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Each and every lesson taught by a teacher consists of a collection of lesson 
                y           g     y
activities. Lesson activities refer to the things done during a lesson to help 
students learn.
Pedagogy is the art and science of combining lesson activities with 
teaching and management of learning strategies to create learning 
environments.
Lesson Activities form part of the script teachers follow each lesson, 
seeking to stimulate student’s curiosity, present new content, provide 
opportunities for practice and so forth. Lesson activities combine with 
implementation strategies to direct how lessons progress. Together, they 
enable the teacher to progress the lesson .
Various ways to organise or script teaching are described in the literature, 
see Gagne, Wager , Golas and Keller (2005),  and Madeline Hunter (1982). 
The work of Yelon (1996), outlined on this slide, provides a structure to 
the 1st half of this lecture. Categories of Lesson Activities provide a 
framework for sequencing learning; a rationale for using specific learning 
activities and teaching strategies within any lesson. As you prepare for 
Assignment 2 you will need to consider the framework as a prelude to the 
selection of specific lesson activities.


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Motivation is central to everything we do or do not do. It is the 
                             y     g
internal inspiration behind the effort we put into any human 
endeavour.

At the heart of motivation strangely enough, are motives,. Motives are 
the driving force behind action related to our needs. We all have basic 
needs, which are satisfied through the motive to survive. We also have 
needs which are satisfied through the motive to survive We also have
higher needs, such as self‐esteem, which is satisfied by a motives 
associated with personal achievement, affiliation, power and approval.

As a teacher, your selection of lesson activities will determine the 
energy, commitment and desire to act and behave in certain ways each 
of your students displays as a consequence of their involvement (or 
lack of it) in the lesson activities you implement.




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If we are to harness student energy and direct it towards the fulfilment of 
                                  gy
syllabus learning outcomes then we must first seek to capture attention. 
This is often the easy chore. Capturing attention though requires more 
than ordering students to listen. The presentation of a lesson activity at 
the beginning of a lesson should serve to focus student action on key 
elements within the lesson.
Secondly, and what is often a much harder  to achieve is the maintenance 
of interest because without this element active participation will not 
occur. In this respect, our choice of motivational lesson activities is a 
major determinant in the overall of successful construction of an engaged 
learning environment.
One valuable approach in determining what motivational lesson activity to 
O     l bl            hi d t      i i    h t   ti ti    ll       ti it t
employ is to use Keller’s (1983) ARCS model, which through the 
mnemonic describes the four essential aspects of motivation. Those 
aspects are; Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction.
The next slide provides  some techniques you can employ throughout a 
lesson to increase each aspect of motivation.
lesson to increase each aspect of motivation




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Application activities involve three separate yet interrelated teaching events – practice, 
guidance and feedback. Teachers use application activities to provide students with 
opportunities to practice what they are learning. This practice serves a diagnostic function. If 
students are successful then they can proceed to evaluative activities, if not, students might 
repeat the practice using a simplified format, reviewing the information upon which the 
activity was based for clarification before undergoing another practice session. For an 
application activity to serve as a successful diagnostic tool students should be asked to 
demonstrate the performance level as described in the lesson outcome.
An application activity may include varying amounts of guidance or clues (from a lot to some 
to none) to support the completion of the activity by learners and the achievement of 
outcomes. The amount of guidance should be regulated to meet the individual needs of the 
learners – more for some less for others.
Finally, feedback, which refers to the provision of information on one’s performance whilst 
engaged in the activity. Reinforcement feedback acknowledges good performance or it seeks 
to encourage continued effort Corrective feedback provides specific data to correct current 
performance or strategies to improve future performance. Often reinforcing and corrective 
feedback are provided in unison.
Practice and feedback should be inseparable




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Why use Educational Technology?
    y                            gy
The research literature identifies many reasons for using technology in 
education. These reasons include: increased motivation,
unique teaching capabilities,
support for new teaching approaches,
increased productivity, and
required skills for an information age (technological literacy, 
required skills for an information age (technological literacy
information literacy, and visual literacy).

The research rationale for using technology in teaching is documented 
at the CARET website, which is part of the International Society for 
Technology in Education (ISTE). 




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An Overview of the TIP Model
The Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Model (Roblyer, 2003) gives 
teachers a systematic way to address challenges involved in integrating 
technology into teaching. In each of the model's five phases (shown on 
the next slide), teachers perform a set of planning and implementation 
steps that help assure their technology use will be efficient and 
successful in meeting needs they identify. This section of the 
PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of the five phases, 
describes the focus of each phase, and lists and explains issues 
teachers address at each stage.




                                                                           35
Technology Integration Planning Model (TIP): This model enables teachers (especially those 
new to teaching/technology) to address issues involved in the integration of ICT and to plan 
     t t hi /t h l ) t dd                 i     i l d i th i t         ti  f ICT d t l
for effective classroom uses of it. The model consists of five phases:
•   TIP Model Phase 1: Relative advantage — What problems do I face in my teaching and 
    will a technology‐based solution be the best alternative to address the problems. 
    (Navigate to the CARET web site and click on ‘Browse Questions & Answers. Next  click on 
    Student Learning and review why technology‐based methods have potential for impact on 
    student learning.) http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=questions&topicID=1
•   Tip Model Phase 2: Outcomes and assessments — Stating desired outcomes in terms of 
    better student achievement, attitudes, and performance; matching appropriate 
    assessment strategies to each outcome. (Visit Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators for 
    good samples of assessment instruments.) 
    http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/assess.html
•   TIP Model Phase 3: Integration strategies — Deciding on teaching activities that 
    incorporate technology resources to enhance student learning. (For some ideas for 
    directed, constructivist, and combination strategies, look at the Blue Web 'N website, a 
    d       d                    d    b                   l k      h l       b'     b
    collection of links to outstanding online lessons.) 
    http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewebn/
•   TIP Model Phase 4: Teaching/Learning environment — Deciding on resources and 
    conditions to put into place to support the activities. 
•   TIP Model Phase 5: Evaluation and revision — Collecting achievement data and other 
    information to determine if the activities were successful in meeting desired outcomes, 
                                                                        g                 ,
    and what could be improved next time.




                                                                                                36
Focus: Why should I use a technology‐based method? Teachers look at 
           y                      gy
their current teaching problems and identify technology‐based 
methods that may offer good solutions.

In his best‐selling book on how and why innovations get adopted, 
Everett Rogers (Diffusion of Innovation, 1995) says that people resist 
changing how they do things, even if new ways are better. However, 
changing how they do things even if new ways are better However
people are more likely to change if they see clearly the benefits of a 
new method over an old one. He calls this seeing a "relative 
advantage.“

The following slide suggests some ways to make it easier to see 
relative advantage:




                                                                          37
1. Compatibility — Methods consistent with their cultural values and 
        p      y
beliefs and others adopted in the past. For example, teachers see using 
technology as compatible with their views of what it means to be a good 
teacher.
2. Complexity — Easy enough for them to learn and to carry out on a 
frequent basis. Teachers who use technology‐based methods feel that they 
are both feasible to learn and not too time‐consuming to do routinely.
3. Trialability — Being able to try it out a little before making a final 
decision.
4. Observability — Seeing others they respect or emulate using the new 
method successfully. For many teachers, observability is a kind of 
                      y          y                     y
trialability, since they "try out" the method vicariously through other 
teachers or trainers.
At this Phase, teachers review their curriculum and teaching methods and 
identify teaching situations for which technology might offer a good 
solution. Trialability and observability help them review a technology‐
based method and determine if it is compatible with their values and easy 
enough for them to learn and implement. Then they make a decision on its 
relative advantage for them.


                                                                             38
Are there any topics or syllabus outcomes I have difficulty teaching?
              y p        y                                   y       g
Do any of these instructional problem areas have technology‐based 
solutions?
What is the relative advantage of the technology‐based solutions?
Is the relative advantage sufficient to justify the effort involved?




                                                                         39
Phase 2: Decide on objectives and assessments
                                  j
Focus: How will I know students have learned? Teachers decide skills 
they want students to learn from the lesson(s) and design ways to 
assess how well students have learned and how effectively the activity 
has been carried out.




                                                                          40
To be sure a technology successfully addressed the problems they 
                       gy           y                p             y
identified in Phase 1, teachers state expectations in the form of 
observable, measurable outcomes, then design materials to measure 
outcomes. For many skills, teachers use traditional assessments (e.g., 
multiple choice, short answer, true‐false, matching, essay). For more 
complex skills such as web site production work or cooperative group 
work, teachers may either design or acquire the following kinds of 
work teachers may either design or acquire the following kinds of
materials:

Sometimes, teachers gather data through observations to see if 
desired behaviours are increasing. If they want to see if students are 
enjoying the new methods or have better attitudes toward the 
subject, they also may have a non‐instructional outcome such as 
"Higher motivation to do group production work" and state an 
objective to define it. They usually design self‐report instruments to 
measure these outcomes.
Summary of Issues to address in Phase 2




                                                                          41
Phase 3: Design integration strategies
                          g      g             g
Focus: What teaching strategies and activities will work best? Teachers 
decide on instructional strategies and how to carry them out.
When teachers create lessons for technology integration, they 
consider the characteristics of their topic and the needs of their 
students and decide on an appropriate course of action that addresses 
both within the constraints of their classroom environment. This 
both within the constraints of their classroom environment This
means making decisions about:
•How to Teach— Teachers may teach topics in a traditional, directed 
manner: present new concepts, have students practice, test student 
knowledge. Inquiry‐based (constructivist) approaches, on the other 
hand, require students to discover at least some concepts that were 
once just told to them. Decisions about which instructional 
approaches to use drives all other ones on curriculum, grouping, and 
sequence.




                                                                           42
•What to Teach— Some content areas once taught as separate topics 
                                                  g        p          p
(single subject approach) are now taught in combination 
(interdisciplinary approach). Some teachers feel that this better 
reflects real life, where a problem may call for applying skills in several 
content areas.
•How to Organise students — In some situations, individual students 
must learn and demonstrate mastery of skills. In others, teachers have 
must learn and demonstrate mastery of skills In others teachers have
the option to place students in pairs or small groups.
•Sequence — As teachers design the sequence of steps in the 
integration activity, they consider ways to encourage equity of 
technology use, as well as to make sure students have prerequisite 
technology skills that allow them to learn effectively from the 
resources.




                                                                               43
Phase 4: Prepare the environment
               p
Focus: Are essential conditions in place to support teaching and 
learning? Teachers organize the teaching environment so technology 
plans can be carried out effectively.
Since research on effective technology uses shows that teachers can 
integrate technology successfully only if they have adequate hardware, 
software, and technical support available to them, the International 
software and technical support available to them the International
Association for Technology in Education (ISTE NETS for Students, 2000) 
lists a set of essential conditions that are necessary to unleash the 
potential power of technology tools and methods. The school and 
district must provide many of these essential conditions, but for each 
technology integration strategy, the teacher considers which 
conditions are in place and to what degree. This helps shape the kind 
of integration possible for the situation. For example, if 30 computers 
would be ideal, but only five are available, the teacher adapts the plan 
accordingly.




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Wk4 tutorial 3

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  • 3. Each and every lesson taught by a teacher consists of a collection of lesson  y g y activities. Lesson activities refer to the things done during a lesson to help  students learn. Pedagogy is the art and science of combining lesson activities with  teaching and management of learning strategies to create learning  environments. Lesson Activities form part of the script teachers follow each lesson,  seeking to stimulate student’s curiosity, present new content, provide  opportunities for practice and so forth. Lesson activities combine with  implementation strategies to direct how lessons progress. Together, they  enable the teacher to progress the lesson . Various ways to organise or script teaching are described in the literature,  see Gagne, Wager , Golas and Keller (2005),  and Madeline Hunter (1982).  The work of Yelon (1996), outlined on this slide, provides a structure to  the 1st half of this lecture. Categories of Lesson Activities provide a  framework for sequencing learning; a rationale for using specific learning  activities and teaching strategies within any lesson. As you prepare for  Assignment 2 you will need to consider the framework as a prelude to the  selection of specific lesson activities. 3
  • 4. Motivation is central to everything we do or do not do. It is the  y g internal inspiration behind the effort we put into any human  endeavour. At the heart of motivation strangely enough, are motives,. Motives are  the driving force behind action related to our needs. We all have basic  needs, which are satisfied through the motive to survive. We also have  needs which are satisfied through the motive to survive We also have higher needs, such as self‐esteem, which is satisfied by a motives  associated with personal achievement, affiliation, power and approval. As a teacher, your selection of lesson activities will determine the  energy, commitment and desire to act and behave in certain ways each  of your students displays as a consequence of their involvement (or  lack of it) in the lesson activities you implement. 4
  • 5. If we are to harness student energy and direct it towards the fulfilment of  gy syllabus learning outcomes then we must first seek to capture attention.  This is often the easy chore. Capturing attention though requires more  than ordering students to listen. The presentation of a lesson activity at  the beginning of a lesson should serve to focus student action on key  elements within the lesson. Secondly, and what is often a much harder  to achieve is the maintenance  of interest because without this element active participation will not  occur. In this respect, our choice of motivational lesson activities is a  major determinant in the overall of successful construction of an engaged  learning environment. One valuable approach in determining what motivational lesson activity to  O l bl hi d t i i h t ti ti ll ti it t employ is to use Keller’s (1983) ARCS model, which through the  mnemonic describes the four essential aspects of motivation. Those  aspects are; Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction. The next slide provides  some techniques you can employ throughout a  lesson to increase each aspect of motivation. lesson to increase each aspect of motivation 5
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  • 14. Application activities involve three separate yet interrelated teaching events – practice,  guidance and feedback. Teachers use application activities to provide students with  opportunities to practice what they are learning. This practice serves a diagnostic function. If  students are successful then they can proceed to evaluative activities, if not, students might  repeat the practice using a simplified format, reviewing the information upon which the  activity was based for clarification before undergoing another practice session. For an  application activity to serve as a successful diagnostic tool students should be asked to  demonstrate the performance level as described in the lesson outcome. An application activity may include varying amounts of guidance or clues (from a lot to some  to none) to support the completion of the activity by learners and the achievement of  outcomes. The amount of guidance should be regulated to meet the individual needs of the  learners – more for some less for others. Finally, feedback, which refers to the provision of information on one’s performance whilst  engaged in the activity. Reinforcement feedback acknowledges good performance or it seeks  to encourage continued effort Corrective feedback provides specific data to correct current  performance or strategies to improve future performance. Often reinforcing and corrective  feedback are provided in unison. Practice and feedback should be inseparable 14
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  • 32. Why use Educational Technology? y gy The research literature identifies many reasons for using technology in  education. These reasons include: increased motivation, unique teaching capabilities, support for new teaching approaches, increased productivity, and required skills for an information age (technological literacy,  required skills for an information age (technological literacy information literacy, and visual literacy). The research rationale for using technology in teaching is documented  at the CARET website, which is part of the International Society for  Technology in Education (ISTE).  32
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  • 36. Technology Integration Planning Model (TIP): This model enables teachers (especially those  new to teaching/technology) to address issues involved in the integration of ICT and to plan  t t hi /t h l ) t dd i i l d i th i t ti f ICT d t l for effective classroom uses of it. The model consists of five phases: • TIP Model Phase 1: Relative advantage — What problems do I face in my teaching and  will a technology‐based solution be the best alternative to address the problems.  (Navigate to the CARET web site and click on ‘Browse Questions & Answers. Next  click on  Student Learning and review why technology‐based methods have potential for impact on  student learning.) http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=questions&topicID=1 • Tip Model Phase 2: Outcomes and assessments — Stating desired outcomes in terms of  better student achievement, attitudes, and performance; matching appropriate  assessment strategies to each outcome. (Visit Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators for  good samples of assessment instruments.)  http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/assess.html • TIP Model Phase 3: Integration strategies — Deciding on teaching activities that  incorporate technology resources to enhance student learning. (For some ideas for  directed, constructivist, and combination strategies, look at the Blue Web 'N website, a  d d d b l k h l b' b collection of links to outstanding online lessons.)  http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewebn/ • TIP Model Phase 4: Teaching/Learning environment — Deciding on resources and  conditions to put into place to support the activities.  • TIP Model Phase 5: Evaluation and revision — Collecting achievement data and other  information to determine if the activities were successful in meeting desired outcomes,  g , and what could be improved next time. 36
  • 37. Focus: Why should I use a technology‐based method? Teachers look at  y gy their current teaching problems and identify technology‐based  methods that may offer good solutions. In his best‐selling book on how and why innovations get adopted,  Everett Rogers (Diffusion of Innovation, 1995) says that people resist  changing how they do things, even if new ways are better. However,  changing how they do things even if new ways are better However people are more likely to change if they see clearly the benefits of a  new method over an old one. He calls this seeing a "relative  advantage.“ The following slide suggests some ways to make it easier to see  relative advantage: 37
  • 38. 1. Compatibility — Methods consistent with their cultural values and  p y beliefs and others adopted in the past. For example, teachers see using  technology as compatible with their views of what it means to be a good  teacher. 2. Complexity — Easy enough for them to learn and to carry out on a  frequent basis. Teachers who use technology‐based methods feel that they  are both feasible to learn and not too time‐consuming to do routinely. 3. Trialability — Being able to try it out a little before making a final  decision. 4. Observability — Seeing others they respect or emulate using the new  method successfully. For many teachers, observability is a kind of  y y y trialability, since they "try out" the method vicariously through other  teachers or trainers. At this Phase, teachers review their curriculum and teaching methods and  identify teaching situations for which technology might offer a good  solution. Trialability and observability help them review a technology‐ based method and determine if it is compatible with their values and easy  enough for them to learn and implement. Then they make a decision on its  relative advantage for them. 38
  • 39. Are there any topics or syllabus outcomes I have difficulty teaching? y p y y g Do any of these instructional problem areas have technology‐based  solutions? What is the relative advantage of the technology‐based solutions? Is the relative advantage sufficient to justify the effort involved? 39
  • 40. Phase 2: Decide on objectives and assessments j Focus: How will I know students have learned? Teachers decide skills  they want students to learn from the lesson(s) and design ways to  assess how well students have learned and how effectively the activity  has been carried out. 40
  • 41. To be sure a technology successfully addressed the problems they  gy y p y identified in Phase 1, teachers state expectations in the form of  observable, measurable outcomes, then design materials to measure  outcomes. For many skills, teachers use traditional assessments (e.g.,  multiple choice, short answer, true‐false, matching, essay). For more  complex skills such as web site production work or cooperative group  work, teachers may either design or acquire the following kinds of  work teachers may either design or acquire the following kinds of materials: Sometimes, teachers gather data through observations to see if  desired behaviours are increasing. If they want to see if students are  enjoying the new methods or have better attitudes toward the  subject, they also may have a non‐instructional outcome such as  "Higher motivation to do group production work" and state an  objective to define it. They usually design self‐report instruments to  measure these outcomes. Summary of Issues to address in Phase 2 41
  • 42. Phase 3: Design integration strategies g g g Focus: What teaching strategies and activities will work best? Teachers  decide on instructional strategies and how to carry them out. When teachers create lessons for technology integration, they  consider the characteristics of their topic and the needs of their  students and decide on an appropriate course of action that addresses  both within the constraints of their classroom environment. This  both within the constraints of their classroom environment This means making decisions about: •How to Teach— Teachers may teach topics in a traditional, directed  manner: present new concepts, have students practice, test student  knowledge. Inquiry‐based (constructivist) approaches, on the other  hand, require students to discover at least some concepts that were  once just told to them. Decisions about which instructional  approaches to use drives all other ones on curriculum, grouping, and  sequence. 42
  • 43. •What to Teach— Some content areas once taught as separate topics  g p p (single subject approach) are now taught in combination  (interdisciplinary approach). Some teachers feel that this better  reflects real life, where a problem may call for applying skills in several  content areas. •How to Organise students — In some situations, individual students  must learn and demonstrate mastery of skills. In others, teachers have  must learn and demonstrate mastery of skills In others teachers have the option to place students in pairs or small groups. •Sequence — As teachers design the sequence of steps in the  integration activity, they consider ways to encourage equity of  technology use, as well as to make sure students have prerequisite  technology skills that allow them to learn effectively from the  resources. 43
  • 44. Phase 4: Prepare the environment p Focus: Are essential conditions in place to support teaching and  learning? Teachers organize the teaching environment so technology  plans can be carried out effectively. Since research on effective technology uses shows that teachers can  integrate technology successfully only if they have adequate hardware,  software, and technical support available to them, the International  software and technical support available to them the International Association for Technology in Education (ISTE NETS for Students, 2000)  lists a set of essential conditions that are necessary to unleash the  potential power of technology tools and methods. The school and  district must provide many of these essential conditions, but for each  technology integration strategy, the teacher considers which  conditions are in place and to what degree. This helps shape the kind  of integration possible for the situation. For example, if 30 computers  would be ideal, but only five are available, the teacher adapts the plan  accordingly. 44
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