac output                                                training in Core 2, for examples of graphs and
               - oxygen uptake                                                   activities.
               - lung capacity                                               •   Investigate the physiological adaptations an athlete
               - haemoglobin level                                               may experience in response to aerobic training.
               - blood pressure.                                                 Design tests that measure these adaptations.
                                                                             •   Predict the differences in the physiological
                                                                                 adaptations that may occur for the aerobic and
                                                                                 anaerobic athlete.
How can psychology affect performance?

Outcomes   Students learn about:              Students learn to:                               Suggested strategies
H8 H16     •    motivation                    •   research case studies of   •    Play a word game using prizes as incentives to
               - positive and negative            a number of athletes to         demonstrate different types of motivation, e.g.
               - intrinsic and extrinsic          ascertain the nature of         a merit certificate, a food item from the canteen, or
               - social, material and             their motivation and the        a get out of trouble free card.
                 internal reinforcement           psychological strategies   •   Explore the factors that may affect motivation e.g.
                                                  they employ                    self-esteem, environment, ability of the coach etc.
                                                                                 The PDHPE HSC On-line explores motivational
                                                                                 factors for a junior elite athlete.
                                                                             •   In pairs, interview athletes or research case studies
                                                                                 to determine motivational factors and psychological
                                                                                 strategies used to improve performance. Try to use
                                                                                 both individual and team sport athletes involved in
                                                                                 sports that use fine, gross, open and closed skills.
                                                                             •   Conduct a survey of junior students who participate
                                                                                 in sport. Address all the motivational types in the
                                                                                 survey to discover the most common categories of
                                                                                 motivation.
                                                                             •   Compare and contrast motivational factors of
                                                                                 students involved in school sport to that of an elite
                                                                                 athlete.
                                                                             •   Debate the types of motivation that yield the
                                                                                 greatest success. Discuss factors that influence the
                                                                                 type of motivation used.
                                                                             •   Investigate strategies used by athletes to remain
                                                                                 motivated in training programs.

H10 H11    •    anxiety                       •   discern the difference     •   Define trait and state anxiety and characteristics of
H16            - trait and state anxiety          between anxiety and            each.
               - sources of stress                arousal in terms of the    •   Use group work to research anxiety and arousal
               - optimum arousal                  effects on performance         and their possible effects on performance. Report
                                                                                 back to the class using an “around the room”
Outcomes   Students learn about:   Students learn to:                     Suggested strategies
                                                            discussion (every student contributes one relevant
                                                            sentence). Suggest reasons why the level of
                                                            arousal affects performance.
                                                        •   Examine the relationship between anxiety and
                                                            arousal in optimising performance in sport, i.e. the
                                                            inverted “U” hypothesis. Refer to the PDHPE HSC
                                                            On-line web site for activities on this area.
                                                        •   Design an experiment that can measure anxiety
                                                            and arousal levels. Discuss the impact on
                                                            performance for different individuals and aim to
                                                            discover the point at which performance is optimal.
                                                            For example, ask the students to perform a fine
                                                            motor skill e.g. “putting” a golf ball, with different
                                                            sources of stress such as lots of people watching,
                                                            relaxing music, quietness, loud noises, class yelling
                                                            abuse, rewards offered etc. Analyse the effects on
                                                            performance.
                                                        •   Discuss the notion of “choking” and give examples
                                                            where individuals have been accused of “choking’
                                                            in major sporting events. Show video footage of
                                                            these events, if available.
                                                        •   Examine the role of sports psychologists. What do
                                                            they actually do? Give examples of their work.
                                                        •   Debate the following statements;
                                                             - “Psychology is a critical factor in elite
                                                                performance.”
                                                            - “’Psyching-up’ to get ‘over-excited’ are two
                                                                different things in sport.”
                                                             - “Winning or losing an Olympic 100metre final
                                                                takes more than physical ability.”
                                                             - “Psychology is one of our most powerful tools
                                                                for improving performance.”
Outcomes   Students learn about:      Students learn to:                                Suggested strategies
H8 H11     •   managing anxiety       •   apply a range of            •   Brainstorm ways that athletes manage or reduce
H16 H17        − concentration/           psychological strategies        their anxiety levels.
                 attentional skills       to practical laboratories   •   Explore the Internet or other sources of information
                 (focusing)               eg mental rehearsal             related to managing anxiety, e.g. the PDHPE HSC
               − mental rehearsal         before long jump                On-line site or other sites such as
               − visualisation                                            http://brianmac.demon.co.uk/psych.htm
               − relaxation                                           •   Conduct relaxation and visualisation exercises with
               − goal-setting                                             the class, e.g. meditation, tai chi, relaxation tapes
                                                                          and music, to explore different ways to manage
                                                                          anxiety.
                                                                      •   Interview an elite athlete about how they manage
                                                                          anxiety. Discuss the use of mental rehearsal,
                                                                          visualisation, relaxation and goal-setting as
                                                                          strategies to mange anxiety. For example:
                                                                          − Do they use mental rehearsal? When and how?
                                                                          − What type of strategies do they use to relax?
                                                                          − Are different relaxation techniques used at
                                                                               different times in the training calender, e.g. out
                                                                               of competition training, during competition
                                                                               training, pre-event and post-event?
                                                                          − Do they set short-term, intermediate and long-
                                                                               term goals? Give examples of these.
                                                                          − Do they set behavioural and psychological
                                                                               goals as well as performance goals? Give
                                                                               examples.
                                                                      •   Conduct an experiment on the benefits of mental
                                                                          rehearsal. Divide the class into four groups. Identify
                                                                          a new skill to learn. For example, a reverse dribble
                                                                          in hockey or the overhead serve in volleyball.
                                                                          Initially, give the class ten minutes of instruction
                                                                          and practice time. Perform a pre-test and record
                                                                          results. Then, each group does the following:
                                                                          − Group 1: Has 10 minutes of physical practice
                                                                               only.
Outcomes   Students learn about:   Students learn to:                     Suggested strategies
                                                            −  Group 2: Has 10 minutes of physical practice
                                                               and 10 minutes of mental rehearsal.
                                                            − Group 3: Has 10 minutes of mental rehearsal
                                                               only.
                                                            − Group 4: Has no practice at all.
                                                            Predict the outcomes. Conduct a post-test and
                                                            analyse the results and the effect of mental
                                                            rehearsal on the skill level of each group. Draw
                                                            conclusions about mental rehearsal.
                                                        •   Explore questions such as:
                                                            − Do some sports rely on psychological more than
                                                               others? Give explanations.
                                                            − Does the level of participation influence the role
                                                               of psychology? Why?
                                                            − What role will psychology have in sport in the
                                                               future?
                                                        •   Identify a range of psychological strategies that can
                                                            be used in sport and discuss factors that influence
                                                            their use. Justify the use of the strategies.
How can nutrition affect performance?

Outcomes   Students learn about:        Students learn to:                                 Suggested strategies
H7 H10     •    balanced diet           •   design a pre-event and       •   View video material related to diet and
H11            - is it adequate for         recovery nutritional plan        performance.
                  performance needs?        for an athlete that          •   Research the Internet for information regarding
                                            includes the principles of       nutrition e.g. http://www.ausport.gov.au/nut.html.
                                            carbohydrate loading         •   Critique articles about diet and performance from
                                                                             sports magazines.
                                                                         •   Determine the specific dietary requirements for
                                                                             specialist sports such as:
                                                                             − a marathon runner
                                                                             − a sprinter
                                                                             − a hockey player.
                                                                              Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line site for specific
                                                                              information relating to nutrition and programs.
                                                                         •   Suggest reasons for variations in dietary
                                                                             requirements depending on the nature of the
                                                                             activity or sport.
                                                                         •   Explore the meaning of carbohydrate loading.
                                                                             − Is carbohydrate loading as beneficial as some
                                                                                  would lead us to believe? Why?
                                                                             − Can similar benefits be gained in other ways?
                                                                                  How?
                                                                             − Investigate the potential dangers for an athlete
                                                                                 who is carbohydrate loading.
                                                                         •   Design, prepare and eat a meal appropriate for
                                                                             carbohydrate loading.

H7 H10     •    supplementation         •    compare the pre-            •   Design a meal to be consumed either pre- or post-
               - vitamins                    performance diets of            event that meets the following criteria:
               - minerals                    several athletes,               − low fat
               - carbohydrate loading        considering:                    − high complex carbohydrates
                                            - use of diet                    − low salt/sugar.
                                               supplements               •   Allocate one nutritional supplement or issue related
Outcomes   Students learn about:           Students learn to:                               Suggested strategies
                                               - fluid intake levels          to supplements (e.g. minerals needs and women
                                               - foods consumed               athletes) to a group of 3-4 students. Research the
                                                                              issue and present the findings to the class. Use the
                                                                              PDHPE HSC On-line site to help students research
                                                                              sport supplementation.
                                                                          •   Evaluate the need for the following in both
                                                                              endurance and anaerobic events:
                                                                              − supplements
                                                                              − fluid intake
                                                                              − sports drinks
                                                                              − fat, protein, carbohydrate in foods consumed.
                                                                          •   Discuss the following questions:
                                                                              “ If I had a poor diet could I still:
                                                                              − run fast?
                                                                              − run long distance?
                                                                              − throw a shot put?”
                                                                              Explore reasons for your answers.
                                                                          •   Analyse the contents of various sports drinks. What
                                                                              are the common elements? Research the benefits,
                                                                              if any, of these drinks.

H11 H16    •    hydration                                                 •   Investigate the effect of dehydration on body
H17            - principles of body                                           temperature regulation.
                  temperature regulation                                  •   Challenge current attitudes and beliefs about
                                                                              nutritional needs including the use of sports drinks
                                                                              and the type of fluid intake. Examine why it may be
                                                                              essential or detrimental to performance. Refer to
                                                                              web sites such as
                                                                              http://www.monash.edu.au/pubs/montage/Montage
                                                                              _96-05/Sportdrink.html and the gatorade site at
                                                                              www.gssiweb.com

           •   guidelines for fluid        •   examine the relationship   •   Monitor fluid loss in an athlete by measuring body
               replacement                     between body                   weight, before, during and after exercise. Graph
Outcomes   Students learn about:   Students learn to:                            Suggested strategies
                                      temperature regulation       the results. Calculate the fluid replacement
                                      and fluid intake             requirements of the athlete.
                                                               •   Analyse the factors that determine fluid
                                                                   replacement needs for a variety of events. e.g. the
                                                                   Marathon or swimming.
                                                                   • Do swimmers need to replace fluid? Why?
                                                               •   Develop a set of guidelines for adequate hydration
                                                                   and fluid replacement in athletes. Include
                                                                   recommendations for pre-competition, during
                                                                   competition and post-competition. For further
                                                                   information refer to pp 176-177 of the Teaching
                                                                   and learning resources found on the Aspire CD
                                                                   ROM,
Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance
                                    How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?

Outcomes   Students learn about:            Students learn to:                               Suggested strategies
H8 H9      •    the learning process        •   plan and implement skill   •   Choose a skill. Some students learn the skill using
               - a cyclic process               development sessions           cyclic learning; others practice without feedback/
                  (perceiving, deciding,        that show an                   evaluation etc. Compare the results and the
                  acting, feedback)             understanding of the           progression of learning.
                                                learning process           •   Examine factors that may affect the learning of a
                                                                               new sport. Suggest reasons why people learn at
           •   characteristics of the                                          different rates.
               learner, e.g. personality,                                  •   Analyse a video of a sporting activity, e.g. rugby
               heredity, confidence,                                           league. Select a talented player and a beginner.
               prior, experience, ability                                      Discuss the traits/ characteristics of each athlete.
                                                                               How do these characteristics affect one’s ability to
                                                                               learn a skill?

H10 H16    •    the learning environment                                   •   Conduct a lab on the types of practice, e.g.
H17            - physical environment                                          juggling. Divide class into groups and allocate each
               - nature of skill (open,                                        group a type of practice.
                  closed, gross, fine,                                          Encourage the use of different types of practice for
                  discrete, serial,                                             each group such as:
                  continuous, self-paced,                                      − Group 1: Learn to juggle using distributed
                  externally-paced)                                               practice.
               - practice method                                               − Group 2: Learn to juggle using massed practice.
                  (massed, distributed                                         − Group 3: Learn to juggle using part-method,
                  whole, part)                                                    followed by whole-method.
               - feedback (internal,                                           − Group 4: Learn to juggle using whole-method
                  external, concurrent,                                           only.
                  delayed, knowledge of                                        Predict the results and give reasons for the
                  results, knowledge of                                        predictions. Discuss the final results of each
                  performance)                                                 method. Draw conclusions about the most
                                                                               appropriate practice method when learning to
                                                                               juggle.
Outcomes   Students learn about:              Students learn to:                                   Suggested strategies
                                                                                     Variation: Provide external and concurrent
                                                                                     feedback whilst learning to juggle. Draw
                                                                                     conclusions about the most appropriate types of
                                                                                     feedback for different stages of skill acquisition.
                                                                                 •   Explore how the 3 aspects of the learning
                                                                                     environment interact to affect the learning of a skill
                                                                                     i.e. the nature of the skill, the practice method and
                                                                                     type of feedback.
                                                                                 •   Conduct a lab focussing on the learning
                                                                                     environment. Working in groups, select a student to
                                                                                     perform a skill e.g. putting a golfball, shooting a
                                                                                     basketball or kicking a goal in soccer.
                                                                                     Ask students to determine the best learning
                                                                                     environment for the individual to improve their skill
                                                                                     level. Provide this environment and record results.
                                                                                     Change the learning environment. Get the students
                                                                                     to keep statistics and graph these as appropriate.
                                                                                     Examine the effect on learning. Changes could
                                                                                     include:
                                                                                     − physical environment (e.g. weather, surface)
                                                                                     − nature of skill (e.g. open, closed, discrete)
                                                                                     − practice method (e.g. massed, distributed)
                                                                                          feedback (e.g. internal, delayed, K of P, K of R)

H9 H10     •    stages of skill acquisition   •   examine the stages of          •   Select a gross-motor skill e.g. a kick, throw or pass.
H16            - cognitive                        skill acquisition by               Discuss and list the 3 stages of learning for the
               - associative                      participating in the               skill. Teach these skills to a small group of Year 7
               - autonomous                       learning of a new skill, eg.       students over a period of time. Provide a variety of
                                                  juggling, throwing with            feedback and practice methods. Observe and note
                                                  non dominant hand                  rates of learning and transition through the stages.
                                                                                     Identify factors affecting skill acquisition.
           •   rates of skill acquisition     •   design a suitable plan for         − Was the rate of skill acquisition affected by the
               −   learning curves and            teaching beginners to                   nature of the skill? How?
                   plateaus                       acquire a skill through to         − What was the role of feedback in progressing
Outcomes   Students learn about:             Students learn to:                                 Suggested strategies
               −   implications of rate of       mastery. The plan should             through the stages of skill acquisition?
                   learning                      reflect:                     •   Debate the role of feedback in skill acquisition.
                                                 − appropriate practice           Identify the most appropriate use of feedback for
                                                     methods for the              each stage of skill acquisition.
                                                     learners                 •   Create imaginary statistics that provide students
                                                 − an awareness of how            with an opportunity to graph and interpret the rate
                                                     instruction may vary         of learning and stages of skill acquisition.
                                                     according to             •   Evaluate the ability of younger students to learn
                                                     characteristics of the       using different types of feedback. Compare these
                                                     learner                      types and their effectiveness. e.g. Appropriate use
                                                 − how feedback will be           of feedback where both knowledge of results
                                                     used as learners             (K of R) and knowledge of performance (K of P)
                                                     progress through the         are provided.
                                                     stages of skill              OR
                                                     acquisition                  Explore in-appropriate use of feedback where K of
                                                                                  R is not provided and K of P is provided, or no
                                                                                  external feedback is provided.

H11 H16    •   skilled performers versus     •   analyse video of various     •   Observe video or actual performance of athletes
               unskilled performers              standard performers to           participating in sport, e.g. beginner, school sport,
               − kinaesthetic sense              ascertain the qualities of       area representative, state or national level. Discuss
               − anticipation and timing         skilled as compared to           the characteristics of athletes at each level.
               − mental approach                 unskilled performers             − What allows an athlete to be identified as skilled
               − consistency                                                          or unskilled?
                                                                                  − Can this be represented as a continuum? Give
                                                                                      reasons. Identify the characteristics of the
                                                                                      performer at each stage of skill acquisition.
                                                                              •   Define each of the characteristics of a skilled
                                                                                  performer and describe what it might look like in
                                                                                  different sports.
                                                                              •   Explore the reasons why athletes who are in the
                                                                                  autonomous stage of skill acquisition are not
                                                                                  equally skilled.
Outcomes   Students learn about:            Students learn to:                                   Suggested strategies
H9 H16     •   objective measurement of     •   identify skill-related tests   •   Conduct a laboratory on skill-related tests. Ask
H17            skill                            that are valid and reliable        students to participate in the Sports Search
               − skill-related tests                                               Program. Discuss the role of validity and reliability
               − validity and reliability                                          in these testing procedures.
                   of tests                                                    •   Identify two commonly used skill-related tests.
                                                                                   Discuss two protocols used in these tests. Devise
                                                                                   methods to improve their reliability and validity.
                                                                               •   Draw conclusions about how tests can be made
                                                                                   more objective.
                                                                               •   Ask students to design, administer and evaluate
                                                                                   their own test. e.g. an objective test on a free throw
                                                                                   or jump shot in basketball. Compare and contrast
                                                                                   the two tests and results.

H9 H16     •   judging the quality of       •   think critically about         •   View video footage or attend a sports competition
H17            performance                      performance by                     to explore the nature of judging. Decide on the
               − characteristics of             investigating questions,           focus of the judging e.g. best team performer or
                  skilled performance           such as:                           most outstanding performer. Ask the students to
               − outcomes of skilled            − who creates standards            construct their own personal criteria. Use this to
                  performance                       of performance?                make a judgement and draw conclusions about the
               − personal versus                − what is quality of               use of personal criteria. Discuss the criteria upon
                  prescribed judging                performance?                   which they made their judgement and share
                  criteria.                     − what are the                     conclusions. Discuss issues such as consistency of
                                                    outcomes of skilled            judgement and determining the criteria for judging.
                                                    performance?               •   As a class, develop prescribed criteria for judging
                                                                                   and use the criteria to judge a sporting event.
                                                                                   Share findings. Explore the following questions:
                                                                                   − Did this create consistency of judgement? Why?
                                                                                   − What are factors that still influence people’s
                                                                                       judgement?
                                                                                   − How could the criteria be developed more
                                                                                       explicitly to lessen the subjectivity of people’s
                                                                                       judgement?
                                                                                   − How are “standards” for judgement determined
Outcomes   Students learn about:   Students learn to:                    Suggested strategies
                                                               by sporting bodies and performing arts groups?
                                                        •   Discuss the differences between personal and
                                                            prescribed criteria. Evaluate each type.

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Stg6 pdh unit outline from net

  • 1. 9.2 HSC Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance Focus questions • How does training affect performance? • How does the body respond to aerobic training? • How can psychology affect performance? • How can nutrition affect performance? • How does the acquisition of skill affect performance? Outcomes A student: H7 explains the relationship between physiology and movement potential H8 explains how a variety of training approaches and other interventions enhance performance and safety in physical activity H9 explains how movement skill is acquired and appraised H10 designs and implements training plans to improve performance H11 designs psychological strategies and nutritional plans in response to individual performance needs H16 devises methods of gathering, interpreting and communicating information about health and physical activity concepts H17 selects appropriate options and formulates strategies based on a critical analysis of the factors that affect performance and safe participation. Suggested resource list • Browne, S., et al. (2000). PDHPE Application and Inquiry, HSC Course. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. • Parker, R., et al. (2000). Health Moves 2 HSC Course, Second edition. Port Melbourne: Heinemann. • Fitzgibbon, L. & Ruskin, R. (1996). Outcomes 2, The HSC Course. Milton, Qld: Jacaranda Press. • Kershaw, A. et al. (1995). Senior Personal Development, Health and Physical Education. Roseville: McGraw-Hill. • McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.L. and Katch, V.L. (1996). Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. 4th edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. • Burke, L. (1995). The Complete Guide to Food for Sports Performance. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. • Fitness testing facilities e.g. Sydney University Healthworks PDHPE program. Modules: 1. Fitness testing 2. Resistance training methods 3. Flexibility and CV training methods 4. Practical application of exercise physiology. Ph: 02 9351 8106. Contact person: Jillian Chandler. Cost: $12.50 per module. Usually two modules are completed per day. • Australian Institute of Sport at http://www.ausport.gov.au, sport topics on http://www.ausport.gov.au/topicmen.html • HSC On-line at http://hsc.csu.edu.au
  • 2. How does training affect performance? Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies H7 H8 • energy systems • analyse energy systems • Participate in a variety of physical activities and - alactacid system in terms of identify the dominant energy system used. (ATP/PC) - source of fuel e.g. Discus/shotput - ATP/PC system ;100m - lactic acid system - efficiency of ATP swim and 400m run - lactic acid system; 1.6m run - aerobic system production or an aerobics lesson - aerobic system. - duration that the − Which energy systems are dominant for each system can operate activity? Give explanations. - cause of fatigue − What did you feel like during each activity that - by-products of energy may assist you in identifying the energy production system used? - process and rate of − Is there an interplay between the energy recovery systems during the activity? Give an explanation and provide examples. • Check your understanding of characteristics of each of the energy systems on the PDHPE HSC On-line web site at http://hsc.csu.edu.au • Explore lactic acid build up and the meaning of oxygen debt. Identify these factors by participating in practical laboratories. • Analyse playing positions in different sports e.g. cricket, netball, volleyball. Explore and describe the interplay of the energy systems for different players. Consider how this may influence the training needs of players. H8 H10 • principles of training • identify how the principles • Explore basic understandings about each H16 - progressive overload of training relate to each principle of training and apply this to specific - specificity type of training, eg how physical activities or sports. Working in groups, - reversibility overload applies to a choose a sport and apply the principles of - variety flexibility program training to maximise performance e.g. soccer. - training thresholds Present your findings to the class. Analyse and
  • 3. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies - warm-up/cool down discuss the appropriateness of the applications. • Construct a chart that identifies the types of training and examine how the principles of training could affect each type. • Visit a team training session of an athlete at an elite level. Critically analyse the application of training principles in the training session. Interview the coach or trainer about the way in which the principles of training were applied. • Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line for supplementary activities on the principles of training. H8 H10 • types of training • analyse two different • Examine the types of training. Choose a type of H16 H17 − aerobic training programs, e.g. training and apply basic principles to a specific − strength backstroke swimming and sport or activity in conjunction with the principles − flexibility (static, road cycling and discuss of training. ballistic, PNF) how they relate to the • Participate in an aerobic laboratory in which principles of training. training methods such as interval training, fartlek and continuous training are explored. Discuss the effects on the body and their relationship to the principles of training. • Perform a laboratory experiment over a number of weeks to examine the effects of different types of flexibility training. Use a flexibility test, e.g. sit and reach test. Select three groups: a control group who do no stretches; a static stretching group, and a PNF stretching group. Design a program focussing on a specific stretch for each group. Perform a pre- and post-test for flexibility. Analyse the results to decide on the effectiveness of the training types. Discuss how the principles of training may effect results. • Use the Internet or other sources of information
  • 4. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies to find elite training programs. Divide the class into groups and get each group to focus on one principle, i.e. overload or specificity etc. Identify the application of the principle of training in the program and report back to class. Note: Programs may be found on HSC On-line web site at http://hsc.csu.edu.au or at http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/plan.htm • Examine programs and evaluate the use of the principles of training and types of training, i.e. aerobic, strength and flexibility. Ask students to speculate about the body’s response to training. • Conduct an excursion to a fitness centre, e.g. Sydney University, and participate in laboratories on resistance training, CV training etc.
  • 5. How does the body respond to aerobic training? Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies H8 H10 • the basis of aerobic • explain the purpose of • Ask students to complete a pre-screening training pre-screening. questionnaire. For examples of questionnaires see − pre-screening eg age, PDHPE HSC On-line at http://hsc.csu.edu.au health status Suggest reasons why particular questions are − application of FITT included in a pre-screening questionnaire. principle − How might the answers to questions in the pre- screening questionnaire affect the design of a fitness program? OR • Visit a fitness centre. Interview staff about their pre- screening methods. If possible watch the pre- screening process. Critically analyse the process and fitness centre practices. • design an aerobic training • Explore the elements of the FITT principle using a session based on the cooperative learning strategy, e.g. expert groups or FITT principle. study buddies. • Design an aerobic training session for individuals with a range of needs using the FITT principle, e.g. 50 year old heart transplant recipient; 20 year old obese person; 25 year old serious athlete or a mother of five children etc. • Discuss the factors that may affect the design of an exercise or training program, e.g. age, illness, recovery, rehabilitation, time constraints and history. Investigate how programs accommodate these factors by manipulating the FITT principle. H7 H8 • immediate physiological • determine the pattern of • Use pulse rate monitors to determine changes in H16 response to training respiration and heart rate the response of the heart to exercise in a variety of − heart rate before, during and after settings. Graph and discuss results e.g. sitting, − ventilation rate submaximal exercise walking on the flat, walking up steps.
  • 6. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies − stroke volume through participation in a • Conduct a fitness laboratory using submaximal − cardiac output step test VO2 tests, e.g. ergometer tests or field tests such − lactate levels as Coopers 12 minute run. Analyse heart rate and ventilation levels before, during and after the test. Estimate stroke volume and cardiac output pre- exercise, during and post-exercise as well as recovery rates. Analyse factors that may have affected the results of students in the class, e.g. body size, gender and fitness level. • Examine graphs demonstrating the body’s response to training, e.g. the PDHPE HSC On-line web site in Core 2, Immediate response to training. Form opinions or give explanations about why the body has particular immediate physiological responses to training e.g. to increase blood supply, to meet oxygen demand or for waste removal. • Conduct a field trip to a fitness laboratory to participate in stress testing or a VO2 max test. Analyse and discuss the results. H7 H8 • physiological adaptations • interpret graphs and • Explore graphs and tables depicting a range of H16 H17 in response to aerobic tables representing factors affecting trained and untrained athletes, e.g. training physiological adaptations changes in resting HR, stroke volume and cardiac - resting heart rate to training. output. Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line web site, - stroke volume and Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic cardiac output training in Core 2, for examples of graphs and - oxygen uptake activities. - lung capacity • Investigate the physiological adaptations an athlete - haemoglobin level may experience in response to aerobic training. - blood pressure. Design tests that measure these adaptations. • Predict the differences in the physiological adaptations that may occur for the aerobic and anaerobic athlete.
  • 7. How can psychology affect performance? Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies H8 H16 • motivation • research case studies of • Play a word game using prizes as incentives to - positive and negative a number of athletes to demonstrate different types of motivation, e.g. - intrinsic and extrinsic ascertain the nature of a merit certificate, a food item from the canteen, or - social, material and their motivation and the a get out of trouble free card. internal reinforcement psychological strategies • Explore the factors that may affect motivation e.g. they employ self-esteem, environment, ability of the coach etc. The PDHPE HSC On-line explores motivational factors for a junior elite athlete. • In pairs, interview athletes or research case studies to determine motivational factors and psychological strategies used to improve performance. Try to use both individual and team sport athletes involved in sports that use fine, gross, open and closed skills. • Conduct a survey of junior students who participate in sport. Address all the motivational types in the survey to discover the most common categories of motivation. • Compare and contrast motivational factors of students involved in school sport to that of an elite athlete. • Debate the types of motivation that yield the greatest success. Discuss factors that influence the type of motivation used. • Investigate strategies used by athletes to remain motivated in training programs. H10 H11 • anxiety • discern the difference • Define trait and state anxiety and characteristics of H16 - trait and state anxiety between anxiety and each. - sources of stress arousal in terms of the • Use group work to research anxiety and arousal - optimum arousal effects on performance and their possible effects on performance. Report back to the class using an “around the room”
  • 8. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies discussion (every student contributes one relevant sentence). Suggest reasons why the level of arousal affects performance. • Examine the relationship between anxiety and arousal in optimising performance in sport, i.e. the inverted “U” hypothesis. Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line web site for activities on this area. • Design an experiment that can measure anxiety and arousal levels. Discuss the impact on performance for different individuals and aim to discover the point at which performance is optimal. For example, ask the students to perform a fine motor skill e.g. “putting” a golf ball, with different sources of stress such as lots of people watching, relaxing music, quietness, loud noises, class yelling abuse, rewards offered etc. Analyse the effects on performance. • Discuss the notion of “choking” and give examples where individuals have been accused of “choking’ in major sporting events. Show video footage of these events, if available. • Examine the role of sports psychologists. What do they actually do? Give examples of their work. • Debate the following statements; - “Psychology is a critical factor in elite performance.” - “’Psyching-up’ to get ‘over-excited’ are two different things in sport.” - “Winning or losing an Olympic 100metre final takes more than physical ability.” - “Psychology is one of our most powerful tools for improving performance.”
  • 9. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies H8 H11 • managing anxiety • apply a range of • Brainstorm ways that athletes manage or reduce H16 H17 − concentration/ psychological strategies their anxiety levels. attentional skills to practical laboratories • Explore the Internet or other sources of information (focusing) eg mental rehearsal related to managing anxiety, e.g. the PDHPE HSC − mental rehearsal before long jump On-line site or other sites such as − visualisation http://brianmac.demon.co.uk/psych.htm − relaxation • Conduct relaxation and visualisation exercises with − goal-setting the class, e.g. meditation, tai chi, relaxation tapes and music, to explore different ways to manage anxiety. • Interview an elite athlete about how they manage anxiety. Discuss the use of mental rehearsal, visualisation, relaxation and goal-setting as strategies to mange anxiety. For example: − Do they use mental rehearsal? When and how? − What type of strategies do they use to relax? − Are different relaxation techniques used at different times in the training calender, e.g. out of competition training, during competition training, pre-event and post-event? − Do they set short-term, intermediate and long- term goals? Give examples of these. − Do they set behavioural and psychological goals as well as performance goals? Give examples. • Conduct an experiment on the benefits of mental rehearsal. Divide the class into four groups. Identify a new skill to learn. For example, a reverse dribble in hockey or the overhead serve in volleyball. Initially, give the class ten minutes of instruction and practice time. Perform a pre-test and record results. Then, each group does the following: − Group 1: Has 10 minutes of physical practice only.
  • 10. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies − Group 2: Has 10 minutes of physical practice and 10 minutes of mental rehearsal. − Group 3: Has 10 minutes of mental rehearsal only. − Group 4: Has no practice at all. Predict the outcomes. Conduct a post-test and analyse the results and the effect of mental rehearsal on the skill level of each group. Draw conclusions about mental rehearsal. • Explore questions such as: − Do some sports rely on psychological more than others? Give explanations. − Does the level of participation influence the role of psychology? Why? − What role will psychology have in sport in the future? • Identify a range of psychological strategies that can be used in sport and discuss factors that influence their use. Justify the use of the strategies.
  • 11. How can nutrition affect performance? Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies H7 H10 • balanced diet • design a pre-event and • View video material related to diet and H11 - is it adequate for recovery nutritional plan performance. performance needs? for an athlete that • Research the Internet for information regarding includes the principles of nutrition e.g. http://www.ausport.gov.au/nut.html. carbohydrate loading • Critique articles about diet and performance from sports magazines. • Determine the specific dietary requirements for specialist sports such as: − a marathon runner − a sprinter − a hockey player. Refer to the PDHPE HSC On-line site for specific information relating to nutrition and programs. • Suggest reasons for variations in dietary requirements depending on the nature of the activity or sport. • Explore the meaning of carbohydrate loading. − Is carbohydrate loading as beneficial as some would lead us to believe? Why? − Can similar benefits be gained in other ways? How? − Investigate the potential dangers for an athlete who is carbohydrate loading. • Design, prepare and eat a meal appropriate for carbohydrate loading. H7 H10 • supplementation • compare the pre- • Design a meal to be consumed either pre- or post- - vitamins performance diets of event that meets the following criteria: - minerals several athletes, − low fat - carbohydrate loading considering: − high complex carbohydrates - use of diet − low salt/sugar. supplements • Allocate one nutritional supplement or issue related
  • 12. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies - fluid intake levels to supplements (e.g. minerals needs and women - foods consumed athletes) to a group of 3-4 students. Research the issue and present the findings to the class. Use the PDHPE HSC On-line site to help students research sport supplementation. • Evaluate the need for the following in both endurance and anaerobic events: − supplements − fluid intake − sports drinks − fat, protein, carbohydrate in foods consumed. • Discuss the following questions: “ If I had a poor diet could I still: − run fast? − run long distance? − throw a shot put?” Explore reasons for your answers. • Analyse the contents of various sports drinks. What are the common elements? Research the benefits, if any, of these drinks. H11 H16 • hydration • Investigate the effect of dehydration on body H17 - principles of body temperature regulation. temperature regulation • Challenge current attitudes and beliefs about nutritional needs including the use of sports drinks and the type of fluid intake. Examine why it may be essential or detrimental to performance. Refer to web sites such as http://www.monash.edu.au/pubs/montage/Montage _96-05/Sportdrink.html and the gatorade site at www.gssiweb.com • guidelines for fluid • examine the relationship • Monitor fluid loss in an athlete by measuring body replacement between body weight, before, during and after exercise. Graph
  • 13. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies temperature regulation the results. Calculate the fluid replacement and fluid intake requirements of the athlete. • Analyse the factors that determine fluid replacement needs for a variety of events. e.g. the Marathon or swimming. • Do swimmers need to replace fluid? Why? • Develop a set of guidelines for adequate hydration and fluid replacement in athletes. Include recommendations for pre-competition, during competition and post-competition. For further information refer to pp 176-177 of the Teaching and learning resources found on the Aspire CD ROM,
  • 14. Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance How does the acquisition of skill affect performance? Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies H8 H9 • the learning process • plan and implement skill • Choose a skill. Some students learn the skill using - a cyclic process development sessions cyclic learning; others practice without feedback/ (perceiving, deciding, that show an evaluation etc. Compare the results and the acting, feedback) understanding of the progression of learning. learning process • Examine factors that may affect the learning of a new sport. Suggest reasons why people learn at • characteristics of the different rates. learner, e.g. personality, • Analyse a video of a sporting activity, e.g. rugby heredity, confidence, league. Select a talented player and a beginner. prior, experience, ability Discuss the traits/ characteristics of each athlete. How do these characteristics affect one’s ability to learn a skill? H10 H16 • the learning environment • Conduct a lab on the types of practice, e.g. H17 - physical environment juggling. Divide class into groups and allocate each - nature of skill (open, group a type of practice. closed, gross, fine, Encourage the use of different types of practice for discrete, serial, each group such as: continuous, self-paced, − Group 1: Learn to juggle using distributed externally-paced) practice. - practice method − Group 2: Learn to juggle using massed practice. (massed, distributed − Group 3: Learn to juggle using part-method, whole, part) followed by whole-method. - feedback (internal, − Group 4: Learn to juggle using whole-method external, concurrent, only. delayed, knowledge of Predict the results and give reasons for the results, knowledge of predictions. Discuss the final results of each performance) method. Draw conclusions about the most appropriate practice method when learning to juggle.
  • 15. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies Variation: Provide external and concurrent feedback whilst learning to juggle. Draw conclusions about the most appropriate types of feedback for different stages of skill acquisition. • Explore how the 3 aspects of the learning environment interact to affect the learning of a skill i.e. the nature of the skill, the practice method and type of feedback. • Conduct a lab focussing on the learning environment. Working in groups, select a student to perform a skill e.g. putting a golfball, shooting a basketball or kicking a goal in soccer. Ask students to determine the best learning environment for the individual to improve their skill level. Provide this environment and record results. Change the learning environment. Get the students to keep statistics and graph these as appropriate. Examine the effect on learning. Changes could include: − physical environment (e.g. weather, surface) − nature of skill (e.g. open, closed, discrete) − practice method (e.g. massed, distributed) feedback (e.g. internal, delayed, K of P, K of R) H9 H10 • stages of skill acquisition • examine the stages of • Select a gross-motor skill e.g. a kick, throw or pass. H16 - cognitive skill acquisition by Discuss and list the 3 stages of learning for the - associative participating in the skill. Teach these skills to a small group of Year 7 - autonomous learning of a new skill, eg. students over a period of time. Provide a variety of juggling, throwing with feedback and practice methods. Observe and note non dominant hand rates of learning and transition through the stages. Identify factors affecting skill acquisition. • rates of skill acquisition • design a suitable plan for − Was the rate of skill acquisition affected by the − learning curves and teaching beginners to nature of the skill? How? plateaus acquire a skill through to − What was the role of feedback in progressing
  • 16. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies − implications of rate of mastery. The plan should through the stages of skill acquisition? learning reflect: • Debate the role of feedback in skill acquisition. − appropriate practice Identify the most appropriate use of feedback for methods for the each stage of skill acquisition. learners • Create imaginary statistics that provide students − an awareness of how with an opportunity to graph and interpret the rate instruction may vary of learning and stages of skill acquisition. according to • Evaluate the ability of younger students to learn characteristics of the using different types of feedback. Compare these learner types and their effectiveness. e.g. Appropriate use − how feedback will be of feedback where both knowledge of results used as learners (K of R) and knowledge of performance (K of P) progress through the are provided. stages of skill OR acquisition Explore in-appropriate use of feedback where K of R is not provided and K of P is provided, or no external feedback is provided. H11 H16 • skilled performers versus • analyse video of various • Observe video or actual performance of athletes unskilled performers standard performers to participating in sport, e.g. beginner, school sport, − kinaesthetic sense ascertain the qualities of area representative, state or national level. Discuss − anticipation and timing skilled as compared to the characteristics of athletes at each level. − mental approach unskilled performers − What allows an athlete to be identified as skilled − consistency or unskilled? − Can this be represented as a continuum? Give reasons. Identify the characteristics of the performer at each stage of skill acquisition. • Define each of the characteristics of a skilled performer and describe what it might look like in different sports. • Explore the reasons why athletes who are in the autonomous stage of skill acquisition are not equally skilled.
  • 17. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies H9 H16 • objective measurement of • identify skill-related tests • Conduct a laboratory on skill-related tests. Ask H17 skill that are valid and reliable students to participate in the Sports Search − skill-related tests Program. Discuss the role of validity and reliability − validity and reliability in these testing procedures. of tests • Identify two commonly used skill-related tests. Discuss two protocols used in these tests. Devise methods to improve their reliability and validity. • Draw conclusions about how tests can be made more objective. • Ask students to design, administer and evaluate their own test. e.g. an objective test on a free throw or jump shot in basketball. Compare and contrast the two tests and results. H9 H16 • judging the quality of • think critically about • View video footage or attend a sports competition H17 performance performance by to explore the nature of judging. Decide on the − characteristics of investigating questions, focus of the judging e.g. best team performer or skilled performance such as: most outstanding performer. Ask the students to − outcomes of skilled − who creates standards construct their own personal criteria. Use this to performance of performance? make a judgement and draw conclusions about the − personal versus − what is quality of use of personal criteria. Discuss the criteria upon prescribed judging performance? which they made their judgement and share criteria. − what are the conclusions. Discuss issues such as consistency of outcomes of skilled judgement and determining the criteria for judging. performance? • As a class, develop prescribed criteria for judging and use the criteria to judge a sporting event. Share findings. Explore the following questions: − Did this create consistency of judgement? Why? − What are factors that still influence people’s judgement? − How could the criteria be developed more explicitly to lessen the subjectivity of people’s judgement? − How are “standards” for judgement determined
  • 18. Outcomes Students learn about: Students learn to: Suggested strategies by sporting bodies and performing arts groups? • Discuss the differences between personal and prescribed criteria. Evaluate each type.